Counterterms in gravity and N = 8 Supergravity
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Title 
Counterterms in gravity and N = 8 Supergravity

Title of Series  
Number of Parts 
12

Author 

Contributors 

License 
CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor. 
Identifiers 

Publisher 
Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS)

Release Date 
2013

Language 
English

Content Metadata
Subject Area  
Abstract 
I will discuss counterterms in gravity using the lightcone frame formulation and show that also in this fully gauge fixed formulation we do need a local symmetry to find the correct counter terms.

00:00
Flow separation
Supergravity
Group action
Goodness of fit
Lattice (order)
Multiplication sign
Dependent and independent variables
Rule of inference
03:34
Kinematics
Conjugacy class
Positional notation
Lecture/Conference
Term (mathematics)
Multiplication sign
Expression
Booby trap
Line (geometry)
Gauge theory
Group action
Limit (category theory)
05:40
Kinematics
Formal power series
Group action
Equations of motion
Term (mathematics)
Multiplication sign
Kinematics
Expression
Order (biology)
Equation
Mereology
Local ring
07:19
Point (geometry)
Euclidean vector
Momentum
Connectivity (graph theory)
Direction (geometry)
Parameter (computer programming)
Mereology
Theory
Group representation
Frequency
Sign (mathematics)
Lecture/Conference
Term (mathematics)
Operator (mathematics)
Field (mathematics)
Physical system
Area
Focus (optics)
Generating set of a group
Reflection (mathematics)
Expression
Mereology
Local Group
Connected space
Radical (chemistry)
Formal power series
Bounded variation
11:28
Point (geometry)
Group representation
Frequency
Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)
Lecture/Conference
Multiplication sign
Gravitation
Water vapor
Perturbation theory
Theory
13:09
Greatest element
Multiplication sign
Binomial coefficient
Rule of inference
Number
Power (physics)
Derivation (linguistics)
Order (biology)
Manysorted logic
Term (mathematics)
Operator (mathematics)
Moving average
Cuboid
Field (mathematics)
Linear map
Area
Generating set of a group
Uniqueness quantification
Closed set
Point (geometry)
Expression
Exponentiation
Grand Unified Theory
Price index
Incidence algebra
Term (mathematics)
Bilinear form
Maxima and minima
Formal power series
Calculation
Commutator
Factory (trading post)
Order (biology)
Gravitation
Right angle
Gastropod shell
Object (grammar)
Curve fitting
21:16
Derivation (linguistics)
Meeting/Interview
Term (mathematics)
INTEGRAL
Wellformed formula
Multiplication sign
Correspondence (mathematics)
Buffer solution
Expression
Equation
Cuboid
Bilinear form
23:06
Derivation (linguistics)
Lecture/Conference
Term (mathematics)
Order (biology)
Expression
Gastropod shell
1 (number)
Energy level
Gauge theory
24:25
Point (geometry)
Slide rule
Frequency
Meeting/Interview
Term (mathematics)
Physical law
Bilinear form
Resultant
25:43
Dynamical system
Group action
1 (number)
Group theory
Parameter (computer programming)
Mereology
Explosion
Derivation (linguistics)
Mathematics
Invariant (mathematics)
Conjugacy class
Manysorted logic
Gravitation
Physical system
Covering space
Geometry
Constraint (mathematics)
Proper map
Closed set
Term (mathematics)
Bilinear form
Derivation (linguistics)
Symmetry (physics)
Order (biology)
Equation
Right angle
Energy level
Bounded variation
Point (geometry)
Conjugacy class
Free group
Transformation (genetics)
Real number
Sigmaalgebra
Autocovariance
Modulform
Infinity
Theory
Frequency
Flow separation
Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)
Term (mathematics)
Energy level
Selectivity (electronic)
Associative property
Field (mathematics)
Loop (music)
Units of measurement
Condition number
Supergravity
Autocovariance
Expression
Theory
Variance
Incidence algebra
Set (mathematics)
Gauge theory
Binary file
Quadratic form
Similarity (geometry)
General relativity
Computer animation
Algebraic closure
Combinatory logic
Charge carrier
Gravitation
Invariant (mathematics)
Local ring
38:45
Complex (psychology)
Musical ensemble
State of matter
Multiplication sign
1 (number)
Insertion loss
Parameter (computer programming)
Mereology
Derivation (linguistics)
Maxima and minima
Supersymmetry
Invariant (mathematics)
Manysorted logic
Square number
Social class
Theory of relativity
Spinor
Price index
Bilinear form
Arithmetic mean
Symmetry (physics)
Hausdorff dimension
Duality (mathematics)
Order (biology)
Linearization
Resultant
Directed graph
Geometry
Transformation (genetics)
Modulform
Canonical ensemble
Rule of inference
Theory
Number
Goodness of fit
Root
Lecture/Conference
Wellformed formula
Term (mathematics)
Natural number
Symmetry (physics)
Energy level
Field (mathematics)
Game theory
Units of measurement
Data transmission
Dynamical system
Series (mathematics)
INTEGRAL
VirasoroAlgebra
Forcing (mathematics)
Expression
Mathematical analysis
Division (mathematics)
Transformation (genetics)
Quadratic form
Supersymmetry
Formal power series
Gravitation
Invariant (mathematics)
Family
00:03
at the time we would the head of the 2 well the thank you free media goes it's nice to see so many friends is also said you know and to think about the occasion for the talk I'm ready several times a day and over where this fantastic meetings the land meetings and I think it was not there the 1st time but the problem was that Amin in 84 and I will always remember 1 episode from it read 1 of these marvelous parties in someone's apartment and we were our 30 people 40 people in tworoom apartment I think that would not only with the because it it was not such as the rule there was no no that was in 81 and I was better in so was completely and it would to sober people that was but the meant Parliament economists sitting you know like that and they were discussing an image of the wrote a paper so that was then last summer's over the most when we were in in in Japan in October of 1987 and he was we were a few people down with the roles of the 2 sessions and on Monday into bear a great responsibility that I would say gave similar talks and he was please on top of everything then just because was a month later got his letter from from such thing about what had happened which was extremely said but I'm really glad that we can honoring media by the storm I mean I have to tell you now that but I want to talk about this this is talk about in Paris almost a year ago I have been completely out of business for good reasons as you know for the last 6 months or so and then not be able to do and this is the business not know a leading great conclusion what I'm going to say that it's it's something that I've been thinking about I mean the the origin or what I'm going to say it was back action to what I was talking about in early 1984 winning the slander did the meeting so am but it's all about is coming back to know these beauties that we see in in a quest for any numerous 8 Super gravity of and adding my message will be that that there is more to it than we we have seen before so that the fucking I wanted to do the bit to interactively so I will have some formerly here and then I will have my blackboard up there so I mean I want to do some things very simple no matter to start with the just think about John means so I will write was to have
03:34
started that and then there was a essentially just a long considered that the like engage bridges that a plus while equipped would engage in isn't a 0 and I wanted do use notation run right it's plusminus and I will use but explodes as the Times and then their minus is the conduit so that would mean also that no plus it's just a space derivative but OK and also that I will I will also use limitation that is so if I introduced this here and then the information into I can add and subtract and then what we find is that but I will get to that the bill plus or a minus a would be something like that and the Weishaar I cannot what understood there were no switch on the next line so you will see 2 I
05:20
will have this expression that is the I and then there is a term which is G if paid seeing 1 of their players a booby prize and they'll plus a city
05:42
please well I said we mention also voted to continue present a and cable and they here 1 Rydell plus which is so cause in all localities in it's another gathered along the like good but it's a it's nothing really dangerous about that so I will have lost expressions with people like that I if I just do this on introduce it back into the into the action I get an expression
06:21
like the 1 upstairs and you recognize In order kinetic term but you know we have to interpret as a said that passes the time this is a threepoint capping an accomplice going a fourpoint company like that but so but you know this is the real year a formalism which is working on shall so what I will do it said was really look at equations of motion if you look at this equation emotions so miners are their mind this is really like P minus while on bad the miners on this but it was
07:24
this thing this is really the the momentum operator acting on that which means that this is 1 of the generators of the .period Algebra I. We will interpret this this is really as our right here's the variation with respect to this generator the season and if I if I write that a wonder where investors reflection on him using an expression like that said so this this generator I Is there a nonunion realized on the field this is a kinetic drum up there I'm up with the view .period cupping gives this chairman and I write code it's going to get there it's not the complex going at that but if you go back 1 step you see that here a term which has a a a and here's another 1 which has a BA AA when I take the the question motion respective they have vary with respect to a bar so this term is as we know it which means that I'm not going to bother about this term I I know I know what it is but 1 sign of this terminal that do not directly the goal the other Lagrangian so that I can go back you can find all the point Kerry generators acting on the field and you get to a completely the group theoretic approach and every generator that minus components will be dynamical and hence nonlinear this anomaly in the realization of the blank area all year for example the at this this is suspended the operator in the system minus 1 this is just tell you that it has been 1 the so that's the only the only thing you see from this being part when you're when you act here in this way and so what we did at this 30 years ago was that we summer abstracted out from this formalism on how to write so that any higher spin you just find this representations you find this generator and the focus will also have to look at the other generators the so I was right there is the use of the dynamic Alonso what I call
10:31
this and there's still stabbed complex applied also this is into the transverse direction but this administration this is the it's you will have they'll minus minus it's minus dealt last public all of us would express desire we do the argument expressing a desire to them that this history because it won't have to worry about this guy disconnect and this With the about the minus so the fine and if he is serious you massless future stock with you only have to find that these generators and we make sure that they stance correctly with the the deal Kennedy generators 1 In this where you can you know it's just celebrated area could you construct any of the known a few years and I don't think I
11:33
gave a talk when it .period Kerry was 150 years old I give a talk old you know a few serious representations of what the Piketty algebra so so this just representations of his algebra said looks in completely group theoretic and so this is a different way of looking at the theory and this is what I sort all the time that this was so completely gage fixed version and you can imagine that on on another planet in somewhere in the American way where he majored you have some creatures stated that this is might have been the way that the constructed the theory that the might of the water by Cajun variants in the just because what you're dealing with the their adjust the 5th this again degrees of freedom To Avendano Babatunde
12:27
Yusuf freedom and there was this was the starting point for when we did it was foreign and by doing and it was for like that to prove that it was fine acting in perturbation theory this is what I discussed in in 84 in In Moscow town and but then you can ask what happens when you go to gravity what what does gravity look like in this way understanding again what you would do if it were it would just have to find just start with finding this threepoint .period coupling and in fact I was sure
13:12
at EU update this summary simple expression the threepoint coupling this is really binomial coefficients innocence here and that's why it's very easy to to generalize this deterrent to higher spins because you know the number of derivatives it just tells you what he and essentially so this is the capping then of course it's a fourpoint capping which is much more complicated on but it can get a lot of information from the threepoint capping and so this is what I wanted to look at how we now make things a bit more complicated I will introduce some more much more general formalism where write this expression essential like that I introduced operator is an exponentially this there Bart would help us With factory so what I'm doing here is that I just expand this to power a square peg the derivatives and the I also more general expressions therefore that there pluses but don't look too much into that that's what you find is that this is a very compact way of doing things because you can do it right and it's been at the same time and it's also a very good way of doing it because all these genetic generators which we have which gives you know tells him what to listen to whatever they're automatically satisfies you only have to find what you write written like you have to write these 2 generators in a separate form and then you you you just check the algebra that it satisfies the blanket added OK what there are no indication on homage so so so so for this incident in sense in index 3 formulations and objects at this and when you do it like this it looks very unique you can so you can in principle construct ordinary gravity this way it's hard to to to get if you would like if you had to guess at 4 . cupping it it's hard and it's a lot academicians to do to check that the worst but this is a way of constructing Dukes unique but the question can ask if this is where the massive capping constant here we can also allow for terms with more derivatives so what happens if you look at the corresponding terms with 4 derivatives and then Of course you you can see immediately that what you have to do with it you have to Aberdeen 1 Del ball R and Mondale in order to have the right to this so the former the expression is found where natural knowing what I do is that this was the 6th 1 subtlety and I both at an exponent here coefficient with for the bottom of Fidel songwriters expression AC means that there are 3 the bars and 1 day so this is the expression start and then this redundant minute as we know it thinks that this is the expression for the dynamic apart so to speak in these 2 generated by the look of
17:10
this was there to go efficiency and which are in principle and all but this is to form they have to be in order to satisfy all the other generators is so that the only generators we have to check it how these 3 commute with each other so we do that then then without got a big a bit of a surprise to us because we got solutions for all values of eminent so we got infinitely many terms possible here for this so this is sort of a gains to what I was saying before that it was this was a fully fixed gage the area the fault fully fix engaged in and that's you that the underbrush should give you everything summary doesn't because of my wife we had sought general namely that we would get on 2 terms here because in Brisbane Ewing gravity that should be to Contagem said 1 of them you know this is it this famous calculation of tools development if you essentially have an hour squared and you haven't on new new army you knew you don't have your mural script because of the ghost when it ships of Asia that get to terms so we were very mystified by this and this check this calculation under times in over whether we have done in mistake with couldn't find facts another virtue of the form whether this generalized to to then a higher order can determine but you know where the only thing we have to do is that we have to add more derivatives but it's the same calculation because you know we do the calculations regardless of what is and what it says here that this week to begin you all to terms all higherorder candidates In the same calculations and "quotation mark will undoubtedly have to to variable is imminent according to these rules of this is the spin of what border I should say so if you take a 137 but you just have to put it was a 137 and this is the potential rehab I but the and you will have you know a fantastic number of derivatives but it's still doubted working so that was a problem so you have to go back to the drawing board again to see what are we missing I mean I've been telling you that you you could defeated by just 2 Inge the area and something is missing here let's go back you well I have to tell you 1 more thing was you also know that the these terms are 0 on shelves so how is that implemented here well as implemented in while it this close a bit difficult to remember that about the questions emotion fought for this field is this In my way of writing so it considered it if I look at it this box acting on an expression like that let me do it already has essentially what I'm doing is that a box on something with an age and age so this is a clear plus their minus minus there the bar acting
21:19
on but and I'm going to use the questions emotion because August will use equations I get higherorder terms but I'm not worrying about those themselves I want to have to do that is through here but I want well every time the disconnect acts here I would get correspondent on this so that will not sevilla tablets expressions their went to worry about is this I don't like that buffer that we use the questions emotions to resented that is still the born wouldn't plus and then the terms with Dale page India born like that and if you put all these terms together you see that it's again so I do it in a more general with it Is it again of all the same form
22:20
as I have I just have to change the bill pluses and which derivative exodus speed set up with this backing I would say that if I have this is still the starting In the integrations motion here that I have a typical counter germ that if it's of this form I can just use this formula to rewrite this guy as well with the box up there and then I make the redefinition this and then we absorbed To Barfield a definition we can absorb all these and counter terms that the show which is of course will we should the I mean among those
23:07
that should be the correct ones and there are 0 on ships everything is the on shell
23:12
and so I but it might tower North would ever be able to get the counter during which is that is nonzero on shell because you know at the at the next level at 2 2 distributor
23:28
which goes like essentially killed the speaker well if you go back look at this
23:40
expression here he is it in order for there is a term like that to be it specific if you'd think it would be able to write like that you have to have both of the derivatives I suppose I don't have at this derivatives said that I cannot do it because I cannot heritage Q minus 1 so the only way to have a counterterrorism if it's only written in terms of 1 type of derivative I I'm sorry where where OK so I
24:28
don't know all I knew it I missed slide toward 2 unaware got to the point is that I can have a term attempted term which but that the if on the following form I term which goes essentially like 6 of those but like but I like that that we will have a city too the letters there it is only 1 term all 1 type this is such a I write down I can check it will do that then in fact you know we will find a unique is result so we
25:32
can find the true the 2 .period Covington were confined and that's unique and it's 0 is nonzero on but is go back to this problem that we had the
25:45
sense 4 so the shaking and this is what I certainly With chose gage and we eliminated this feeds through this equation so the question is then how much I would fix the while so this is the the at the start with Of course in order to still be in that gage we have to demand that this should satisfy this condition well Saturday the man you know that any variation should have been there done that this should be married 1 that means that we have to do To solve others but this means you know that there is incidence sort of remaining engaging variance in the theater even the way it's fully fixed and youngest whenever systems so the lesson is that it there must be some some kind of of invariants in the system which found blanketed in a number of and how did Warhol would do that what before I said that there is 1 thing so if we still have some kind of gage invariance here what should be able to write it in a gage invariant way so if you go back to this expression that had appeared 1 can shake you know this invariants but can we write in equal variant form when a fact what we we can because what we can do is that we can introduces so the local variant derivative which looked like this and it has a term like that man sense this the transformation as we do satisfy this condition it doesn't really matter if it's a Delta plus their 1 of Adele so so this is certain gage covariant under this remaining engaging variants on writing like that refined expression for the who is the miners which was above the hematoma as a quadratic form like that so this it's been this way that this is a whole expression for young years in this way during which is I think very nice because we're not being able to to really use it will been trying went on is still you could always unit imagine that you have perhaps I can now make it got complicated Phaedra definition and debris it would really look like if he a free theory innocence and then you would put every all the dynamics into the measuring the function into doesn't held that but is it is it is good to know that for for amuse you have this expression and that if a bit shaky the gravity case it can also be written in this form so there must be some kind of in various left there this and then what is that so I think that that was what 1 can do it so I can start on With with variant form and tried to to really chick look at all the questions look at all the the fees set you that we have eliminated and try and To find out that you possess a very complicated way but looking like a short you because you can guess that's part of the remaining gage what it would look like what is rather natural that it because of elicited this is essentially the only former can have cited as a parameter .period side which has elicited 1 and then there then this is the form you can ride and I think use this conditionality was introduced that so this CSI success explored so this is after changes this is sort of 1 what I want to say that this is a remaining engaged in various this is not the whole but it will only need to know enough in altitude to be able to do so to select the right terms but because that's a problem with this synergy which and it up it does not close so this infinitesimal transformations ever can do the which the the theory should be invariant under effect if we try know to look at the the closure order we will get back to us into some Mass but In order to just check it is enough to know this and that I should say this is a this is that we don't know exactly what this means for businesses this is not a closing symmetry at what we cannot really is said to have sort of as a but what happens said that it will really selective right that by chance for us so I would check you know all this 1 counted as we have just sat there is just 1 left and I but so this are expressions and it's only 1 combination of N M named this 1 the survives so now we're down to just 1 term member were was supposed to have 2 and so that's could be a bit of a headache but that is a simple solution to that I said it issued the 2 however you know this is just a at the 3 point level is going to the 4 fourpoint level you you would see to it that the threepoint and those 2 expressions would give thing so am this but it means that we have at it it works
32:15
that that's the way to do it and the as an hour here I have this expression for the for the 2 of you should this form currently an SSN there is only 1 Thai border we can have some of which were called B 6 which means that is exactly of this form serious using you know that's an age women age bondage and and this point that by algebra gives you this unique solution and if reject this good it works so sits down this is our house and we were of understood was a problem and and the it's sort of like the new lesson is that it's in it's not enough just to close .period upon carried in a report didn't know about it counted as a but said there is not enough to just use group theory in order to select the set a general theory for spin to Ohio so so what on and this other remarried in terms was what this gage this remaining gage invariance what does he do it doesn't take away you nonphysical degrees of freedom but what it does is that it's selecting selecting this being too from higher speeds so bad so that's what it is that it has different role here it is assuring you that that there we get just spin too because the other ones some kind of invaders from high is that the terms that we wrote good returns coming from from higher spins and then we have to somehow get rid of them and that's what we do we have 2 so that since you might say that it sense you can go back to 2 . carrier the bribery would have sold his because the ideas of was that the way we do it is it you cannot really cannot checked in immediately that you have speed too fees in those terms so this is the sort of the criteria for keeping that but it looks like you use is remain gauging their eyes and you have to some kind of local invariants In order to do it in order to select that so that's comes on top of all that the the point agenda so when people are not interested in speeds we we were really trying to get rid of the highest in so this is a way of getting rid of the highest things but this is but you know this remaining amassed looks like you Association but it does not close however not been able to do it to turn the I find a twodimensional local algebra that works it's not that it should exist it would be nice to know fears a recession at some stage of that them might be something there is something in the Austrian in discredited theory that we don't see by the ice which is there you know and that with we get it from From that this locally invariants but but it's haven't really presented it in the best possible form but as I said I've been optimistic for sometimes have not been able to think about it but he is certain the messaging in the in the gravity cases that that that there is something doing it in this form which is very much strip down to the bare bones should only use the L real degrees of freedom it you have to do something else this was that this was just a simple exercise exercised in started just because we wanted it to see what is the corresponding expressions in any crusade super gravity some and then I'm not going Bender says much about that In any good sensible gravitated this described by field which no innocence is just an X and 8 status and if expanded to have all these supermarket within system beautiful way American or you just have to to right the whole expression in terms of his 5 this 5 sets sort of a character the constraints and what we're calling inside of CUC that if that is so symmetric take the got covers conjugate and you turn it around and you get it back to the age quality age it's Simon amp Simon so it's it's sensor rather than the strict constraints and is can the constraint for example shows you immediately that I will not be able but to take his candidature over 2 Super gravity because that then it would mean that on this side will have a Delta flight and he will have 5 but this is satisfying a carotid condition that this has adopted Carolyn it's not going away so so overseas people know from the beginning of Super guarantee that there new to counter Johnson supra gravity Dole also works for clues but he it's obvious
38:48
as you say that is much more constrained here up source as saying that the gravity and in an Indian meals have this nice way of writing the Hambletonian this Bminus as a quadratic form In in any good for and in the lemonscented it works the same and buried this sort of has a meaning if you look at a percentage underground but then I would write it in the following way I write 1 which I am a divide up the spinner into 1 plus 1 mine and this is what I call the cannon medical 1 this is the 1 which just gives repeat class which is a number this is a guy which gives European minus which is the on and then the next is like that so this expression is again you liked so the square root of them Madonna is like supersymmetry taking status if you use this in to go for a walk rewrite this summit Tonya in the following way again as a quadratic form is this is an expression which is just as supersymmetry this not linear supersymmetry transmission that other it's complex Kaneria then there some kind of mission so the correct also any good said supra gravity In this very comeback for which and you also know what this guy is immune it it is a part of the algebra so a very constrained forms but you also know that it should be 7 invariant an ad in this level unity In this formulation 7 it's not just sort of gage their duality symmetry it's as serious image of all data on the Hambletonian it's all the fees that transformed even the fermions or transform 107 1 0 so it's a very constrained form that then you might ask but what would this remain engaged in various doing any good said this is where the minimum just ,comma value that this field I'm just writing this impressive innocent look at the data it has to be invariant under 1st of all there is to report which is left from the apparent station this is what is left from the from the locus of supersymmetry this is what's in there from the from the gage invariant and then of course it has to be a carafe units this is a very complicated things the question is this had arrived the United deal like in any any good state Super Mario Soares if you really look at the details of fortunate it it does indeed it does not Close services His snapped a good out here and I don't know how to do it better Will never riveted to do any beseiged the supra viruses and all this but here we have in our here we building a twodimensional theory into fourdimensional 1 and we somehow have parameters from the fourdimensional world which can help us to these things so this is it Citigroup theoretically it's interesting if I can do it if we can do something like that I don't know if I can do and on the necessary and I'm not been able to look at this for the last 8 months so but so I would stop the abandoned and I will not give you any nice results apart from the This is my own deliberations innocence but it adds really tells me and I think that this is a very huge cemetery which is underlying this series is the same unit within cruise for that ended in this this formalism and was it is very much like the square and includes for the soup refuses to square over then and you know that you can get all the things appear to have been trying to woo which also seen amplitude and you see here already knew that the level of the construction and I think there's a lot of things here which I am not understood which perhaps will tell us something but unfortunately I'm not been able to do more than this is not to let this stop there you I would like to fly the school and the use of unilateral use know you can do it by lot but this is all this is Minkoff skimming is using and that that but but you know but is also interesting to look at this size means because you what you really find is that you cannot when you once you go bust speaking to you really have to have all the guys bands that and will market right very nice formula like the ones I had you know full for this terms would do well suited for fried spins around and then I don't know what to do with it but it didn't make well many of I don't thank you the analysis of well you can but you know what it is all easily Is there a of 4 dimension but you were and where we have a note what we have done well in fact done it in posting in 11 emissions by producible oxidation actually did that this this I've said is a quite interesting you know because somehow what is it that you really telling but the adequacy that is the mission the history the spinners because you know all the information is in the spinners I was when we but when we did any performers started tandem mention somebody will just a composer spinners and we got 4 spinners and on and on on the way to do it is to do here can take over session of the expressions on our own every time we have a derivative like that which is isn't into we have to add to its some terms here you know with for example a lot In the the Indian leases we rights and like that and we have some there what do you do that does something all ideas and and so lot wanting constructing a new derivative center would you do when you you go .period emissions is to add indeed the coordinates and write a new derivative and that services then you can write also the tandem against and 11 magic is in in a very ,comma form I'm not sure that this quadratic form is working so well not an invitation some indication that the institutions of the fundamental part of "quotation mark well thank In her friends and relatives of those who do you think that the timing of the In you only the 1 incision from Brotherhood filled with what you know and and arrested I was in a sense I was not hiding it but you should when you go formerly Mary you would make you say that you have mail Texas and the takes Boreanaz 1 with for us it's the opposite that was that then it's clear that indicated that you're going except aches with an explorer and then you out in the in the old many but the fact well
48:08
I don't at this level United works just like resource but once you get to that to try to close it dozen which means that we don't really know anything about the numbers as winners of their I'm just using this as an infinitesimal transformations which the theory should be invariant under and then it it does it works in a way that it gives us the right terms but I cannot use it as some underlying geometry which I would have liked a but somehow I feel there is 1 that I haven't been able to see it this the year's brother philosophical view is you don't have the 4 you run the wrong fuel from the rules of the wishes of the of the year the the University of while it not the armybacked losses in bed but it doesn't know what I'm saying is that then you have to introduce new transmissions you know way it fiction the alibi will eventually close but it will close into more transmissions and the 1 I'm writing here but I don't need them in a in order to just check this but in order to understand the forces of nature I had to do so so what I would do what I would have liked to do is to to some substances somebody back which was closing all the whole remaining but this and not been a bit fun for the year well yeah there have been evident to really get anything interesting you be