Raman Spectra of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes

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Raman Spectra of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes
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experience that is doing the cleanup work now I know I'm under that I got what I planted was to talk about which probably will be bold of interesting because it got a little bit specialized up but then backed by Bob but I would say something about when I got out of the conference on it to help stimulate discussion so army will deliver Nova earlier this is I think you already know
this story about the subject goes back half a long ways above 50 years as Germany anyway but but the subject is about 10 years more said bed and bath at that time early time the subject started when and where it was 1st discovered those nobody working in the fields soaked the work went almost unnoticed evenly author of mostly did notice that make them we went through all these other topics but that interpolation combat that was discussed a number of times nanotubes during this period we have a lot of people actually feel that very very exciting lots of people on Oman and period about 1995 better but a big community was built up that understood something about linearity vs. there because they have grassy but they want in their minds they had graph so that was going on in this period a member of the big paper came thousand foreign the field just exploded now we have approximately quotas of the but there are some papers four-year 4th thousand papers and is a huge number nobody could read some money already under the rest of us the problem with people so bad but it's that's really a challenge but is not is B R Us does it for a person working in the field where you started his nothing there and we have some which interest it is quite amazing it up I wanted to out of focus on the gravity but are also referred to off a little bit about on scattering because that was really disgusting and that was my topic because the only 1 really took award were so we do so we go back To the Wallace paper and that was 1947 was roughly 10 years before I got than is business and so when I was very young researcher my 1st independent career going on I was told I could work what I have been working before we just we have switch fields around our people were doing all kind of NATO optics at that time and Italy had accessed a high magnetic fields right were was working so that's a good thing to do about an hour and that is the direction but but everybody was working on semiconductors that once semiconductors brothers would set a semiconductor especially there were 3 people were making very good to 6 compounds server what the choice was not so great so I decided that I like to something really different I thought I would opt to carbon and and get hold water 1 quarter interestedness and that is quite all right because I thought was interesting not be people better here now you think it's interesting to so you agree with that but about the it was set for me at that time to bend we had theory from my class Billy Joel Clore we would graduate school and I he worked out the EU vs. for graphite but we had only in 2 days for a 2 dimensions by Wallace and he made in 3 dimensions I needed treatment the that was the paper in 1957 and 1962 when I was sort of the leader of the free trade harbor him off finished displayed world dominated field them so it was just ready for and ot and 1960 was also a bus celebrated year because that was the year that HOPE appeared here among the 3 college so I went to visit here Coweta gave allegedly until the start of new so I but about about as bad as emphatic Aso while I was able to get a sample that art I could have on orbit a cyclotron orbit large enough in the sample wasn't getting scattered by the boundaries of the city so I had a theory and I had samples so it was time to get to work so that's industry had not sure that you will them but that's about all I got started on the bills up what I'm going to talk about because that's what I promised talk about was how we use Rome months that trust and I as you could see here the were all kinds of peaks In the spectrum I truly be that from 4 minutes so you could see the review breeding won't be so much written about the last 10 years
years up but the main thing for about a graph 18 is achieved them the 2 Adam Scott Adams are vibrating against each other as we have 1 2nd layer and that makes the unit sale would be rarefied graphite it's almost the same so there's a great deal of similar similarity between graphite and where seat so mn there were few other features would go conference but in graf 18 you hear about then and then you you're about cheap propaganda talk about is sometimes called the debate to be due to be bidders actually something a little different from the debate to prime the growing demands of those gets into some difficulties fixed too much time 2 of us but I would like to speak about some of our other features of between the G bail and this crime but because of some scattering and but this Mbeya and has discussed very much Micron students abroad when he was an undergraduate at
MIT actually worked on slick with money a day for this occasion we did we have more work done with people from Singapore that so the that's that developing and Andreas a Ferrari but who has done something recently are on this very low frequency the regime was the 50 with numbers that I don't have the aggressor happens in this paper published but that's a new result that will be looking for a In the next few months to get published because that that's a new feature the spectrum that we've been waiting for for a long time so this is where it all this stuff this is like but many things we heard this conference this field is quite old but will lead reintegration should not be with the discovery of Boris signal later roughly in the was invigorated and some of these old traditional feet that areas that we been working on for years for years a little different because we started thinking about what were seriously and we have results that that we didn't have before and that will be the the gist of mine my discussion for you today so little bit on grass with the
review said on this is sort 1962 labor of Burma and I went to a couple of corporate conferences and people were questioning by whether this was really a great result so Bob I I can't Peter broom 1977 when we had the 1st interpolation compound conference and they have a about maybe 2 handfuls of people was a very big conference because conferences were very small at that time world that many people working in the art but he was that bad but they talk about this but he was talking about but very early work that he did interpolation physics he was 1 of the pioneers in that area from the period that I knew him in the early 1970 when people started on fiddle art he retired he was doing making new materials and a lot of work and interpolation of visits but never once during all that time to talk about but I did talk to him are very recently about like the last half-year that IS STILL on what we thought about this paper he's exactly the same age as on he retired maybe 10 or 15 years ago the then doesn't travel buddy members of the paper and he says East expired so there you are so it has dealt the simplest of saw on a single layer aircraft and he has a table at show something about it up and he believes that he made grafting gravity oxide and some of the people have to be producing work I wanted it to test the Sunday questions about the square with you believe in and what happened here him and so forth some people don't know know the history did so
yeah square feet and Our we've seen this picture many times not much will itself and the BLM Kabila's there should be wondering what we hasten choices all we could make God stocks with the configurations the baby a bill the debate is ground state and that's what we normally habits for ordinary autograph flight and that's we have a lot of data on is also being baby version that has been known for many years but is almost no data literature about the severity on common form and is varied little art work that has gone on it and it's got interesting now what we have being because we we could make different combinations and maybe make waiting for up from the discussion that we have here so
that opens up another research feel that that we might be think OK so and so we have on a single area and we have a live TV vs. can that we have by Larry very close to the uh direct why we have better when you look away from it it doesn't look terribly different from us and said that you have to lawyers revealed the 1 and I have more to say so this is a picture of monolayer grass at and 2 layers and was discussed numerous times this is the biggest the I think broke the field open and at this stage I the started the also to me will be said about the end of the year our anyway the deal took off at after the sporty are quantum Hall effect integer 1 in graf with different than gallium arsenide so people got excited I have Sue thereafter off while there was Ron spectra and this was also but I majestic group in conjunction with a bridge so this is under a Ferrari and we have known that for a long time that 2nd order of crime is very large compared to the 1st or usually in physics the 2nd order effects of 2nd order clones 2nd order but we had this material that because of these revered Beavers's case you have all OK their Bruins resonant and in a sense they always do a triple residents aren't in general book before graphite we have doubled residents effect that that that's responsible for this cheap road presses that you will but more about that later that every possibility that you could have for the easy about monolayer is Rosamond CA gives you the siege signal that the 2nd quarter of and by layer is also quite large will elect a I have been waiting up from this too people in the audience I've been waiting for people to consider about this system as part of metrology system because it is kind of symbol In a way everybody can introduce beleaguered is it the looked human his tour was talking developed but delayed resisted is a function of temperature at dancing with the power lines checking on the old formulas that we have going back to ancient times but I believe that is correct to say that better until you did it for gravity nobody checked with the seat of the car that occurs the reasons but I don't know if you know that but I look at it tells where he has all these records superimpose yes the similar but would be it so far as really great but I'm sure it it'd be a did see the that's all OK but but that it could tell spoke pictures not to a gate array you say he did that and I did a number of him I apologize to you now I know it's that we have to it advance the concepts of visits to even boring set about this in the process that that is what is the women unhappy added I do I didn't follow that because I have a big traders stopped teaching at 1 point but anyway but I will explain what happens with me Ohatchee prime will be using at the time so but it was the 2nd order process of photons have excites them away From from the whales from the bills of the conduction leaving a whole so we have like stronghold there so that that makes a neutral system on the on whether the new things that I learned that's just coming up now but I did during this conference but were supposed to talk about what's happening in graf we was now on people are are not only exciting electron hole but they make up but I am charge so you have to hold the front of the court where the trial may have different spectrum belated you really think that you're thing that's an interesting to be so were a bad but
let's go back to this story so we have a deal electronics cited poll was left behind excited electron get scattered about and its scatters from the case a product which is essentially equivalent point but except that this time reversal symmetry between the 2 but when we get stay here with the scattering process of it was Stokes prices so we got it loses a little bit of energy and then it comes back here but that was a little bit more energy and about it recombined so it this is a twofold presses New York blasted as stated in if the elastic events happened as they do in the debate and that this would be to dig those elastic bands or would be there but that's what energetically favorable that's the difference between our 2 and G Brian if you really wanna be pursued so now we go with referred on Nov photon energies and also with different photon energies will be but having small key sector and that means that the now will have less energy so but because of that it will be shifted dispersion relation g protein is always a dispersal feature others over the moon with red light here it's even smaller wave vector and so you could see their primed and has a very large chef but I'm sure you some others that they have more shifts later around which is very unusual is that the process so the heroes but a hundredweight number eagerly that's very large of rubble scared because linear versus K every 1 of these prices sees as resonant because we're going from a real stage would the real state we scattered were real estate that were built them we recombined for real estate so everything is real states and that's the reason for this huge out on intensity of the wrong that but you often make a transition to a virtual state and therefore the probability that very much readers said that that that makes this a line shape but a very unusual visit we don't have I don't know of any system that's fine with me I so that that was the 1st order of their acts on that's 1 later gravity but now if you have my layer Graf we have papers by labor where we should say something about that so photo by man and met but make excitation I described before the Jeep prime process but the from the beat the lowest energy at this 1 here and so that that we go here it back and forth and I call that he won't want and about total energy of the two-photon on that created by will be up here is the P 1 1 so that's but while employed for some energy excitation of says everything is resonant we could have and we have a choice of lots of points to do here so we populate the whole line but that is Is that a delay the 1st level I could do the 2nd level so he is starting the 2nd level going to the 2nd level scattering up to the 2nd everything back that with second-level level that Peter and that's over here but I I don't have to do that I go to lead of your but transition it to the 1st but the 1st level of the 2nd level them on the comeback and I think this 1 is the 1st level of first-level I got the 2nd level here come back on the 2nd level and find myself all holder to end so that makes sleek rosters people to etc. so that that's where the all this comes about its says the phone on board it has different way back to different energy you could said rates a seperate abide by just very few energy is a couple of little votes but you couldn't certainly resolve that added he looking at a whole bundle up a whole bunch of By later you get a spectrum that looks like this so ought not be individual peaks at not resolve the line with his greater say over where overlapped energy but it has a certain line shape and that was beat the what has been 1 way the people of added have quickly identified this is by layer nut model moral has pursued he and this 1 here as a much broader Pete no English a something new a new feature so we have yet another thing that we could look at not go want to talk about other subjects so this is work done in collaboration with a group of young people in Singapore and so they had a sample and that's it it was kind of nice might bid has some deficiencies because it has a lot of different regimes figure but they never reach about I warmly air and mammal region that by layer and 3 4 this over and they it's pretty big step toward Micron the article be be housed at 1 of these regions so they did this and find out what's in the sample and indicate that doing the kind of thing that you've heard here several times up Bob what absorption is a different spots he couldn't sort of monitor where you are and what what we do in these these Kaiser samples we put by usual up on me up substrate so we can always come back exactly same place on the sample a repeat the spectrum repeatedly on the street or so that's the way it experimenters John I have
bombed so I opted this is our usual know this this is the discussed Monday times does that as well it is in a single layer it's very big and then we have another region that year but you don't see a whole lot but if you are very persistent and you look in here are you could not identified Forest them bands Michael Crummey will be happy to see students and announced and by then I'll show you all the stuff we missed because we didn't maybe spending time looking for wigs their little features so this is the place that we're going to rural areas services the region's here between what a 1750 Wayne numbers and 20 100 200 that at the where they other features if you look carefully and spent a lot of time looking you will see more they serve on the 1st card I assure you there is what happens between 1700 and 18 and out of the region of the spectrum there we had studied before with the that at that time we identified 2 reaches minus last week when you look at us we saw this looking like the letter M could you say something that looks a little like we got look like letter so we call that and have demanded a graphic before so that's what we call up but then when you look at a little bit more carefully but you noticed that this has Our but anon lawrencium line is what is mostly lower slim has a weird bloodshed and but if you look at all the places in the sample from the thickness measurements etc. but there is no sense whatsoever for a monolayer its accident and a you begin to get something by later let me get some more and sort of look at
the features muscles may be the most interesting of 83 features and think about this as 3 lawrencium applied at a whole series that we get something to show you in the next you so I'm going to show you a little bit of a results for what happens in this region look at will them day and occurs and were only knew something about that they're going to show you something about this region that we know that so far as I know nobody is studied before and maybe we should go back and look at a all different kinds of regions because maybe there were things like this that we this because we have a here so but I guess last nite we had but the philosophical discussion about science I some of you were were present about us somebody money was criticizing the science community that we don't do their work out I that in defense of the science community I think that but the 1st thing that you do when you Sciences in what what's right and what's easily accessible only have the chance of understanding at the end of the maybe something gets more interesting back and Beardsley is maybe more to it and I think that we are part of the 5th the elements of a low-temperature recent but maybe something in that department we want to get it right it was wrong for many years and In a number of other things that it looked as if it were also in the category of people called boring but they are wrong in my quite right literature for a long time and now with graphing we could straighten them out so I think that we should say that that's a positive thing that we could do we might have everything right and but sometimes getting everything is right is that now we have material that is it's enabled maybe we should go with do appear at end of was philosophical comments last nite there that will I think is the last speaker and I was told I was supposed the summarize what we learned at this conference that was 1 thing I from the conference is that the people will need a line of philosophical conversations so not do not know I am here but I'm talking about the MB I'm not going to show you would have to do grab our how we did a little more careful study so 1 one-legged has nothing so it doesn't appear here is so now we have to have a theory to explain why his in monolayer but it but later grass because looking at all the different number of lawyers are you have the idea that we are the lowest per year of this squad here should be doubly so and these you've but but but but identified it as works for the world of Men you could follow all the components and we have the 2nd part of the double and that we have this piece here terms are usually what we do these kinds of things we like to identify which vote on involved and the frequency for the further to work that out of these 3 work rather well with MBA which is identified with this tho not so you see that there are 3 acoustic folk guards and 3 optical fold under 2 Adams itself Little make sense right parliamentary boring physics but we have to keep track of the 3rd Reich band on out place on a very soft mode that comes in the direction we know almost nothing so you know it's boring it's that kind of interesting and about so we had some new insights but about that feature of broke Andre Ferrari but he's not here to give that talks and I don't have the status of that that's coming up a week Physical Review work or nature of ACS and don't know where he's going to publish them but that but that that it art analog about what happens with Jeter so anyway but we least not identification of year's twice the boat so this duo comes roughly 900 and but a little less like 9 7 8 7 Odessa I are active so we know that if we don't know from Rome on trust because problems did but it it didn't show up that you have some kind of disorder or states herself and God it's a very weak featured I would say you have to really work at so Our led us so that that's that that's the end of these I work with flood combination twice 1 for a tribe Valley scattering India will ensure that only scattered so entrapped daily scattering instead of going from Katie crime stay on the same day were the same crime be don't go between the it takes less energy they're little but shifted from each other and that all works In energetics and there we have another mode here and so we made it identification press it could be sold over to a 2-year-old we have a lot of them we show combination mode that we're going on with this lower frequency mode of gasoline up with but clicking for you will see O T O and that's the infrared at the will that's a wrong active by having small featured probably somebody so we have a symmetrical entities the combination of the 2 Our vibrations of the vibrations of the same with respect with each other within the Flying but across the way they have opposite phase that showed the up here and let up opposite faced introduces larger Hughes and that's where we have small frequency shift so that's the exploration of that peace but see what we have
sale off by other free up bids that we have here are TO modes the 2 of them and that we have another piece that I would bring in a little while Mets this 1 here that's a lowest water L O plus busy and this of the frequency of laser energy all these pictures were taken so that will give you the identification of whether this LO year edited they're moving alone here of words but do it now I'm going to go to the next little bit which goes from our 18 50 or so a 20 100 and on knowing we can have something happening for the yard on modeling see there's some peaks and so whether they are all about and I you follow those peaks they they go about not only for Angel G. have our but thought you have very nicely for monolayer is very much more helpful than they chose PG about them and then you get about what happened years ago trail an island off so now we have to do some identification what these things might be used see that their oldest bursts of and them but there is some of them are a little bit asymmetric and you have my kind of identification what they
are so here's some possibilities that we came up with Bob so we have 3 different possibilities here and I hope we can so yes we have some names for them from bad so here's combination mode that works in frequency very nicely for their so the RIT ideas yeah it but this 1 here by this is Out of Place mode add up an CA and then we make combinations with these guys L O and our TO FIGHT TO is the employed obstacle that there's 1580 someone you know very well what we call them so at 3 and that we have free from from 1702 1800 and I believe I have all the identifications there Our for identification of the higher frequencies and 3 the lower their 7 altogether and there is there's another group is Clemson University that's done something very much like that they also have the same identification independently for the sake of
features so if you about our some sum up the story is that there are a bunch of a legal Sierra S . buried as the use of stable changes go 1 way here to 7 layers that some small difference that has the work that detail yet but we see that what were we're headed here and there a some that shows say this feature here of December and feature and there are others that all require that we have to go to by Larry single doesn't habit of the 2 layers are into manage with you don't have to be there so you have to have a beast that damn where the 1 you're so that's what we there there's a new results she added about I don't know how interesting you entrusted to our illness but I think there would be perceived as a a result of ah discussion West nite plus other things happening in the field but that that up people clean school features the budget features their carbonation will this sort would but we would study on full reads but we had 20 200 combination will put together a have us succeed molecule have a huge amounts symmetry all seem to and Our somewhat infrared active somewhere that did you have much broken symmetry fully are really very robust molecules but here we could have vacancies as we kind of distractions services to show you that our B & B and it's new thing we have to be removed again a little bit now going back to and it's 2 different from rather than they back with a working on additives maybe 10 more years than graphing and on field is still active how come I maybe there feel should've been dead but now because usually 10 years is enough to exhaust steady field but but the problem with narratives it is and why it's still actor maybe will stay bird I don't know but over 10 years because we have so many experts now Graf being that when they get tired of working on grass and make our try to mop up we got under Jewish work is is never too is very easy for them because of its very similar over there but there are many things it is nanotubes that are still not understood why ideas that I'm going to try to say that because I think might be interesting to this audience they do something and they want see how it is it near the south and edited is a rolled-up sheet graphic and Bob we have a single we could have a single sheet that was kind of funny that this whole there was a fantasized about well before was ever produced the laboratory and the maybe they would not produce the laboratory worse quickly if it hadn't been fantasized they owned but the reason was that but forward various historical reasons I won't go into here we were ah into the idea of predicting what the bandits who would be like if we could ever make it as it has just gotten experiment and their prediction wars by the 3 groups with the same turned papers were as a published different journals around the world from countries at the same time they are predicting that if we ever could make a old members to it would be either semiconducting so that was 1992 other big 1st a single militants were married in 1993 about about half a year 9 months after lead 1st papers predicting how interesting would be the we could set walk or what what's the reason for it with the physics behind that into that explain so take up Out of gravity Fiji and you roll it up and then you have a very few but Adams around the sheet may be too so that we will have 10 cutting and so you have to be grapheme clones like this but since you don't have all the states are available the only 10 states 2 were manufactured from and you have the space please by cutting lines appropriately to satisfy quantum mechanics IA at as you put the man and the geometry that goes into about requiring how you put them in the car Coney line might cut through this direct or it might not so it turns out that 1 3rd Of the cases will go through direct that will make a metallic gave it to the other two-thirds take other possible places will go through they will have a semiconducting 102 band so let's just from geometry will you see so that was predicted their Island however people don't believe that it must say that that did you really set up but till the 1990 8 6 years later after the 1st thing for people to say yeah we could hear metallic and semiconducting most of the people in this audience don't know that history because I when you join the steel probably it was all settled everybody as soon as experiment was aren't showing that actually Levy tour we could make them and get spectra there was all over but there so that's what happens 30 in 1993 OK but anyway for the nanotubes we also have this radial breathing mode and are so that's where all the Adams in the food
libraries radial direction at a frequency depends on the diameter so that comes that identification of an inner tube diameter the news that ever since and I also we didn't worry indirectly that identify what began again us by measuring his be on a reality and that both the Cairo angle in the diameter Of the negative just from this frequency and the theory behind it that we have the but the longitudinal vibrations associated with it she said transfers component mentioned already them that we have a second-order featured crime that I've already mentioned and that we have this and band that's new we just learning about it and that we have the disorder induced here that should happen but if you break symmetry so we have a lotta symmetry breaking discussion at this conference and that's 1 of the features of the early features that we use gardens the study of disorder breakdown of symmetry we're getting more sophisticated but I think it will last year by 1 of the things so is that we don't win just satisfying but say that we have a defect but we know that that's how how would vacancies if we have very edges discontinuity in lovers so that they could be treated as a D defect and it produces I just want a week so that we bound on radio breeding this year up and you see that different frequencies said that it indicates that we have different debts of resonance with a different diameter therefore different frequency that we get so but there are there many ways now Rayleigh scattering and others over ways to what determine Our big interesting thing that I've been picking up bit right this year it was pretty new bidders Our many blurbs are you how do we multiple experiments but 2 of correlate a lot of information either run structure electronic properties optical properties magnetic properties whatever and you said they that that new published a paper you would have 1 technique but now it by some of the really interesting work that I've heard but that in the Bordeaux conference for covering your was of this dual 2 different kind of techniques by I throw this out to you is that many people from this conference will also I was so it I summarize a few things at this conference that I learned from so out the Europe earliest work life here was done on bundles of 2 bad so ourselves with bundles you just get an ensemble information but that the earliest work that we did the very 1st papers historical won 1st Rome on him with 97 and that was done on bundles but it became obvious but at the right after that this experiment we did another experiment to show that the spectrum very different from metallic and semiconducting too and that meant that we really have to do this at the a single minute to level to be able to detail understand what what went with what so about this but picture on the right is spectroscopy taken only on 1 2 and so we have 1 a semiconducting too and that's the squad it 1 metallic too will be here so others of the 1st paper by aren't single wall us that trust the 2 department but now people doing it with with many other I kind of techniques is not only wrong many of the sewer so what's wrong on spectroscopy good for this picture has a lot of people's work and it shows
allows you to do that distinguish between different kinds of carbon said this is just so maybe a little not everybody realizes that diamond and graphite have very different spectra there they are asleep frequencies are totally different role carbon South St square Barnes & SPQ bonds they had different separations may have different coupling there Is that plane of bonds the other 1 is Tetra he drove bonds so it's obvious that they'll be very different please but not only that I will have different kinds of S P's squared services Graf Biden met but this is not single will manage to amorphous carbon and everything looks very different and that has the do with the effects of any of the issues so it is Ron spectroscopy 2 or take other allotropic forms of a C 12 and see 30 came up at this conference but yet they did you could tell them very very well but moments but trust that because of the vibrational frequency of almost everything will depend on massively album and artsy 12 has a very different message most have per cent differ from C 13 so be wary separated you distinguish so some of the experiments people were talking about here would be relatively easy to do bad obvious 1 paper that we recently published don't for a where 1 layer is C 12 that's on the substrate and about them and we have another women seek 30 that that's well actually you go around 30 the substrate 12 is the person not bad but we couldn't see a Osub we study substrate effects directly because 1 of them has a different they showed differently in the study of the interaction is almost the same set up our those kinds of experiments on throughout he says as being buried but the relatively easy is easy to get answered talks and they give you a lot of information out of that lots of addenda duck to I I and out but some of the modes I dispersive and that that's what I have here to show you that you could do studies here as a function of late but this is like like a size of Woodrow Marine and that change is the amount of detail 4 you could just do experiments the sea with the dispersion this study with what weight that because we were among the dead but you could measure phone in the photons will be different this 2nd order process depending on what the full energy so odd odd that's 1 thing that you could do easily back and this 1 I I I throw in here to show you that you could study but issues like don't so have undoped sample ot you get 1 kind spectrum he doped samples and on the top 1 here is undoped and then you have and that he hopes so they ended 0 . up pushes the frequencies down to lower frequencies at the end up ego pushes the frequencies but a higher frequency same thing happens in interpolation come out so of this is sort of gentle throughout up Our carbon literature so you know that you could do a lot of things could study pressure dependence and you're not much pressure she said so this is path of but that this is a new uniform squeezing we had that stretching mostly elite in the talks could stretching here too there is something similar but temperature effects of some other things these frequencies you changed separated by a little bit of the carbon-carbon distance very much as necessary to get big changes that could see temperature-dependent moment there should be a good measure equilibrium or lack of equilibrium between electrons and holes because he could throw the phone nuns and the probe probe electrons at the same time the like drugs can under her way that just their chosen and the phone was commissioned by the phone on frequencies Mr. Barry Saint shot and study electron phonon interaction this kind of of work and that we have pages ages are represent a breakdown of symmetry so about a group theory symmetry tells you that if you in Turtlepoint here but there should be no recent you a sort of the letters no disorder but
if you come over here are close to our edge this year which we found out they get a big debate and signal but symmetry Chelsea that the odd eggs should I have it has a vanishing matrix element of this sample had been a really good saleable with the perfect edge with no defects but there this on a signal here should damage pretty smile the best at that time pretty old work is 7 years old we make better it just now but that's just the show you that idea about edges higher you could study them so this is at the opening and that Soviet Edwards quantity of the
dopant aren't you brought online so that's what's shows here and on the end of the list well donor and acceptor mostly put together here to show you that up on doping and d be studied and odd This is site is samples domain size grain boundaries we saw a wonderful picture from Caudill I think that we showing an individual grain boundary we saw 7 defects along the grain boundary of the boundaries of the great between 2 2 greatest by the quiz was that you feel that show them what we saw that this today somebody owes yes yes yes but Dr. hung from Korea that but I believe that picture was taken accord was yet but that's the 1 I know LeSabre dutiful picture so that shows us that we could understand what happens at the great reason that we we know exactly so just old series it still will be along the way is really a very beautiful woman will bring that again anybody's interests seeing that think weaker learn a lot from them at this is something new but I know that there is submitted by not published I and that this is Electronic Arts spin resonance but not the rest elect electronic Rahman about us so what is the author of this effect has been seen another systems but this is the 1st time the seat of the car so voter items it makes a lot of electron hole here but electron hold here could be generated for any different kind a wave vector so that that's the reason that you have history brought it could be seen at the end he hovered around the pure sample hours so that the Fermi level goes here because you have to to go when occupied state with unoccupied stay outside the system so if you want the system you will kill those this transition because there's not that it may be so about you could quench it with a move that very level but this is observed for metallic To say for semiconducting to its unique to that that's the predictions that steel observation about that's into new topic double wall to an and say something about that but this is sort of got to me a little bit of knowledge analogous by graphic shows there is a very brief where is a wall is uniqueness Bob if you have but the 6 5 2 a new show the the 6 5 to
rum on spectra and you do it or let me do it and the mother let me get pretty much the same stuff but if you do a double wall to that's not the case and the reason for that is that take that to odd too you could move them with respect to each other so the heck's got the relative positions of the hexad can't change and then you could change that I rally this way so they have to ways to alter this so you get a Our of values for anyone to be be prepared for that set that we conference in Bordeaux but they have what he and his group have been working hard to get a kind of a standard plug for civil war 2 over them once that's established of rehab aren't good data about he's putting everybody stated together and taking into account environmental effects and everything else so that we get some metrology and he's the 1 that's really odd champions that program said that many of you know then is very able professor at UC Berkeley you might want cooperate with him if that would be very interested now with with that but double while nanotubes we have 4 different flavors that you could have and the Qatar a plot was gonna be different from all of them south that list the situation gets a little bit more complicated but Robin spectroscopy could be very useful for characterizing up all of leases but different to the bottom line is that but the double wall to but do not quite behaved about our you take a 6 5 2 and it's a single wall to and you wouldn't cited double wall to its its specter will but not that much it it doesn't change so much that we could we lose identification mostly identified but be aware that it may change even its identity it that part of the U of space we have to high-density to that slot large-diameter troops so it is a double wall but troops about a year so this is a bundle and you say with a bundle of it they have amassed have that you can identified exactly never know which outside to work with which owns site to so I really spectroscopy is not possible but if do it at the single or double wall to love or you can identify the various features images showing you useless to encourage you thought that if you wanted the spectroscope to you have the work of single levels air OK so that's enough now said on that and on the spectrum for a graph and then to a similar but not identical but this is a topic that has to be researched it's over what I would say this a little bit of work but not not a lot of work so this is still something for for a young person take on with a double world but you can about Bobby in a situation that the inner and outer to a resident at different laser energy like we're working at the individual nanotube level was essential to seperate all of that stuff and so few few laps but do bear now at but a sometimes you're lucky and with the same laser energy both be America altitude that unusual I so it sometimes it could be quirky and and now
people are doing triple Walter but this is Dutton interesting because people redress try later graphic so we correspond and you could see I'll show you that some spectrum but we will lucky we managed actual each
of Walters here this is where the 2 grows don't that's the way 2 0 2 and 3 door our heroes but it's sort
of a but a looks a little bit like a mess but here's the radio breeding the right and of this debate and banned region could a lot of activity but but I think trouble Walter be able separated out and see what the shifts are bad but I know I'm not interested in doing more free and they would stop at 3 I think but they reasoned about my limit but at just a couple of comments about ribbons both rhythms up Ari somebody's packages are something that I do you need to work well I don't unique to that there part of where they added so there'd be edges where is never too they could have antique high reality to any angle of works with almost equal probability the yard opted show you managers roughly a very special did not live not like sit all day have very great preferences I was surprised by myself but I'll show you so this 1 here the edge it does zigzag edge here is armchair and we label the ribbons and that way but the long edge you could say it is the Serbs would have been a little bit more symmetric we had labeled level by the early lead the shortage but that is the way we did it historically me I will take the type explain why that is the legacy were symmetry between in to
ribbons but historically we didn't do it that way and if we did change now create too much confusion we have computer witty pride and know not looking forward to seeing more confusion set but here here's but see for this is about but no spin-orbit interaction the 1996 paper variation at but but you have a ribbon with 4 rows of carbon atoms so we call any bills for everybody uses that notation you could see that's a semiconductor and was 5 is it of the 0 gap is when you're E vs can and media were now we have a semiconductor up that is said different it end 4 5 and 6 than anything that has a high density of states of the very reliable and that makes that will write reactive so the chemistry is really quite different and we will lead did experiments on these edges I folded edges and so forth they really look different in the microscope we got used to that and the reason for it is is the difference density of states which really upset when
you do the experiment was so in Nocatee how long time ago started making ribbons and our even before we knew how how interesting they were and so here's ancient river 4 of the page but and so if you could see this is 18 animators and you could see that's very small compared to 8 centimeters so you will in making 1 River editor this is the height you could see that this piece what might of the talk so this is a
monolayer about revenge and bodices just show you that Rome on spectroscopy satisfies the selection rules might and so we have a real sitting on graph upper frequency is about life and that's a substrate beat Red Army is this 1 lower frequency lower yet he put a LaserWriter that is a very tidy riverbed and even if you put a small amount of energy gets hot because the c-axis thermal conductivities very poor so it has very poor contact so laser energy he so that's what produces downshift so we can tell them apart which is nice and that we do polarization experiment that was predicted in 2003 cosine square dependence and experiment it's cosigned square and we're happy with that and so the tells you will understand little bit about ribbons identify them with and get some information so by other people have shows he also referred to for paper that distinguishes the debate itself be dead has molested process in addition to of inelastic processes that makes a phone number that also has a less process Jedi would have to elastic processes people call the two-day usually has no less that press it's a little bit confusing makes a small difference in the frequency you wanna be technical um OK so while this is not how the cleanup lead pitches so we have a microscope we put our little piece of breathy here we put electrodes trust so we be characteristics that we can also do jewel I just want to show you so the ribbon that this is a rebound that there was made in Mexico in worries the resources group earned over here Is the rebound they brought it to weather the
meetings show me a picture of that comes a month let's look at the interest they so we dead and so we did the jewel heating of the sample the beginning it's very very disorders any of there's no clear demarcation of weirdly edges higher and then a little bit tool heating starts out with me forces be so that's no temperature no heating and then it gets non-linear then at this point the whole thing takes on gets extremely non non non linear unless we start having motion line on about 2 thousand degrees here we put some little articles platinum measure with the temperature I'll show you the war amplification it see
what was happening and we see that the the ribbon that we start with and they have some jewel heeding the of but this is a sea of pictures you it's a moment the moment unification and you're a bunch of the edges of the about 20 layers so they were raised that that interests me and the more you he them the more these arrays lineup with concert this between and interestingly ot be edges are almost entirely using armchair ages do we don't have anything in between so that that is very different from the situation of nanotubes were all these moves occur so be nice to have more data because I will was a
black see very few Cairo ones the probability of having armchair and lizards exact small because of a very special orientation almost everything is so it but added that sort of thing doesn't help with minutes to we have 6 5 and 9 3 and everything else about but with the wealthy gravity likes have been at high symmetry directions and theory says that equilibrium state the armchairs should be more Our frequent but we had to make a move with Joe leaving this exact seem to be but equally for more so that
you could actually watch the motion of these junctions between the different kinds of bitches we've been moving them and measuring the velocity motion and so going back to yesterday we ended our discussions on what's next we had time on graphite of interpolation compounds circulation compounds that is traded above the wealthy people put stuck between the layers is very much related to the work early work of interpolation is very interesting what would happen we will be because he studied if that were the 1st by even later that's the putting surface Adams on added to our have failed I I think come interested after being too active for many years done well with that fullerenes now fullerenes are important in the energy business and we have to I'm still going and and graphic has taken off end what do we got what we have been next lineage is the book the man has turn out to be a whole lot the maybe somebody has ideas what's coming in next they wait world Delaware where it's little new molecules might be the next direction so but let me leave it at that and and discussion How
would you for example world order from what Virginia it could nation Ian the lives is maybe their analytical equations but ways that about state
get that is a good question there were body bothered us to buy time resolution there's 1 Boeing How you excited the 1st that's why we have all these different prices with it initial final state and like times what we 1st 1st saw their severe especially when the for the year Out of monolayer by Larin it's always resident on that lets troublesome so you think that there probably is fluorescent on you got time results and intensity measurements are the way we usually do skirts of limbs amounts will we build their injuries are not really
want that but we do not want what coach for
are both dry white vermouth your or of sugar or orders do should always be up best because we have 20 lawyers and what happens does that break 1 lawyers that's bad debt at a mess ordered I think we did start but always does maybe you have a theory for it
all votes out the a series of of which can't yet that that would show
up here you have to do magnetic yourself there's a lot what did group was well search review writers forward all your ideas very
good for I what up art next step of your suggestion just your suggestion once the further you make those edges like showed here as part of the New York mayoral and Bob lead the beyond the number of rows determines whether the relation of their removing deferment on only relative ages and I might have interesting magnifica ready to do this the next step would be right would you have to to kind of range that the sample wasn't exactly right you have to cut the sample to make up the right shape so that we know exactly which is talking about but as a great idea we for all for
a world where virtually for arms was 3rd torturer Baja rooted don't I know now I feel that they may go down degrees watch although there may
not be right there are a few that a vote on talk dialog another
grassy areas with song but I may not be enough with this they are very excited of her so they have to see well above wrote separate Adams a shot all this in a receiver says this uncertainty secrecy for coveted job for the our writers for years it was a good idea
but nobody but but people have studied by magnetic features of the urges that the person with the most work on into cleared you want that is what this Evans City
Roman shift to the C. P. the electrolytic Roman scattering of as well while you could say
that we have different vectors so that's different energy required to go from the initial final state so that's different way vector different energy so that is a very very broad because that that contribution is seen over many the it is a very strong feature we really have to work for a long time to get that's why it's the list all these years because of the scene I'm sure but many people what they were looking for introduced a season
Ochoa was another molecules dollar the you vote showed the wrong side of the woes of research showed that we both molecules themselves also comes at a very good
question he'll have to work get that all will we would do it her glacial compounds the 1 compound that we used see very good spectra for the interval and that is the species that you put on was broke me I don't know why that 1 worked so much better but there were other art of molecules like ferric chloride that we had a huge tunnel data and we never got the vibrations of that molecule and I I I I don't have a theory theoretical explanation Wybro is so wonderful but bromine doesn't do stage while and I I I don't really understand many it is only starts working on stage to them it is the only 1 only in part 1 I know that has characteristic of some sort wonder what Vermont the ship it is amazing but got these vibrational frequency goes from something like 3 102 to wait numbers me that's up almost unheard of shifted from wants that and there are there are some molecules where the sold
molecular Ron signatures strongly bolograph I'll yacht X unless Israel releases a connection between the will grow our yes yes
autograph we did it goes on as cold girls by by message referring to this a phenomenon called Cirrus service here wrong on scattering which would hit will enhance the signal Our up over molecule by many orders of magnitude 10 orders of magnitude is huge affair with other girls loses a agraphia substrate the enhancement is less than 1 order of magnitude but it's very large so that that is the state let me repeat because maybe not everybody knows about among something pretty big takeover graphing surface Newport site of molecules sitting on the graph sir the spectrum of rum on spectrum the molecule go way up in intensity but it doesn't do it by many orders of magnitude it may be a factor with few fish but that's a lot so it is very very noticeable and odd that the work the best most complete work is done in Beijing but anybody could do what is the Ridge How NHTSA


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