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Lecture 1 -- course introduction. George Phillies lectures a series of graduate classes, based on his book "Phenomenology of Polymer Solution Dynamics" Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Typesetting January Day Crystal structure Ship class Relative articulation Paper Finger protocol Aerodynamics Roll forming Computer animation Ship class Spare part Book design Gradient Polymerlösung PIN diode Muon Water vapor Voyager program
Diffusion Dielectric Dissociation (chemistry) Year Crystal structure Viscosity Kette <Zugmittel> Particle Cell (biology) Separation process Shake (shingle) Lecture/Conference Orbital period Hose coupling Material Water vapor Magnetic moment Sensor Molekülmasse Single (music) Capacitance Wärmekraftmaschine Ozone layer Source (album) Map Buckelschweißen Audio frequency Direct current Potenzialausgleich Autumn Cartridge (firearms) Signal (electrical engineering) X-ray Flugbahn Book design Centrifuge Frost (temperature) Last
Prozessleittechnik Tracing paper Geokorona Scale (map) Order and disorder (physics) Minute Cosmic distance ladder Light Kette <Zugmittel> Particle Bird vocalization Packaging and labeling Atmosphere of Earth Water vapor Coal Suspension (vehicle) Skelettuhr Single (music) Vertical integration Cosmic microwave background radiation Bügeleisen Convection Gedeckter Güterwagen Dynamische Lichtstreuung Cartridge (firearms) Satellite Book design Ruler Liquid Diffusion Hot working Bottle Year Force Weather front Brickyard Lecture/Conference Ship class Low-pressure area Engine Zirkulator Ballpoint pen File (tool) Gas Microscope Brownian motion Classical mechanics Concentrator Rolling (metalworking)
Matrix (printing) Prozessleittechnik December Effects unit Watercraft Kette <Zugmittel> Bird vocalization Packaging and labeling Canadair CL-44 Diffuser (automotive) Linear motor Water vapor Selectivity (electronic) Display device Ground station Mixing (process engineering) Buckelschweißen Direct current Plating Friction Book design Noise figure Flatcar Holzfaserplatte Liquid Diffusion Evening Sewing Year Printing press Force Viscosity Weather front Volumetric flow rate Control rod Lecture/Conference Ship class Orbital period Spare part Star Pressure Mail (armour) Ballpoint pen Particle displacement Viskoelastizität Concentrator Standard cell Model building Last
Theory of relativity Matrix (printing) Prozessleittechnik Capital ship Effects unit Multiplizität Cosmic distance ladder Light Kette <Zugmittel> Assault rifle Phase (matter) Continuum mechanics Solid Ship naming and launching Joint Artillery battery Striking clock Musical development Videotape Textile DVD player Hall effect Single (music) Paper FACTS (newspaper) Cosmic microwave background radiation Focus (optics) Metal Excited state Weight Series and parallel circuits Signal (electrical engineering) Fahrgeschwindigkeit Book design Measurement Throttle Power supply Noise reduction Liquid Hot working Diffusion Gravel pit Transmission line Gravitational singularity Year Foot (unit) Basis (linear algebra) Band gap Automobile Spare part Orbital period Electric charge Hose coupling Diamond Telephone Pressure Regentropfen Ballpoint pen Buick Century Machine Vakuumphysik Amorphous solid Black hole Fuel Pager RRS Discovery Model building Weapon Rear-view mirror Volatility (chemistry) Tracing paper Gel Scattering Scale (map) Night Bird vocalization Turning Roll forming Colorfulness Tire balance Limiter Constraint (mathematics) Atmosphere of Earth Melting Water vapor Blast furnace Truck Electric power distribution Sensor Molekülmasse Minute Star catalogue Power (physics) Crystallization Direct current Autumn Perturbation theory Cartridge (firearms) Saturday Tire Ruler Spread spectrum Schubvektorsteuerung Day Measurement Crystal structure Force Printing press Access network Engineering fit Viscosity Amateur radio repeater Crystal structure Volumetric flow rate Lecture/Conference Wednesday Temperature On-board diagnostics Mail (armour) Defecation Typesetting Vacuum tube Train Lead March (territory) Climate Classical mechanics Concentrator Finger protocol Sizing Standard cell Strangeness X-ray Plant (control theory) Hour Steel Sheet metal Ground (electricity) Movement (clockwork)
classes in polymer dynamics based
on George Phillies book phenomenology of polymer solution dynamics Cambridge University Press 2011
ends today this lecture E is
lecture 1 course introduction of
wealth physics 597 I'm better abilities you can reach me the day breasts than you will however be better e-mail the following on the Net question there I haven't had it's downstairs room and class slightly really going out of my office and I will be end of last I have also discusses presentation research papers footnote in part citing references properly and that sort of thing with its Graham students should be formalized it's mostly friendly reminder as I say this is an advanced graduate classes the objective of the classes to discuss how homeowners who solutions ,comma you take away from course like this as much as you put into it as long as you do a respectable job that the appropriate grade although having said that we are primarily based on reading textbook knowledge of all the solution dynamics there is also supplemental college which is completely American tables which probably do not need to buy this cost but if you were doing research to find a place to stay OK somewhere we going to do the cost is 28 lectures Our as I said there will be reading assignments I don't plan on having a mid-term and final is not the sort of course that lends it to watching him right now you were saying that it's the it's the sort of thing where you're going to to pick up a great deal of information but writing his questions with the discouraging but so what do we do while we start out saying the result that the following is a long extremely molecule if it's in good soldier that support more solutions on the other hand if you have all the molecules for the removal of some sort all that out sides fairly well-organized matters because it is the most important set polymers were solvents protein waters causal sold for proteins most proteins they formal or informal very compact structures vary words structures as opposed to all this is polystyrene and benzene a very dangerous more careful all that is polystyrene and that is the sort of form geological oil all large well if we look all the way the end on the structure of polystyrene you have something for you can't have that and then there's the green and here we have an organic molecules and the trick is a polymer has all of the sudden and he's a very large enough over time and time so the following changes in in the end but if you measure along here is very long now almost got on the very long sometimes gets lost and if you just enough water to a 3 monomers we might say boldly go where 2 medium and small instead of following the that is a distinction without much
of a a difference but if you think about things will also realize that something has to happen in the the future he stands a of bonds free radicals that so what are we going to do with the costs we are going to discuss how polymers on and then they're going to discuss a few other related topics so said this where are we going to do well in a certain sense we're wrote a piece of course retraces the history of polymer solution if you go back to all nite and he had 19 20 people who about modestly large organic molecules inside that the Sakharov and there was some supposition that was about as large as molecules get bad people did not know about proteins proteins were assumed to be Association Collins like gold Polaroids the amino acids were stuck with each other the no acids and proteins but the structure was completely random and it was just things stuck out of solution we now know that from the wrong and it is in the 1920's several people were about experimentally the polymer molecules are actually very large molecules much larger than the organic molecules will go on on the properties the solution properties arose because they were very long solution properties instead solution property in from that moment it was viscosity and his team have no water in the last 4 years the glass over borders if you dissolve somber and water the fast-food chain milk shake something that does not warrant all and in some cases it was not quarrel because makes in significant amounts of hydroxy protocols cellulose injured very long chain polymer mall the members of the viscosity resistance boring it will be much more precise and this is the worst ozone so how do we work out and I organized costs well the Organization of the textbook is not historical
organization of study will when it's an effort to do things in a somewhat logical manner well control and so we actually started out talking about returned motion of Paul and during the motion debate is the heaviest polymer solution and polemicist who must occasionally there is all the more we apply some external worst pass on all the molecule and it moves and we can measure how fast it's school the 2 source of ways to do this and what his sense centrifuge of humor In some of the nation has actually been used significantly to study all animal and the other on which there is a huge literature not precisely .period Nevada Corrections electrophoresis so we'll start out talking about Britain's we will then excursion to recover their couple chapters of the book that really side excursions that I stopped in any place and sometimes was quite clear what is but side excursions although thought about next is causing lasting light-scattering Inspector Frost which I used review and that is a scattering now it's actually somewhat complicated scattering them we will talk about scattering in some detail because there are a lot of users of scaring materials on X-ray scattering light scattering from molecular weight determination will talk somewhat less about the details of how Pozzi elastic and then we are talking about and no permanent please stop talking about things that are actually thermal engines almost no and we do this when 1st we will talk about signal Oracle and then we will talk about collaboration among not always a single particle motion perhaps a little imprecise a the fill in a bit more detail will start out by saying how can we have solution this but as I am aware that you brought fall and molecules are very important if you wanna say there is a solution here resolutions Sarah I'm talking about solving mauled motions which turned out to be considerably more complicated than people thought it during years ago and that Darren notes all the motions will push ahead to discuss where sentimental moment said thank you have very long ,comma chain the polymer chain is made of blue pieces and the Assembly Senate the last religion and look at the single piece and asked how that he's most of the 2nd was at another sentimental lotions very pleased Israeli name by destiny is dielectric relaxation on the issue and dielectric relaxation is that if you will an electrical fields to Walthall it can move to change change orientation and change my neck high frequencies the other issues that come in and and solve the have at somebody molecule here there is a factor from 1 end to the other and and that and we can measure how long it is and we can measure how direction changes due to the diffusion of Baltimore I'm just really getting a sketch he finds some of this unfamiliar with doing in much more detail that finally a single article motions we will be talking about cell can tracer diffusion self-interested infusion yes we have the
ball and chain here similar fluid it's more or less freedom move but that's not exactly true the solvent skeleton wh Our polymers where it's getting way and therefore the rate at which Polymer molecule can move through solution is affected by by the virus and the socialist experiment you can ask yourself will identified 1 and also speak Labor led by painting it great you actually can be a little more than that because we have label this won't change we can watch the long a move relative to the entire background the reason there are 2 names here is that the chamber watching would be identical with its neighbors except the label that the different from its neighbours so we have such a chain of 1 species and the have surrounding ball chains all the different speech if everything is the same were talking about self diffusion is very different we're talking about traces finally a single word we thought about throwing the you and that is actually 1 of the the larger chapters of the book so what are we going to say about producing what is on polish and you're going to drop into the polymer solution something that is not likely to call the roll 2 1 2 representative object to several variations of the choices here is a colloidal sphere it was serious Brownian motion just refuses to solution it diffuses through solution just in the same way that all orders however is obviously not all oil it's reaches its satirical typical case and when we measured confusion in will others say polymer solution we get experimental information OK we now have excursion of the rules during the here and the excursion is tolerated by and name assumed the reminded come back and cover all of this in a lot more details about the new course out there was a call like a college is a microscopic analysis topics particle is produced by any of a wide variety of synthetic that the simplest colloidal particles of spheres and call lights in liquids are stable and that is the tended considering that we have a blizzard of belligerent earlier he said and in college here's incapable of finding already in place of work and and because of the whole thing we're going to talk about year in water or sold sold if we are in the water the thing that was shot 1 way or the other and that resulted in the suspension is stable Brownian motion is such that the articles about satellite solution would also get collects suspensions are a stable at all if you take each salmon stirred up in water it will float some distance above the certain service a lot of fun but if you waited it samples of coal iron particles very small they don't said and I have dynamics and van collided oracles have more or less full of the same dynamic properties that all that can do
all of the same emotions and all the same way is more or less on 1 exception is right here said that the motion polite bottles or region they don't get promotions and this means certain assesses the very symbol the other features of colloidal dynamic style which is important is that the forces between following particles was some the forces that the polymer chains solutions are basically the same there solvent and that has a whole bunch consequences of tighter dynamic interactions will get them later and they can't move from each other as a result the removal of all not only are all of the experiments you you on 1 the other same but Robbie some similarities forces this the significance of this we'll get to later in the course of OK let's colliding analysts and now but we will go back to fold I started by saying .period promotion that will study single particle motions were small pieces of vertical motion and now we get to collective motion invite collective emotions I am referring to the notion but we have always and solutions and they have properties that arise because there are multiple polymers they interact with each other and the property is determined by factors more than 1 polymer simplest examples I lot concentration falls over was position and we have a process known as the Union and so concentration vision that something like this in and what happens if you have something dissolved in water and the concentration is not the the same everywhere well if you sit and wait a long time the stuff transport from the low concentrations regions Applewhite and the high concentration regions and transport so after a while in most cases concentration because you the classic freshman chemistry example of this is that they stand in the front of the rules and I opened a file for perfumes and sprayed around and we sit and wait but after a while folks in the back of the class and all problems selling perfume by now this process while when I just described who is actually not huge diffusion is a very slow process in order to get gas moving across a rule the sort of yard motion while the reason for that is that is air circulation there's convection people are moving in a certain year in promotion and so you're actually seeing different transport processes were called freshman chemistry however microscopic scale invariance small-scale effusion is very and what happens the concentration long on celebrities is that in regions where there is a concentration gradient PCs gets to their current Jr the flows on other really all the molecules move and it was the firm will motions they rearrange when they have finished rearranging you may have all concentrated you but so will talk no stating we talk about the future before did we talked about 1 one-chamber went through others yes I brought earlier however American different sorts of confusing process there is what we call self-defeating engine
which is just 1 change moving through a uniform thereafter and then there's the diffusers process here talking about here which is mutual in which is lots of chains moving because there is a concentration gradient yet In general the diffusion processes or not said now I say in general because of your diary died solution dating from practically distinguished however suggested future but there's a lot of collective properties the 1st collective property I didn't talk about his viscosity the treaty a and the is resistance foreign allotted viscosity and it's the harder it is to get some of war smaller viscosity easily some for men the young viscosity the death toll to call linear Maisto last December the issue was linear viscoelasticity he is well we say there is resistance to war so I have for example to I apply a uniform pressure 1 and there's a flow rate down 2 however I also saying instead of applying a uniform of course I could apply time-dependent for example I have some applied all the liquid is the essence just sitting there I now turn on the pressure applied pressure and there is a transient world start small with incomes of up to speed on hold for a simple language all you turned off and full-service moving was immediately except maybe presses for polymer solution life is more complicated polymer solutions behave as they know they have phrases and be more precise and goes result for example the office the action we are looking at it from the side flat plates and it has worsened with water and I oscillating 1 played back and forth so moving back and forth theories of forests on the lower plays and advice simply face this place and this place and this is a very quickly and stop there is a very briefly force on lower place With polymer solutions if I don't think he often played the nite sideways there is force on lower plate and was forced on lower plate has an extended last over an extended period of time and it has a complicated time independence when we get to this will become more please that's a linear viscoelasticity gliding legal well that's true but there is another reason too you're right but there is another reason that the other reason is suppose our displays the plates sideways supposedly displays the plates sideways again each of these displacements on the eve of the offer creates it's a friction that of course along Lake In each of these 2 forces depends on time and we asked what is the worst on the lower place given that I have displaced the opera played twice at 2 different times the answer is it's been a year the before son-in-law plate is just Of course through this despised him by itself and the forced to back his license if it had happened by itself OK that's when called linear and he has there is also a nonlinear the last December and the 2 sorts of nonlinear Estonia last visit the classical experiments and then there more modern tourism and sat on experiments which were released from the lien differed from the classical columns what do I mean by classical
experiments that shows nonlinear bestowed with this here's called contains polymers solution or something and I want to want stir bar and I from the historical to well-defined this freshman chemistry lab the servers spinning the liquid is spending and label is pushed up against the sides of the vessel to come if you've ever used a mix master at home using this effect in action now I want you to place the Orthodox lately With a history lesson homers solutions and the starts see the star again rotate rod and guess wrong it was trying to find the solution climbs up wrong the reasons solution climbs up the wrong Is there is pressure England with just pressure more but because you're not a system that has nonlinear so elastic that pressure instead of just being Nova because of the 3 by 3 matrix and pressure in different directions is not the same and Hughes it because it would be sheer copolymers can do this which don't vary much less nonlinear Minnesota last I love you and I have now gone through a sort of run over bread quickly all the topics that we're going to talk about OK so how are we actually going to talk about all of this is of course it says so in the book titles on phenomenology phenomenology is a study of what happened was experimentally and so we look experiment and let the experiments that lead us to an understanding of how we work now this is just a blind user experiments while there are several competing models theoretical models for how polymer solutions behave as you'll discover I lead you through cost some of the models are good and some models make predictions that are consistently and we will charge through but we will be mostly focused not completely on what the experiments 1st say along the way will do that as a practical matter for a fairer part of the book has all these wonderful figures in them and I will playing with the figures and I will draw sketches on the board but my expectation is you will actually for once remove the textbook class because we will actually be using its selection .period figures and will have them in front of you and if you want to take notes you don't have to try grafted to her data points on you've got graft and you can make no solace to see very clearly exactly with the thing looks like for wants you will actually be bringing your book class and you will be getting some use out of doing so as I recall being an undergraduate never actually get there but this is a different sort of course OK so I have gone over all of these methods they have they all are used to study polymer solutions a rational question as well where is this hold discussions fit in with the broader study of polymers under different conditions and where is it fitting in with the other books that I can pull out of the library which you are going to be doing that said the cost is going to be based on writing research reports now I realize that you may not have English is your native language and I'm willing to be quite forgiving on that so I will correct you know the region's Yukon in foreign countries were low language all of the other reasons for doing the research reports is this is a grand research classes were going to be exposed to the primary literature OK there are lots and lots of books on the Holocaust solutions and dynamics of in view of freedom and read enough of them all you eventually notice was not discussed so let's start out with the graft concentration and we started out at approximately 0 the test to and there is exactly 1 ball and chain in Denny's is still diluted always solution is to get at the other extreme
we have something that is all Over and nothing else now the reason I bring up all polymer and nothing else out Tolliver molecules many of the whole many of if you heat them off and Iceland terrorism cases getting old Miltonvale polymer and it smells it just the way it is if you take irony the development of blast furnace you get liquid fire well if you is indeed the law you get lived with Paula all and if you want a lot of there is considerable study of Thailand's solutions and there is considerable discussion about properties and if insurers 16th century you feet that carefully labeled Peter B. directions for something you believe profitable on the sort of get and if you're not reading carefully you don't realize there's a gap it's just that there is a discussion of dilute solution properties there is a discussion of metals and everything in between is compressed to call for there's a rational reason for it if you were doing industrial processes in marginal areas of classical faces you doing something like injection molding you take the liquid polymer you push it under pressure into an object of solid shape which receives it and worry about little details like getting the object that plastic out of school loss and loss of smell properties have important industrial application or if you want to prepare the plastic sheets things you used kitchen well you're doing only asking you start out with the Lakewood minister out Paula and somehow spread out and being a film ever known properties at at work on the other hand over here why would you care about the only solution problems and answer is you have a former it hasn't when Sonoma of repeat units another e-mail saying ,comma hasn't won in his book ,comma has molecular weight taking about where to place the in water and molecular weight is 18 doldrums and you have Paul Murray has a bunch of repeat units if has a molecular weight except the molecular weight of polymer might be a 300 thousand were million it is becoming interesting for scientific reasons to prepare holders of what historically be viewed as huge molecular weights and the Balkans reduce followers molecular weights of all 13 million then forced there is this huge field research biotechnology where people want studying DNA DNA is appalled it has a very complicated structure which I would not characterize crew on board during 1 class except by achieving on any of our nation was the molecular weights you can get out there and the human life and some DNA is evokes more like but you can get absolutely huge loss of molecular weights and an important addition this parameter valves to do industrial work well the properties of the metals or substantially determined by the molecular weight of fall and and the distribution of molecular weights is always on the same side and easy techniques for measuring fall in Whiteville awaits word indictment solution and so if you were sitting in trying to do industrial processing you're also very interested in dilute solution properties because that's how the bastions of of truck like what molecular weight really is entitled solution then this get there well that's funny except there's this big in between the interest in this story is mostly in the big region in between the region which is the of dialog but when the known as well here is that there is only 1 polishing kind of
morphologies designed for more and more of all the changes in the viscosity of the solution starts to go off and eventually the polymer solutions following chain start getting each other's way they interact with each other they keep each other from over the course of value or something .period and therefore began to non-violent solution now I sort of droplets with lines Texas "quotation mark because really you have something that's canteen was here you have 1 ,comma molecule solution to other arose number but there's a continuum of solutions on the other side In some cases you have continually through the amount that is you have a solvent you have polymer and estimated the polymer concentration higher and higher and higher eventually you get the polymer and a liquid that doesn't have to to be that may the other things that happened you run the concentration all and all follows and solubility limit and above solubility limit have a solution saturated solution and a 2nd phase you have solid phone the bank temperature you can only put a certain amount of it's all a into solution as lacks a dissolving sugared water you could result in a certain amount of sugar and water but at some point just go in and all the complication of charges being able this state Paula valve they have to be fairly and it's fairly hot vapor pressure of solvent may be very high and they get boiling instead of the vacuum now we are awaiting the results his health "quotation mark this and what I can do is starting in individual seoul in some sort that just traces of solvent molecules spread out in their children ,comma is almost certainly and amorphous solids large crystal and now the football extra molecules in the 1 thing all pesticides plasticisers the that's the typically lubricating promotion of polymer and as a result you can by dissolving the small pools of amorphous you can change its properties it's a matter of great if you are a car's tires per good example of this is going into 1st form I guess you can call on part Classic Car tires the added was carbon articles on another example if you seen Teflon tape that you used to put seal joints are real puritanical actual Teflon is very grateful if you try tried bending it would just share so you plasticisers to the Teflon announcement have long into his nice moved state of which is the despair of diplomas because it means that amateurs like me can fix joints around the house and emergency I however have long made actually works and it works because plasticized solutions maybe a solid solution and instantly and warrant more plasticizer removed this way and in some cases you can move continuously into an undiluted good time solution can "quotation mark as the result but the 1st chapter the war and the introduction list of bunch of additional references on all the solutions of property what they are if you look at them you will find the topics they cover are a Somerset assault restricted subset of properties I talked about and in many cases the the focus is very much more very selves Oracle reasons on Mel properties rather than solutions properties nonetheless there a lot of other references out there and it is worthwhile for you to look at the request of that if you get from books in the library regional libraries of your fellow students find beginning with the whole library service was put off so I have described this and we now home to the what is known about this why didn't bother write book and this comes theoretical models that I occasionally involved except in the very last lecture on we discussed in great detail all that .period having started and and we have islands we have politicians and they move they have properties such as future can use if you say I have a chance of a Hall of Fame moving it sets up overweight this is way life the wake of a multiple drinks water around the solvent along wall and this is all of these polymers with the neighboring solvent is dragged along neighbouring Solomon gravel on is although year has also agreed on a if you have all the chains moving through a liquid each piece Hall chain has what is known as a hydrodynamic solvent mediated for the creates on its neighbors the Solver mediated instance strike by something known as the side and Tom Spencer is a threatening words but what it really means is used .period molecular I apply a force on the way of the forces bacteria Over the years foreign patients with battery patient fall slightly paved the below foot response by the movement of velocity the In the years after parallel well how and why this when mathematically set so but says that I have a factor is the employer I have factor is the output and 2 vectors are parallel to each other they were parallel would be easy pressure his face and you will have to pay for after acceleration factor are proportional to each other in the parallel so can't because scale here however the investors are not parallel the question is what do we do generate 1 back on that you're out of luck and the answer is and the is to by matrix if you think the way way back some of you it's way way back in time you saw the actor multiplying the matrix that give gives you another factor out and she that is seen tense and reasons of cancer and we have to use it is the output vectors .period velocity of liquid is not everywhere in the solution parallel the force now might say the symmetry constraints vulnerable watching friends I said Forest Over here on the other side vectors like the mirror we are not going to do this sort of math issued a lot of detail was going to talk about phenomenology not about there is for the most part so if you want to talk about island's dilute solutions you can do calculations on single change is that if you do was calculation on a single chair over and number of theories there's going to be purple and rifle there's not a lot to around and the reduced sealed the rout Susan models are actually quite similar and they actually do calculations like this and the objective of the calculation well don't all training and put it into liquid for example how fast can also change the future what effect this polymer chain mail on the viscosity of lake if I ball chains and I think a lot of these 2 different colors that by compared to followers of 2 different lights the same away concentration how they affect the viscosity of the solution the answer is series of viscosity is proportional and molecular weight some power but it's not the 1st hours itself lower house and we can do actually series like this that stands however he had the descendants solution there is bad In comparison with no properties you find all melt stroll bunch of things that dilute solution models for example they show this code unless this the I'm going to be much more detailed sketches this last is sitting at a later time they also show it's clear that share their initial Washington you we have to Maryland plan With the liquid in between I'm moving opera played a song losses the I plan to allow a player position so it doesn't move and I ask how much force only to apply to the offer play alternatively this is currently analyzed theoretically I think plight but fortunately it was down site and I ask of flow rate career is determined by the applied pressure well if I haven't Tony influence more control influence in has a symbol viscosity eta and all the Forest is the what is proportional to the viscosity and as determined by velocity and by this distance performances determined by velocity gradient of very carefully .period later this year this is the direction of the that is the direction that I am late moving in next direction but the velocity depends on the face of the Place down here is equals 0 liquid is touching stationary played mountain and as I walked this slightly but faster and faster as that news the and the forces determined by this constant and the gradient the X easy for a fact which placed closer together and the the constant this constant this distance dealt these smaller some gradient is bigger than the forces suspects and in a certain sense you've all seen this if you try to push a liquid through small fight song you have to push forward with you go from being troops look president told me if you don't share that traditionally assumed this catalog really case the next the entertainer viscosity is a function of the sheer rate so start things flowing more rapidly than viscosity well and they're all part of a cap on and what happens in his possession with a lot of Shearer came on a lot but at some point deteriorating almost over and if you share Lakewood faster you see sheared fitting the liquid flows more easily than would have 0 shit there is also Shearer thinking all once upon a time there was controversial people the nite of was such things here that but in fact there is a shared this year you can liquids their capital flow of Hugo was shown a lot but if you push on hot they say don't buy it turned was solid but they think that awful very concentrated search solutions to solve Darfur's various strange property so in any of we have talked about this because if we don't know we haven't property described his disco unless this city the flow of Kuwait was not what you would expect from dilute solution destruction the signal for a long time it's shows up industrially whether you care about theory or not mainly trying on for example the ruling injection molding and all sorts of odd things happen all and then nonlinear effects which are even stranger coming and you're trying to get this industrial machine work all these weird things her all the challenge for a very long time I was thinking that balanced solution theories were known for various forms the basis certainly did not describe any of the things that occurred concentrated solution and so there were a number of very different theoretical efforts to explain what was going on but this is not a theory course so I'm not going to do theoretical calculations United could I think most of you would find this not to be widely reported be here of solitude filed away 1 of the someplace else very quickly followed however I should give a little sketches the because I will occasionally involved the theoretical models concepts songwriting in fuel and the first one is known as the same old thing the entitled The idea is to get into the singular unilateral bracelet and I'm going to give you a detailed history the notion is his that Polish here's another of chain looping around it and were Paula chains that close to each other that we get wrapped around each other now this is not a covalent bond however if you don't work wait very long if the motion is trying to hold this change this way that chain that the chains are physically bonded but it's like untangling 2 pieces of foam sprayed the ground was wrapped around each other they tend to stick you know enough ask and analysts as 1 of the other candidates to explain that this only lasting effects that is you have to change the very shortly we can knock of each other but there's a lot of those chains wrapped around each other somehow last a long time and behave as tho you have no right cross-link something that on a short timescales and so the notion is that all chains and somehow not each other off and this contributes to the behavior of men indicted in solution does not contribute this year's change inside the other changes over there since the way far away from each other you don't get effects on this a the next Saturday which refers a few months but for a series of models are always talks to buy the constant models optimism all work about the notion is that Paul Casey and they don't like the latest incident was modeled Atlantis from there are also to fix for this work all jumbled together in Europe something tried to use through this latest you have to find a hole that big enough for you to get through to diameter of the the holder has size age and if you want to get through the day as the less than 8 that has not exactly correct but this is the starting point of the smallest and the Lobel said explaining why 40 sample on if you try their diffusion of polymer solutions press now and pushing ahead and there were a series of models in particular can French consensus and all the people of this the new models recalled restorations state and I am not going to give understanding very slight sketch of what is going on so you're wearing our theoretical models .period talked about more detailed plan the idea of a rare occasion in his last start out by talking about the real challenge in which we have lots of polymer volatility and they're all covalently bonded to each other very well with Uganda chemically related crops make local gels polycrystalline cross-linked and will not only in a single chain launching and we air tall change through jail diffusion the answer is is obliged to move parallel to his homeland in the piece of it here you can move sideways very far because it runs in the general and while there is a child's twice known as shown him the functions steel plants a crossing in 3 dimensions and you can all sorts the climate through it if you're a small child types don't move and so you have to move through it 1 step at a time the well this is a brand of jungle gym this is a very long snakelike object and reputation and the Paul McShane and only parallel to its only in backwards and forwards the could not sideways then turns out to be effective and powerful restrictions as for around half of them without problems the notion of scaling which actually comes out of critical phenomena there and it's from college for example that the diffusion coefficient value because unlike the weight all forms of margin calls lower in the cannot on concentration of clothes that the Morichal isn't the way the slower home and then there will be power supplies and the C Wally those powers scaling export and the notion is hold of experiments and the relation between say diffusion coefficient on molecular weight of concentration of the shower or whatever is put out what what what it's a straight line this year Powell that's still a lot I talked about it for gels and he radical extrapolation His descended upon a solution basically want to get this agenda proposal to in their whatever we see the we can use the same theoretical arguments some minor qualifications correction problems and even predict how all this will that solution the main statement is that if we are in constant concentrated policy and candidatures polishing that only moved back and forth along their own shares and when we did calculations and predictions the saying version be was being predicted and what the theory goes is pretty these exports 1st it also does something else it says that if I plot was being we have to walk out of concentration .period I didn't see Powell was weapon ,comma little life some of them with the straight lines if you take power and you put it on wall of plot it becomes a straight line looks like a straight in observed the proportional the won't the work on facts and law of sea and there were a vital part of lobbied against Biloxi I get a straight line whose slogan access is expert let's most of it is the point of promises and there is a very extensive set of calculations on bad however there is a little difficult to called this whole experiments and if you actually do bunches of different experiments ,comma March ranges of concentrations of molecular weight is there any other thing you look planted lot lot last there is difficult you essentially never find in a straight line to cease both all however the you're step forward Of the upscale and her goal of saving diffusion of all changes was would and simply representative transport coefficient I could talk about viscosity you want these other things that here is an example of the diffusion of sets in and is in the interest of concentration of other changes the diffusion coefficients follows that that's supposed to slow down and tolerable this is not what happens and will spend much of course from the state the union of the officials some 0 lead the tiniest althought that constant seated in the New Testament and this is a function of stretched exponential there is the pulpits exponential the argument CDs that would raise the subcontinent although that was 1st found moralists empirically mostly Boston scientists along with their particular chunk work and with the help of you come up with a formula Terkel form what you find is people are saying Well that's very nice but also there's no theoretical basis for which is a polite way of saying You better find theory that predates this is otherwise people will lead you that would be the last lecture at the cost of the state Washington OK we have gone through and I said something about all the transport properties he had no longer going to talk about and I have said a fair amount about the least bit about what each years I talk very briefly about theoretical models make predictions there's actually going to be a lot of theory interwoven with costs is going to be presented mostly in terms of results as opposed to years of calculations his market obligations yourself so we're going to cost access is going to be descriptive a little bit more and it's going to be formed their own Part 1 large exception that as when I talk about scattering light scattering is something that is extremely useful even if you're doing a solid aluminum and study the crystal structure X-ray removed from scary it's the same scaring you well so where does that leave us in terms of what we're going to do what I would like you do for the next time I see next meet next Wednesday I have like Consolidated Diamond like to read reasonably carefully all of the 1st chapter in the introductory couples forwards introductions actually named work things and I would like you to read the 1st chapter which gets you through page and I would better life you least who have looked after she acted too so 3 carefully cataloged and at least he has reacted to that there will be a functions of things they're sort of referred to but then I don't describe in detail in the book because to some extent the book was written by people who have some background followers and maybe you were going to get fair about where you what do your own reading so that for example when you scan she happened to you will find a reference to the followers of solvents and forced solvents and fate of solvents and you'll would be sensibly advised when you get something like that I'll do some sort of Internet search or whatever In that makes this credit would be easier if that was what I was going to students SEE lead and see what happens is that get some information on what was discussed I think that spread work I'll let you get out of the worst and very much depends on what you put into it if you just do exactly what I say in terms of reading all it will be Ichiro but there will be a lot more can be if you do so more search but also which is much much infinitely easier than it was 15 years ago for example you get Chapter 2 and I say all of this can be traced back to the paper biological father run was not very upset face broke well that's a footnote you don't even have to walk over the the library anymore people off should find the volume of leaves ,comma shelf you can simply pull it out of the the Internet have paper and see what they talked about what we were doing the reading assignments I will tell you for example the 1st one action of the 1st of beyond electrophoresis and it will be taking a year off the during electrophoresis pull out the papers that similar to the ones we talk about as only a small fraction and see what they say report could be used to study there is not the same as what you studying already received go into much more detail on whether there needs to be a literature search and sort of literature search you know now we're but there will be a whole lot wonderful superb papers that have nothing to do with the topic you're interested in and I'll give you some hints for fighting the war on terror OK so I have 2 minutes left and the questions why did I wanted to write the book and the actual there has been a very long period of natural 85 about 2 thousand where I had had a dispute with some of my colleagues as to what the experiments actually said about Paul and they would say will you should look at this solution will that so I looked more elastic everything is the I'm all for it my father every paper filed a every sort of experimental measures and I had to call a discussion on new discovery with the following discussion not the the I had the whole discussion on electrophoresis also called dynamics you enough money back anywhere else essentially the other wonderful studies like the reasons for all my contributions saying his country and apologized for the the 1st time in history that is roughly where we are


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