## 1/6 Nilsequences             Video in TIB AV-Portal: 1/6 Nilsequences

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 Title 1/6 Nilsequences Title of Series Les Cours de l'IHES - Spectral Geometric Unification Number of Parts 18 Author License CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor. Identifiers 10.5446/17005 (DOI) Publisher Release Date 2014 Language English

 Subject Area Mathematics Abstract Classical Fourier analysis has found many uses in additive number theory. However, while it is well-adapted to some pro - blems, it is unable to handle others. For example, if one has a set A, and one wishes to know how many 3-term arithmetic progressions are contained in A, then Fourier analysis is useful, but if one wishes to count 4-term progressions then it is not. For this, and other, problems the more general notion of a nilsequence is required. NIlsequences are a kind of «higher order character» forming the basis of what is becoming known as «higher-order Fourier analysis». The talks will be about this theory. Point (geometry) Cue sports Divisor State of matter Multiplication sign Similarity (geometry) Prime number Rule of inference Theory Asymptote Power (physics) Subset Prime ideal Goodness of fit Many-sorted logic Term (mathematics) Cuboid Integer Theorem Hadamard, Jacques Subtraction Alpha (investment) Physical system Series (mathematics) Spacetime Element (mathematics) Mathematical analysis Set (mathematics) Sequence Bilinear form General relativity Number theory Hadamard matrix Computer animation Vector space Network topology Order (biology) Linearization Right angle Object (grammar) Arithmetic progression
Observational study Multiplication sign Equaliser (mathematics) Propositional formula Theory Order theory Expected value Many-sorted logic Positional notation Hardy space Term (mathematics) Average Well-formed formula Square number Subtraction Combinatorics Orthogonality Alpha (investment) Social class Addition Spacetime Theory of relativity Reflection (mathematics) Exponentiation Element (mathematics) Mathematical analysis Algebraic structure Set (mathematics) Fourier transform Complex number Sequence Functional (mathematics) Local Group Convolution Proof theory Category of being Summation Arithmetic mean Number theory Order (biology) Equation Normal (geometry) Arithmetic progression Identical particles
Multiplication sign Direction (geometry) Range (statistics) Propositional formula Parameter (computer programming) Mereology Weight Dreiecksungleichung Roundness (object) Many-sorted logic Positional notation Square number Keilförmige Anordnung Theory of relativity Spacetime Rational number Moment (mathematics) Perturbation theory Functional (mathematics) Bilinear form Maxima and minima Category of being Proof theory Arithmetic mean Ergodentheorie Oval Normal (geometry) Configuration space Right angle Uniform space Arithmetic progression Point (geometry) Divisor Observational study Routing Inequality (mathematics) Event horizon Theory Frequency Goodness of fit Population density Lecture/Conference Well-formed formula Average Analytic number theory Lie group Analytic continuation Subtraction Orthogonality Standard deviation Exponentiation Expression Element (mathematics) Fourier transform Set (mathematics) Approximation Local Group Calculation Summation Number theory Network topology
Calculation Roundness (object) Number theory Lecture/Conference Element (mathematics) Square number Arithmetic progression
Point (geometry) Randomization State of matter Multiplication sign Propositional formula Parameter (computer programming) Inequality (mathematics) Mereology Glatte Funktion Fraction (mathematics) Root Lecture/Conference Natural number Square number Lie group Alpha (investment) Counterexample Theory of relativity Forcing (mathematics) Moment (mathematics) Exponentiation Variance Line (geometry) Set (mathematics) Approximation Vector potential Summation Number theory Arithmetic progression Identical particles
Complex (psychology) Beta function Multiplication sign Group theory Mereology Glatte Funktion Matrix (mathematics) Square number Process (computing) Gamma function Linear regression Moment (mathematics) Sequence Functional (mathematics) Automorphism Connected space Arithmetic mean Lattice (order) Right angle Arithmetic progression Identical particles Resultant Point (geometry) Classical physics Sequel Presentation of a group Observational study Real number Process capability index Inequality (mathematics) Event horizon Quadratic equation Frequency Lecture/Conference Term (mathematics) Alpha (investment) Series (mathematics) Multiplication Poisson-Klammer Exponentiation Volume (thermodynamics) Set (mathematics) Euler angles Cartesian coordinate system Local Group Subgroup Field extension Summation Number theory Network topology Object (grammar)
Classical physics Pulse (signal processing) Group action Interior (topology) Multiplication sign Similarity (geometry) Water vapor Mereology Food energy Theory Pi Mathematics Matrix (mathematics) Many-sorted logic Lecture/Conference Meeting/Interview Natural number Reduction of order Integer Subtraction Field (mathematics) Fundamentalbereich Gamma function Poisson-Klammer Functional (mathematics) Connected space Calculation Lattice (order) Cost curve Right angle Figurate number Fundamental theorem of algebra
Point (geometry) Complex (psychology) State of matter Multiplication sign Theory Quadratic equation Matrix (mathematics) Many-sorted logic Meeting/Interview Lecture/Conference Average Spacetime Gamma function Poisson-Klammer Expression Functional (mathematics) Bilinear form Sequence Automorphism Local Group Category of being Thermal radiation Phase transition Linearization Charge carrier Normal (geometry) Arithmetic progression Family
Point (geometry) Axiom of choice State of matter Multiplication sign Mereology Inequality (mathematics) Prime number Power (physics) Prime ideal Explosion Roundness (object) Many-sorted logic Strategy game Lecture/Conference Meeting/Interview Term (mathematics) Average Social class Theory of relativity Algebraic structure Nominal number Cartesian coordinate system Sequence Bilinear form Functional (mathematics) Logic Tower Hausdorff dimension Linearization Normal (geometry) Arithmetic progression
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number theory is that we use the expectation symbol to mean average said it expected value and that unless an accord to end it's the same thing as 1 over and times the sum of analysts and is a careful use the sideboards parents the started so if you want to compare How many solutions if you got 2 different sets a and B. let's compare how many solutions to expose White was that they have it turns out that we need to do this compare an exponential sums In a sense that's a trivial statement because the exponential some determines the set I have but I mean in a slightly more I mean it slightly differently so that misstated a proposition as I suppose I have 2 sets inside 1 of 2 and then let's can't pin number of solutions to X X plus White was set inside a so the number of ex-wife which X Y and explores why lies in any and as compared to the number of Paris for which Texas wineries plus wireline B but look at the difference between them I so the conclusion this yeah if the exponential sums over a and B a closer than these 2 quantities of clothes and so this is bounded by 3 Delta and squared when Delta since the Supreme overseas have more theater minor success anything so the weather like to think about this days exponential sums it all up but good enough to war counting solutions to these things exponential sums suffice for studying X Y and X plus and it's true that proposition just to show you what I mean by Fourier analysis the key is that there is a formula for the number of summing Triple X Y plus wise in terms of the exponential something so proof we have the formula and that the number of text wine which X Y and explores why lies in the way it is virtually equal to it's and squared 2 times and Cup's time and the integral that essentially the Cuba the exponential now when I put this formula from well let me 1st markets it's not hard to prove this follows by hand from the orthogonal relations so if you just as if he substituted in the definition of the exponential some essay feature so just as a consequence of the orthogonal the relations that turns into the 2 Paul the 2 animated feature is basically wants 1 of them is 0 and 0 . com is not so that's a fun exercise to expand the license and check and they're more conceptual ways to arrive at the full really was going on is that the number of solutions ex-wife wineries pretty much of the triple combination of of 1 a with itself and it's probably most people know the convolution becomes most occasion when he passed to the Fourier transform and that's what's happened here and so that's how you to rival the former perhaps assist similarly for the um and we also notes that the integral they'll to mean and this exponential some again by the orthogonal the relations is just 10 times the size of a which is less than a week when square and again similarly could be so this is just another possible identity this de-facto Q a many of starting something says they title again that toppled with this wasn't doing this so the only question so far and was very quiet on the 1 who just came back from Los Angeles and is feeling sleepy should all try and keep me awake that was over yeah I think so it's 7 wired to refer to my notes it's to do with the way have normalized the exponential some years but yes exactly so the normalization disposed to their chosen so that expenditure some is always between 0 and 1 1 nite this note just a simple equality of complex numbers said mode said what W elastic to bond then the size of and that's where it Z minus W square W can be expanded as that squared said minus W bomb plus another term instead minus W Z plus W W "quotation mark I'm sure
it's not sure that it to will use the summit to you in 1 of the people you work is not a stupid question elicited dumb I must've gotten normalization they're wrong said if you and I think it should just be the size of a actually the future not only by the way divided by and square exactly here because I normalized its status as this is the most 1 over on here thank you yes this is I mean this is just hour to break calculation this is bounded by homogenous so modulus of this his bounded by 3 times month and my stomach yeah so now we're going to apply this with this formula here so the difference between these 2 sides is Cuche times the integral from 1 2 0 S feature if squared feature minus the same with the I'm so by the triangle inequality and by this something weird about this so I want to be but the use of yeah I II and Kayseri and there is no that I shouldn't know it will work anomalies electrified events I forgot to add yeah I know I need a statement here with a win over the MoD said squared plus a W square tales about which would certainly be true the so this is bounded by and cubes time some that is the supreme on the feature of modern feature minus SPC said sometimes the integral from 1 2 0 on what s feature squared plus month as the squared deceased which hopefully so good over and the article on the right so this gives me 1 ran essentially amounts an end squared and the should be dealt with all check what so lost a factor to secessionist 6 Delta and square Strange that's wrong I don't normally use notes and at the computer but no journalist Donna a case so basically there's a routine argument for deducing the statement just using the Fourier transform and we need is the orthogonal organizer relation which gives you formula um further expression we want together with possible that entity he said the people of 2 of you the most of was will build the I'm in it a case of I at this evident this to be a more z squared off in an animal doubly squared across is certainly most and psychic recently replaces by 2 years but I 302 invites River to work CSU right location location shots so I can rescue the exact statement I had expected again but it's not quite as simple as I made home and the fact that the MoD said W. less than 1 is actually taking relevant to the to history for any this is 1 of those on the Battle of the Nile so is it minds might watch my W along OK and I think thank you Secretary said everything is now I believe correct on that board and in features history the statement claimed is also correct but right now the main point that I was space to be just that that was very severe classical exercise and the main point is that this fails fall more exotic configuration he said is a proposition in a negative proposition about 410 progression and there exists sets a and B inside 1 2 and I both of some size Delta and now with the property that their exponential some place says some the feature of modern the 3rd sp it is little 1 Cyrillic place and but they have quite different kinds of 410 progression the number of forts impressions the number of X and the next explores the explores explosive 3 in a minus the corresponding carried the baby is a leased some positive constant Delta primed 100 square so this is saying that In a strong sense that exponential someone not a good enough tools study Fortum directions we have 2 sets
use exponential sums paid essentially the same but when you try and have fought progressions that behave differently exponential sums cannot handle Fulton aggression so in the sense that an infinitesimal a tiny perturbations exponential some can have a huge preservation 2 the number of digressions and the example here is kind of motivates the whole theory in a way this example is a guest what is due to Gowers but it was some In very related concepts of ergodic theory was too is due to Furstenberg and Vice amendment going to describe a slight variant on the examples so just take ACP take a severe Rondon said In the evidence to Delta I should say this is going to be a sketch and sketch proof rather than example minute described the example trees on the sketch group to reach let's fix stuff I'm don't the reason any sketches that somehow you did it's quite easier thing to convince you that something does go wrong the exponential sums I'm not a sufficient tools handle full-time progressions is that she kind of hard to rigorously prove that they're not that somehow there's not an interesting thing to do light weight wouldn't need to rigorously the once we convinced that they're not they're not going work with any to rigorously proof that it works or not going to and acidic be around said density Delta and I guess I mean by that just pick elements to lie a independently with probability .period and then something that makes some claims that I would approve of say something about related but mean number them so what's the exponential some a was basically the exponential Over the whole interval 1 of the when but are selected each point and with probability Delta said Delta times that and with high probability this will be true uniformity in the so with high probability so rigorous justification of that's not totally trivial he could use something like the 2nd method exercise and using 2nd moment method for example or large a a large deviation back and it's not taking trivial because you've got to there's a whole a continuous range of features that you need to worry about infinitely many events but if the service is prime declares the essentially free similar events so you couldn't just using union and overlays and finally many events and that's a very believable back and I was beginning to be so be it said the Peter be set the wall and listened and for which the fractional part of and squared routes to lies between 0 and Delta Nahid say here that's the fractional part of a team and there's nothing really special about square it 2 and it's just you want to choose something that's not close to a rational so we use about refer to is poor approximation by rational so I claim that the the exponential solid is the same moral lessons for rounds for this the 2 it is the same claimed the knife around inside species is also Delta times the exponential some of the whole interval about wedges realize I had lapsed into this is a standard analytic number theory notation that may not be familiar to everybody guilty pleas e the two-part II times always plus little I want Nice visits that's natural I mean this said B I mean if you draw is it looks a bit like a random said you I defy you to distinguish if I just breakdown of the border random 100 elements and this set you probably wouldn't see the difference between but the proof of this statement is it is a bit delicate so what you need to use its files inequality for a quadratic exponential sums so this is a so an inequality sums averages in the form of year Our France where Klaus-Peter and has a standard sort of thing in analytic number theory and that the basic factors that if highly a rational than this is suspended quite nontrivial the trivial binders 1 but you need a bit more than that as well you need to somehow smooth nightly and you need to smooth out this interval 0 up to Delta and expanded as a Fourier transform In insure you need a bit of technique to rigorously professor so plus smooth approximation to the characteristic function of the Delta so this is a tricky exercises In pretty standard analytic number theory techniques OK so the exponential sums because they both won that they're essentially the same and hence 1 plus 2 implies that the sort of theater "quotation mark this statement said that special from the know what about the
Fort enlargement progressions so how many Fortum progressions does have to but what it is relatively easy calculation said the number of Fortum progressions between 1 and ends and the number of X and which X X plus the exports to India next plus 3 days are listening and its roughly one-sixth Sundance Square so that's an easy exercise society just integrating over two-dimensional demand and then because aides round of what you fix 1 of those progression provided the elements a distinct let's assume they'll it will
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Alpha to the fore said Delta 4 so the probability it lies in any of the roughly doses of 4 of the 6 thousand square Salemme formerly state answers . 3 the number of Fortum progressions and is and those of Florida 6 times and squares supposedly with high probability so guess that's something I haven't actually proved if you think think about it the argument I just said I was competing the expected number of Fortum
progression today that's not the same as showing that this you need also to know that it concentrates around me but again some 2nd moment method would give us so you can see why sketching This is a collection of files that are all very believable but to Prudence hard work and it would be somewhat pointless because it's all it's all negative those things all just a counterexample let me right here now comes the interesting thing which is the number of Fortum progressions in and the reason this is interesting is that there is a certain identity said observed the identity that X squared minus 3 times explicity square plus 3 times X plus 2 D squared m is equal to X plus 3 square says that value natural identity and what this tells you let me defined as to be the following sentence as is susceptible and less than 2 an a hour for which 370 Delta is less than or equal to the fractional part square roots to his left with 470 Delta that relation tells you that if if x x bustier and exposed to the lion s then automatically X 3 lies in an explores three-day lies inside and so it follows easily from his identity and the triangular quality the 7 is 1 plus 3 plus 3 is utmost movies we should adopt to is contained inside a all year said as is a smaller 7 all that would typically have about one-seventh the size of a fire said and the number of forts and progressions and it is at least the number of freedom progression in now to evaluate a number of threesome progressions this is what this lengthy exercise 1 again I'm going to tell you How long would do that in the it's of the year In this long enough you're asian people exactly so that the next bus readers as does not lie in that Lisonbee for this year should be come well attended the answer has some the same exponential some of the random stuff this potential some address is close to and the exponential sum of around instead of the same size it's a random set of size 7 Delta and 7 infected I wanted to prove that you need to do the same argument again and you need to use balls inequality smooth approximation and so on as in Part 2 I mean but then by variances the proposition I proved over here so this wasn't about freedom progressions but it was about of closely related I think X Y and X plus wine that will tell you that the number of 310 progressions Annette is actually pretty much the same as the number of threesomes progressions in a random set of this size set by an argument similar to the previous proposition when I think about it did occur to me that perhaps it would be natural to deal with freedom progressions in the previous proposition Vietnamese and indeed that said it would give the impression that I am obsessed with only arithmetical aggressions because these methods a more general and that's that trivial variant of that proposition it follows that the number 3 simple questions and answers is roughly the number of Sweden progression and around and set aside Delta and 7 and then by similar arguments to this 1 I can't say exactly what but it's so that's roughly Delta over 7 accused timed 1 course and square at the point now is that this behave like Delta where is this behave like doubts as the force set list of Delta is small enough these will be quite different quantities should said that Delta be sufficiently small small
say yes that that the number of farms the number of forts and regressions in b is basically dealt acute times and squared was in a it's essentially doses of 4 times and square so the result follows as the Delta accused over whatever this is 4 times 7 q doping much bigger than them Delta's the Florida 6 4 small dogs and if you wanted to inflict more punishment on yourself you could even can precisely how many 410 progressions the right in the with some more smooth cutoffs and applications evolves inequality there the main point I want to get from this 1 of the 2 main points this fact that exponential sums all good for some problems but not for others and then there's just this little hints that something else is going on for these more complicated problems that's not it's not a complete mess this is very far from an arbitary sent so there's some kind of quadratic behavior going on rather than linear behavior it is right that was quite a shock the whole of the audience and the key point key points will 1st of all on additive characters he said the 2 Part II these and other good for some questions but not all and then the other point is that we saw hints of some higher-order behavior in this case quadratic k and many questions on anything so far yes the wouldn't know sequences so what is in those sequel so this is going to be a little bit of a league for what I've just said I'm unwilling to really see the connection I'm lecturers sons was going to tell you what another additive character is again so that is a character and to the 2 Paul II fees and can be written as the rise in a strange way so I can write it is fine old appear that I pity From his Entergy How is this the linear is given by appeared on this the surrender and she the real numbers off and is again a periodic function on gene where galleries said so what that means is that gamma of 5 have explicit gonna is equal to 5 x 4 x injury and gather in so not character we know those things quite well I know sequences just it's a generalization of this in which I replaced each of these objects by somewhat more general on Saturday and no sequence of cloth that is a generalization of this in which while he from sets gene is there another tree pollen a amount definition to begin later and she is no longer an abelian groups such as but it's just an arbitrary no present said she is an Estep no patent and the group again I'll be recalling the definitions and and will simply assuming that simply connected on an
ungiven example in just a moment and then fly it is well perhaps slightly controversial I like to use would automorphic considered periodic once it's not billion so far is Cameron's Moffat whereas Galilee contained in a lattice Escobar's volume said yes I should say could ease the exactly same here fiery and 5 from G to see is a complex value automorphic functions away Gamez alas is also moving means that 5 ,comma X is equal to 5 x 4 ,comma and become so when the group is not necessarily a billion we write the group operations multiplicative late as usual so you can see that this is it To the direct generalization a special case of this it's the editor characters but my job is to convince you that said Elise as far as we understand this phenomenon that these are the natural generalizations of the additive characters these are going to be a bicycle objects study start I will recall this definition of few times over the lectures and I'm also be giving some examples of that it is of course it's a pretty crucial definition haven't said 1 upon and I have said little people no 1 and present repairs so I want to give now an example and this is the example I personally invariably end up playing with 1 of thinking about these things because some highly being case is misleading and then large militant groups are unpleasant In general get in a real mess with commentators sometimes can be quite distressing so the Heisenberg example it's not going to talk about so just fill in the blanks that so he will take GE To be this group of 3 by 3 major cities with the usual matrix multiplication so this is the two-step no potent and simply connected the group cities don't know patient means that commentators border 3 vanish so tax brackets 1 Brackett said is equal to the identity for a tax Weiss said To some extent is arbitrary which way defined accommodated I'll be taking my so let me take To be the standard license to 1 needs to define and no sequins coming from the Senate to give an example of a polynomial Mt what I can do that without going into the general definition so event equals 1 1 1 alpha and beta and 0 and P Peter older it's 1 1 1 alpha and beta and gamma and square debates pollen maps again or organza general definition Lay said that the key point is that all of the terms of the green tea are in the desalinated below Essential series all-out said .period please that's In terms of degrees the all in the DEC lower central serious subgroup so you couldn't have a quadratic terms just above at that time he said suharto define automorphic function on GE so there are several ways of constructing automorphic functions find GTC so you all tell you come in this classical kind of way so 1 example of to fire chief it's just the sum ever gonna and gamut of sigh of chemistry so you just take a fixed function PCI and translated around by gamma provided that size some I'm completely supported let's say function on tree I should say I want my
Wafiq functions to be smooth that's important said and so yes you could choose your favorite compactly supported functional on GE and translates it like this get automorphic function and in the notes I have a calculation were show that by choosing judiciously you actually to get the Classical Theater Jacoby the to function this way I'm about to do that calculation here because it's actually 90 irrelevant to the theory that but I think a red herring said this summer under water from the French word for that is it's a connection to a different part of mathematics that is seems to be totally irrelevant and quite specific to this case G so the 2 functions for example the Jacoby the 2 functions arises In this way the military to function itself is not an awesome function but get this uneven dosages proceed tightly by hand which some higher I'd buy field is a bit more intuition into certain aspects of this the 2nd method similar brute-force method you just define any function you like on a fundamental domain for and energy and the action of gamma so that after the Kenny Smith function on a fundamental domain for a gamma watching and then defined 5 G to asphalt pirate where pies the map into the fundamental to the Islanders know what happens at the edge of the fundamentals of majors for this discussion so let's pretend that this is need to make makes sense sort of almost everywhere is not much and so you can just do a computation here to get some sense of the the flavor of these cost function that I want to do that computation briefly questions on that so computer let's pick a natural fundamental make and figure out what that not pie in the set by choosing them so let's let that this matrix 1 1 1 X Y Z and then we can choose and gamma equals 1 . 1 1 K L 10 in the lattice become such that but gamma times GE has all its entries between 0 1 so instead of all major cities with their entries between 0 1 is a fundamental domain for government G and let's see exactly how can do that indeed gamma times G please 1 1 1 K plus acts L plus Y and struggled to multiply this is in my head once the top right corner and plus Y K +plus said so we should do is choose case a B minus the injured upon the backs L to minor seems pulse of wine and then on to the minus the integer parts of hazards plus KY which is said minus 1 acts so that tells me what not come that tells me what about pirates not pie from G to this fundamental domain it is given by Paul A. All for 1 and 1 1 6 Wise is equal to 2 1 1 1 black expects brackets why fractional part and then brackets presented minus 1 into politics I believe so that's reductions of fundamental domain 9 take any snooze function we like on the fundamentals of mine and again I'm going to ignore edge effects take after all 4 1 1 1 X Y Z To be each of the 2 pilots said so it's news on the interior of the fundamental demand that there's some issues about what
happens at the edge and then we get and automorphic function a gamma automorphic function fly from GCC given by find all of this matrix 1 1 1 X 1 Z is equal to each the 2 Pioline Z P minus Y brackets X is quantified exercise to verify gamma and variants of this just by hand and the problem is it's not quite as smooth functioning but let me just ignore them it's not quite legitimate religious has finally is in place is discontinued it's mildly the not bad discontinuity is that they are discontinuity so that's and that's what an automotive function kind of looks like and then to get a no sequence Michael just apply that automorphic function to a polynomial so what would be some examples of no sequence so all all from minus Peter and brackets Alpharetta and on each other gamma and squared minus Peter and our friends are examples of no sequences so this very instructive because you can see that we actually all-seeing some higher-order behavior here so there's a quadratic phase behavior here but the key point is that there's also sought a more general behavior just slightly more general behavior involving what we call bracket quadratic so that's important in the theory take questions on the competition apart from How would continue to write off the list I'm gonna stop quite soon I think just on physical grant you what did it that's going away so many others riders on this board is a key point we get quadratic faces and slightly more general but brackets faces so you might think I I I used to think that why would once again in this summer some slightly abstract whereby no and groups in last season also moving function when you could just right this time this is a perfectly concrete thing constituting opposite point of view which is that if you ever see anything like this you should interpret it as coming from nocturne group otherwise you get into all sorts of trouble sigh much examples of the kind of trouble that can arise on a little bit later on visit to finish I want to Justin quickly introduce something called the inverse conjecture for the GAO known and inverse conjecture for the guards norms is In a statement of the form my it's the statement that says these are the high road characters so in other words given any any kind of linear problem like finding Fortum progressions it's an offer to work with these generalizations of the additive character as a sort of sufficiency therapy I'm 1 minds in this lecture is to just stay to the things properly or not this lecture 30 surprisingly difficult things have really state property and added that ever done said in a lecture anyone hangs around tomorrow and I think anybody's ever stated it problem election below a world 1st as these things go the GAO norms I'm certainly not going to have to prove it in this course of lectures and nightmarishly difficult so there was no arms or family of norms on functions which control essentially all in their expression said there is
a family of norms on which we call the carrots you tune on the carrier's you 3 known and then for long and hard on functions ash from the interval wannabes went to the complexes and this is another receiving radiation identified mentioned this yet this is the same thing as interval 1 2 and those values norms and you can measure the size of a function with respect to them and they control quite general their expressions on the way in which they do that is why things statements known as generalized von non-interference in head so you all too often to generalize from 1 of the rooms in it such as I am his 1 60 solve some all that 1 would have to have 3 is bounded by a constant times the guarantee you to of any 1 of the FIS I went east of some is counting solutions the Expos White was that in those functions so it's 1 of and squared times summer of X and Y have F 1 next to 1 F 3 X plus 1 foreigners you before use where should be look outside let's just as it restricts to or they could but let's just say that I freeze it's only defined for up to it and then on another such statement would be T-cells fought for a piece of that 1 and 2 3 and 4 time is planted by the GAO G-3 loan these people so you know this is an enormous home and homogenizing here Sergeant missed an assumption these advisers space to be so if 5 X bounded by 1 ways and so is a different such statement where here naturally T sub for it he about 1 has to have 3 and a 4th um is equal to the average verdicts in the office of 1 of 6 times a day for the next plus 3 again if the adviser banded what country they statements for the simple reason that I haven't told you what goes norms on so there would have to be a prerequisite at the end so here what I call tell you what the 1st 2000 off and you can now you could probably extrapolate the definition I'm going to be going over this again later anyway so this is the average the overall X 1 H 2 after the accident after the exploits H
1 after the explosives to further explore 6 1 plus H to all of that to the power 1 one-quarter I the average is a lot will choices of X H 1 and H 2 for which all 4 of these points lie between 1 and then as a symbolic come back to this latest away right now and then the EU-3 enormous same saying that sort of generalizing obvious ways 2 3 dimensions page-one 1 page to page 3 that affects the three-dimensional also the town 1 of 8 and then the sequence continues in pretty natural way but is not obvious that the norms and again I'm a sketch the provide later these generalize from nominations are actually not very deep so there and she just applications of the kosher shots inequality although slightly painful 1 so these followed from Monday because she shot I'm probably will show you 1 example of that later on just so you believe me I would want to do in general but only because it's notationally nasty and not because it's conceptually difficult in any way so once you have this definition of a is normal and this nation of generalisable Norman his strategy for countering arithmetical aggressions and set Spanish strategy for counting let's say and and professions in any say here is just some said given to United said Prime's might be some of the Sept how we can account for digressions in global with 164 A P 1 8 1 1 and that 1 or its equivalent about and that it would be silly to just try and all we can to try and pledge their straight away because we might not be trying to show that this squash the small so what you do is you you guess main terms in some way to Split 1 a as a structured part and structured class what we call a pseudo-random part at random it a in a suitable way so is a way of doing that for example that specific to the prime numbers which our nation later on and and then TO SEE for AP of 1 9 1 1 0 1 0 spitzer some of the structured part and structure 4 times plus 15 other terms each of which is around park 15 random nothing the ending is said Causey linear forms you know with 16 terms will expand such as tea for a piece of round up to half so with lock you can just evaluate this this is supposed to be a maintenance and then you could try ensured that the other 15 terms all evidence and small and then it's sensible to try use this ceremony here so we need to do is show that the garrulous EU-3 normal after is more desirable to show that the towers that round Karadzic's reknowned in small so that motivates the question of how you show that how would you show that the guy was normal but function is small and that's a question this talk about mainly next time so it turns out that is intimately linked with the notion of no sequences and in fact the inverse conjecture for the cows states that a function as small Gallas North Garrison 3 norms said if and only if it's orthogonal too 2 steps class to know sequences so next time I will but I will be talking about progressions much now but I will introduce Gallas known to gain and remind you what no sequences are at much greater length about and the relation between the 2 but I'm totally exhausted from and you want to so I suggest that we and go watched him Gallas talk about time logic if you want few award ### Timings

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