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NAND Flash and FreeBSD

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Automatisierte Medienanalyse

Erkannte Entitäten
start so the couple slides in the West in the world the start of the of items were large Iowa for the last 3 is a fusion of and and a worse that would and all be talking to you about man flash technology understanding of how it it works and how to get the best performance of the it and my slideshow start that we go on the sole of over the different types of land on the way out and that demand for large hands but not well in order to go into these local details but it is important to understand if you want to get the best for 4 months out of the Sixties and stuff that tried title these details of only do so perfect stories between 1 and
3 bits of data usually with within device it's all the same number although hybrid do exist groups so cells or together to form a page page by the way is the minimum read a right of unit that you can do when you dressing them grids of pages for mobile Milwaukee now to write to a page economic to wants but then to write to a guinea after races and you can just erase the 1 page after race all the pages and what groups of walks for McLaren groups of wins on a chip and rich chips package that and hot understands side drew a
picture of the world way doesn't such as much as just the were so you got for a number of what the club has a number of pages in number of playing on that are contained within a chip from the number of chips with a packet this hierarchy isn't oughtn't because determines how much Parallelism you can get usually we get more Pirlo's and the tips of the sweat and this is the where were things start of all you can we do 1 operation for playing of multiple when you can do many operation in Parallel the of multiple chips and independently you can do things in Parallel as well is the following is the point and usher that actually Lolita slide on assault of its that but basically those 1 day chips for per packages 1 2 4 points per chip there is maybe a few thousand walks and maybe a few 100 pages and each pages of the future inside the to the quick order of
magnitude citing and and cells or and on the shot
because of because 1 2 or
3 buds of data Purcell and take on soaring to bits of data that in the same page or 3 bits of those are all contiguous but in the same and it turns out that the man storage industry not as the really convenient for with other out all the bits for the 1st page programs that not all of it for the 2nd page and mollify programming and all the bits until 6 30 miles so that when the mapping 2 different and on so that 1 of the implications of this is that something has reached after than other because the because of something of the 2 in the sector
so how they saw multiple bits himself because all of man and so really on the is a capacity but you put a certain amount of potential on it and on the magic of NAND flash you can read about so what they do it is to sell as a raised everything goes into the race state so it pushes which are Jonet when you programs that was charged over here so the found no point so on frazzle that easy to programs that it's 1 of the easier 0 it here but for an Aussie after programme global page programs approximately like the top pictures here and then they some of the 2nd that it is adult take the race state for 100 here whether it's 1 1 or 1 0 and similar media for its 0 0 0 or 0 1 for the 2nd found PerkinElmer
machines in his continued what to do about it
the hubris of the a move that would
back to my presentation the and she but aug just get presentation in their don't sit the it paid for the point they but their care power but as 12 people which for their backs the new approach of some of that they but in paying attention anyway so like a six week programme multiple bits of the programme and multiple stages of on eve so that it takes a little extra time programme in the 1st but this growing fast but you getting them exactly the right point so that new 1 also Programming the 1st 1 is seen as a big God and he was drawn moralist scales of on 30 easy for the threshold here and say is 0 Worldwide unit going and that any any any degradation that happens of all the charges put in this area of the probability distribution on of all the charges but in this area my thresholds here assassins charge of offer overweight before West are making and and determined the cell that makes as Selsey very reliable but not pretend for Randall see area much smaller between the between them so they can be great only a little bit before certainly Air's in judgement and and 40 Elsie it's even summiteering crazy so found that those the cell technology that is used in the man who really determines along the downstream properties of the Somme I've
only summarised in the table was talking about so read the for sees Fast and it gets worse the more but you put in a cell because you have to look at it is that more closely on the interim and this is how many times you can write to the race or program array of the non cellulite see if you work in the literature of this called number piece of Basil Associated alive maybe 10 media 100 K cycle which is almost for all of them will see 5 a 3 or five day day depending on the technology Antilles even worse the cell Ezell's is really good for right workloads that your daughter writing Teale seized good only need more storage density of the don't write so much almost the because it's the is pretty good on you and if you not writing about should as a matter that the right to release book so this is a
graphic found on Wikipedia the just talk about long the trends and nonsense to thousand 7 thousand 13 and was the the process that were in the Fifties Sixties and the Rangers and the and the and the arrange here several important and that the sizes but it is important to note that its small getting smaller and its getting smaller it's getting crappy part
of so Essel see lucky cycles almost no use the 1 but there are correct 1 of the things about me and that I'd prefer to a as a new book each Zelda's small chance to make an air and sales this is a one who was 0 and that's characterised by a and based on the array of manufacture Seo you you need to have this means bits of the attraction of the user geezer successive new technologies and you see them on the requirements of going up rather substantially 24 but the city is or On and even doing that the entrances much lower this as 1 case criticised said 3 100 depends on which model Teale see you looking at
so the basically 3 dozen there is that it introduced him to the nett and a great Saudi to what it said for a while like any capacitors of this charge so you get less charges to sell solstice called left ship on if you read only 1 page in order to do that in the name of the demand controller has to put voltage on all the other pages to suppress the data and by doing that it had just the tiny little but of charges to the so if you do a lot of Reed Makin degree and the measure cycling through the during read write cycles to the non but also cause damage charges trapped on because of a large will to dissolve flight to raise the prices data to move it to a new state of sometimes some high imperfections in the manufacturing process did amplified through stressed damage but the and that's the way determines the and the and the more damage to their West well that the cell constructed data the shorter amount of time the cell consort so the man
pages but now it is the moment read unit for non but in addition to having the power to data payload and is also have banned the Allaband band data is used to Stoloff Ceci iterations that the data can be corrected its use to store a sequencing in bad luck information so that it is a walk on that can be reconstructed usually it on that good practise to program nandan were intimal see until 6 required because of the high put in 1 place and 1 route to another place you have to remember located before you programme the high pages and the man lenders and made sure that the page Paracha such that the well paid is a well number in the high pages are high and you must erasable for programme which means basically right once before and which bosses you have generally for today along structure underneath the scene she wanted to any kind of panic and coherent Dobie a logical space then pages in the early days were about 1 these days the range to data 16 came the current generation of land but the size of orange because usually in the you will have between 4 and 8 more liking ships that are banque together that will determine the basic the Bauxites for those who want to the Salt Lake City know yet chips and the generation that 16 Katie multiply 8 times 16 you get hopefully 120 Kay Burley staggered 120 1 idea that on and see want to use my alignment Lawrence things at 120 care so understanding the underlying device computer and there was a question bites the written the
and and flash usually sold in this is to get a bit part which is a growing helpful all away that and we fight 12 megabyte some of them so now what to the basic Unit erased there is between 64 into a 56 pages of man walked out again the technologies put more pages in each block to try to take them back to doubling technologies your pages these blocks are much lodges their the system of what her title by 2 40 some full-system block took place in the race for the sustainable confusing the but it's the terminology that that use of race time can be quite want to see what to try to avoid that 0 things about programme in a race like the ring up at the time to do this is a long time or your Programming chip usually get to anything else with that should of that takes a millisecond to write out a pages as you buffer of the page to to the hot dry of the assessed the that your writing to a the way millisecond before they can respond or before it can satisfy read some she Saliah by road that and in the middle but it to flash eventually but there unable to just physically prevent them from doing anything else until that operations the all
planes while the Pearl of the usually consume 1 or 2 bits of address based and some usually plays record for IHOP's or read for months because of a German number of things that can be done in Parallel and some chips if your programme 1 point you can read on another and other you can you can still read on the other pointed its very industries of all and so if you know the under of chips you can get a notion of how he devices will for 4 more
if 2 an audit higher density particular necessities lenders could only make the chips of debts 2nd with put so many the big bets on the ship and the way the current largest today of 200 56 gigabits on ship but in a package that could stack aided and come up with 2 terabyte part again the multiplied by my head correctly on and this is a load of this is how the the density of his seat chips so Oliver necessity board to take a part there might actually be 64 a chips to the state package there might actually be 64 chips going on behind the scenes and in order to do that you need the capacity of the drive and the man of each it usually has a chip selected to selected for use on the whole off from the design of non and sometimes Caesar shirt and sometimes the not that there should have called for this the public with the detailed through a row of so alone
at this time diagrammable not to talk about for what but you are basically has of a budget signals that you have to do on to interface with NAMD on again new T Rees is the time it takes to get the data and though the siblings applaud niches innovating at the world through 1st investors to use it as a matter so much except for the because that for how big
is a picture of simple on non integration on that leverages off memory control or a micro just 1 flash here when its of the ready disease and also as would stunned because the of and the of these the signals that are on the prior slide and this shows the chip select where 1 to selected and the S Ramone when she goes to the heart of its kind like memory but had not because of the seminal these were demand for acts like memory on a more
complex system of all the stuff of quoted so you can say or do this sequence with these its to do it to erupt and the with them but these systems for for better and and the more simple systems and if as the controller of even more complicated because of the for here the multiple found so scandal what I'd
just about and some of up to get the basic nuts and Bolton on which it has been too boring but was should be Australia and talk about long structure of prefered the couple times already that following because you have to go right once parade usually dictates some kind of long stretches all talk a little bit about the of now generally on a wall and you have to be of a a group of Logic will extend on these extends in non to erase what are more groups or race sometimes on new data was handed to the United on physically but there is a translation later that translates the logical to the physical but this also means as the uses writing data sometimes a right the same what wisely holes in the wall and the White system needs to bomb go back in quelled the old data with the holes and write Florida so they can use of the states that have been freed up this can either be freed up the trim operation or the rewriting the same on and in the state that you enable trimmed with a find all the blocked the file go away and trim and allow the have more free blocks in its list which lets that operate more fish but this does generated a right by the system on these writers
called bright application was the factory by which the physical bites to the physical rights device is higher than the logical right rights to the book on the practical garbage collections is just reclaiming the data by for summoned to run through
a quick example have 6 extensiveness which extend holds tin bomb books below capacities 40 albeit undefeated the mass and uses to use their own extends a middle order the the that that he would need to keep a consistent and reliable on so long that is set to to illustrate briefly the the right amplification and Irish collection goes so we start out of
empty log on the subject Tory rights some data see some of the biggest here on that it expects on right somewhere data this also the stated still here but the correct copies of the day this year and if there were a powerful year that some sort of Metadata would be needed to know that this is the correct happy and usually the walks have sequence numbers and its determined from that followed in the slightest because the complicates things so we do another riots something just of principle it and we try to do another right but does not expect we were writes on 20 walks but with is that he walked to the end of what we do well we know where invalidating these walked and these books here South but we knew some of the data for invalidate and this kind of all complicated the charges that are moving the state and the state of Florida and were evaluating the said and and instances of this book in this book are now invalid this is the start of walk could be and then we actually right the data and we have a situation where what starts here this year and here and there and the back to the of these red items are found walks the written twice so that caused a will the right application for this example which is basically over at this point but the away had 72 physical rights but only 65 user a right so that about 10 per cent over that would be a right application of 1 point 1 all this moving stuff about in the loss to the important if you try to optimized as assessed the before so when this high
right application what will we see if you using as the although the biggest Anglesey is additional latencies on as the additional writes going on behind the scenes the state the dropped as the price is a cash to request as quickly as a code that wasn't on it reduces the interim Seshadhri if you during extra rights to the drivers are useful rights to the user so that means that the drive last as long and also we still or band of these kind of makes sense if you are writing to the does keeping the device busy he will be able to read the data
so what is the you can do to try to avoid right application to try to 2nd guess the F T allows that exist in the as the 1 way to do this is to write a large walks of data if you write a large what data than the number of holes in the data will be smaller pound the F T only to run within coating so they can be more of official and the walks and they are more likely to line up the
to an entire extensive data rather than just the a being pieces here and there by the they can do you can able trim on the by a on the previous day with that the with your best when the devices are swim the file system to weeks of file tells of ice thought and the walks and more that puts the walks and the free for all right away without having to read accountants and write them for this the much more official way to tell the driver done with the data to rewrite the data or just keep writing data if you don't tell the drive patrons data it will need a copy of for so that reduces right application increases eurypterids undresses these and general improved performance now there some of these were trims take a long time and enabling transited awaiting on small files sometimes can cause and issue you have to try and out and see which before the but it generally speaking most of the time in as these is the way to go it certainly the place to start a new doing on in previous these things like she stepped on my died will tell you on any disco odds on the going to the dust in previous the by buyer discolored maps to trim the lowest level or 1 of the other trim white primitives instead and you can monitor how much time taking if you were workload is causing high number of trends and a high percentage of the drive to be used by the Tree than that might suggest he would benefit from the stable interest another thing that you can do large right Treadaway Chakravorty and by that I mean on biting 1 block and and 1 Walkamin of 1 walk from different area because that leads to a Spurs a collection of walks in each extent which makes the right application high give you don't have it you have a uniform we distributed set of holes in the extent that you want a garbage the After Gojko more books to get 1 or more extends to get 1 extent for the data but as these based its slow this can be be done enter the 20 X Factor because it tends to goes 1 over the prospectus in terms of all the purely random workload As based on worried that the rights yes of the all of all the right that correct that Dr activity Cape a BCV could be originally sequential its making the holes in between the Mets as the problem so if you writing a file system of looping through the LBY a space is much better than trying to to beast momcilo I'm in a concerted Sino Icom go back and re claimed this collect freediver with of the of the All yes that's a more nuanced understanding of what they moving through is 1 way to do this that's another way to do that so I on the other they can try to do it if you have cooperation from a driving and the because they have triggered the extent under the covers and will tell you and you can see that some kind of what based of while system of up to take advantage of that N but a Case of the
flashes a somewhere in each of these tribes found 2 dozen number of things it'll do worldling their correction sometimes to avoid a recovery in the air avoidances not doing things will know will generate and later found in a recovery is a wide determined are and recovered from the and sometimes recover ideas just 2 0 will go ahead in the race and programme the walk again sometimes it's about buying into the red before but also some that things you can do with the Physics of event on make the array saw the programme last posh that on the underlying sales of the damage each time I did that is a little less but to do that you have to sacrifice a performance 1 of the reasons that the injury was so low it is they were trying to make right that as possible and when right as fast as possible yet of the camera and if you get something of a big hammer quickly it does more damage but if you get of small have slow so that the man management in the drive to take care of all of these details on the general you don't have to worry about that unless you operating at the lowest player by wanted of to quit that in the stock to give up or wait for some of the things going on behind the scenes you might think that your as the is perfect ingrate but in reality the flashes crab and getting crappy a as far as their zemindars go so long though the drivers have to become more and more sophisticated and were part of toget the higher density is to give you the same for 4 months a year the of so in addition to the recovering freespace aspect of garbage collection that talked about of some non Systems contributed large collection at times it seemed completely random but usually this is treated with a read happens and the detected area is too high when that happens the who system of the dry bulk Ikon recover the data now but a need to be able to recover the data in a few hours or a few days are a few weeks on abdicating guarantee that and sold to do what that it happens data for increasing right application and the Savins completely transparent so 1 thing you might notice these are major serving the of all some work would you might go Zorig's fine find row only new country the couple days ago and on serving says bigger random that which example and DiDio on out of the box real the fine and also in the way moves by bullets happening in this is the easiest each time read this it causing a little bit damage the cell for a little bit of fun perturbations itself so that the data that cinemas degrading in what you read them often enough the data rate get high enough that the man suffragans Wolong worried about the state of 92 copied for what happy for is riding to the rescue writing to the reflect for for up so that 1 thing that can just suddenly happened we observed in the Open connected clients the networks said on for those of you that the best of starts excellent talk on a brief with the appliance that that would put the budget videos safari oranges black those kinds of things on and streams and out over the internet for the 3rd of the Internet traffic recording to published sauces off and as we do this summer the popular continent has to refresh and we noticed degradations in the relay but and there may be other events the tree grimaces while he got a chip the goes back on most as the service sector where redundancy they can recover from that up and down after kicking and and when 1 chip goes back basically that means rewriting the entire to handle walks the in that 1 chip for that drive and that crisis is going on in taken half an hour or now were several hours the performance of the drivers to great these invisible things that the man management where is taking care of behind the scenes he did it is safe and secure a but that you may notice on an impact of before and some as the vendors will or state of these Yakov interest will give you some insight into what going on in the dry on other Zwol usually as the British sometimes a provide was smog data that tells you that a high application is going on but not what would you can do about some of the piece he iPod Mendez would be very specific details that this chip now-failed 3 chips of failed the sort it really depends on under 2 European the for storages of what information that you can get out of it all my but
talking mostly about and the stock about managed devices on the vice that have a flash intonation light they provide a logical undefaced to the house and on the day all the translation in that in the year following the in on the low network appliance all of that is done by howstuffworks off where rather than kidney in the and hot system
examples of managed devices are as these anthem drives and as the car and alone in the media of the new book by Standard and some Roth large parts will do this by the typically on the right fleshpots provided and
so on the wrong end of the match in the face you have to deal with the bat walks and read retrials the and doing what all of that and coordinate that within the system so that you have a role liable whilst were level Davis and their some hybrid parts of the market that will be part of the of the most common is part that automatically do the easy see my generation on correction 42 of so that was that I didn't Fault easy sees typically the most expensive operation to do software's once you get the data move has yet to look at the data again some complex calculations are more glorious fields and stuff and that it rather computation revolt having that they are is a great advantage so in
previous team of as a general rule cameras used for as these for this sérieux as the driver of there are some customers for a like the other side of the raid card on the other is that you can connect the these and will the and ceased at the a mimsy as the staff which if you got and is the car card that puts into a nasty controller of its used in previous on these wrong managed devices and on a walk later and previously using these but you need a generally worry about that unless you need of civic performance and on the need to look at some of the exact several and my time to deal with that so the pages that
helped flash previously is Tromso fought on can use a large walks size in your that you could use a offence because it is a only basically want Structured storey matches well of flash 1 of the other things that previously crony has is direct dispatch of which allows you to go from 2 thousand files to 2nd to a few 100 thousand fewer saying a million coupled is built up to a million IHOP's which really help smooth on database transactions were infusion over had its previous the driver with were or a 3rd of the IAAF of the car simply from the Baltic and the on the side Aleksandra fixed so of typically as these a become very good waiting desks based on below the care for about how you right to them to to keep them in their happy and
so on so that you can do with previously to get good performance out the her with a good place to start your performance tuning of is to use of alike petitions large boundaries 64 care 28 a when they get possible of and show that the stripes sizes are Samoa size for a again so that the Prime overhot towlines to vote walks of the as these works best at but if you're optimizing for particular drives a few help thousand changes have a particular No 7 of a particular as the and them by 1 estimate the with the optimal settings are because trying to find trial under might take a little while but give you probably arranged with the range of the much smaller and easier to test that if you try to do this from scratch alone use the of what sizes for your 1st and tested right workload of does right it said in his 1st so that work with the final were the and for Chilean this area there is no one size fits all like at yet is do this in while ways that well against a stock here and I probably but you have to to and from work with 1 of the 2 leading expresses we had networks we went from a 64 killing 200 28 and we thought Hazelbrook performance things about alliance and the performance you don't Sir was an I bet that was unexpected so I went back to 64 Kailai and 4 months on were were got worse returns prior levels Britain did bedridden the worst of all you have to try variety of setting sometimes to come up with the optimal upsetting so
alone and so what other things that can cause a before mistake additions it as the reason writes attracted yellow mostly read workload the you probably OK if you have a mostly right work but you probably OK although we won't performance if you stop to mix these but it becomes a very quickly that if you want to have good read performance even lower level of rights to the 15 per cent of workload can affect your we were caught by an order of magnitude following what's reads also can trigger a garbage collection and the management where so if you can manage your data so that it for fresh often enough that doesn't read so much that causes a high level of garbage collection your performance will be day and again Guinness aligned objective of data taxes that the 5 translation later which usually translates to 4 if you want a try
and management and previous the public winners here are my talk earlier this morning when the and quite a bit more details of its probably best characterised as put Meridian experimental on it you are 1 into deployed to unembedded appliances the something to play with and try to improve and if you want details on ideas and you can see me after the top so that they
have questions about Boolaroo body into so nice set of sweeping before 1 yes the the test that will not the public will see the fact that British he became I thought had this the original which it is the used time right so that the question is join to write large chunks for from writing in small chunks the toll appended anyway is a white man and he would have to have that's exactly where the inefficiencies them with a wooden if you write about small chunks of than a cat coalesce ranges of it as a direct map of for Elliott physical a dozen but if it has some kind of tables that tricycle was ranges which a try that that there can optimized look up times and optimized side than they cannot a agreed deal and Roy depends when we just as the ball went to get some time deficiencies in from poetry to large cash table it's all extends are 32 came writing for K chunks we read 32-pc a we were placed before Khadija's wrote right that 32 came back out of the 8 although that is basically the page said that not all the pitch that is because as the will Teboul chips together the cost of long 1 page to give chips of 8 K P Richards of 16 care that could be 100 28-pc a page side of on 1 than the the other bidders slice of different start saving chips but it's only a 16-pc a of chunks of Roy depends on the firm where in the comptroller's on the to exactly how that laid out the disc and how you can take advantage of all the advice right large is based primarily on kind of but lost nominated if you write a lodger trump than on the 1st day of the year get 1 injury in the 2nd half when the you get for injuries but was to be very efficient unused Storari data what if your writing about a small stuff and the 1st thing the but only right 1 copy of the 2nd Hermite right affected with a copy of that because it has to do the talking for that to keep the 32 K effective Bauxites to kill the map the disdain where a time out around the house and the control they at the time things right and usually used to think of the by 1 answer as you ask you drive into the side what that it don't believe there is a standardized failing in the driver's seat can ask for to get that data 3rd as we Islamey know why would love to pop up to fall below the about selling to talk about her part that with all of the of the but nett and that the from the left of both sides so how do you react to the new guidelines are also in the side of the line it cultural New York the ash Health of the fact of they are the ones who were in the mood to buy the 1st is that the party was has a lot of work do with big about the size and the question is under a duty to get the assisted ended a tell you what the bauxite as was the programme walks or the erased which is more of Houghton to be owing to the programme boxes of race what's of with thick add the dances could be at the head of the programme what side will be a sufficient level granularity but the programme but the 120 28 cherry would be erased walks size might be 48 and so winding things on of 40 boundaries might be difficult but I'm doing nothing like might be off 1 way or the other by a factory to or so of us about that would cause a problem necessarily want lines and do things into chunks because that's inefficient the by 1 0 1 to 2 picture but 2 things and 120 kitsch all that it can try to get the best of both worlds we are working at big right and that is usually a good trader because the white helps the F T all long awaited the translation later and in the large from size of with the fragmentation of the Houses brawl any other questions look at it as a whole and that the you so much her time the
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Schreiben <Datenverarbeitung>
Perfekte Gruppe
Gruppe <Mathematik>
Translation <Mathematik>
Varietät <Mathematik>
Dichte <Physik>
Generator <Informatik>
Einheit <Mathematik>
Translation <Mathematik>
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Computerunterstützte Übersetzung
Lesen <Datenverarbeitung>
Tabelle <Informatik>
Folge <Mathematik>
Mathematische Logik
Demoszene <Programmierung>
Virtuelle Maschine
Primitive <Informatik>
Drahtloses lokales Netz
Komplex <Algebra>
Offene Menge
Faktor <Algebra>
Wiederherstellung <Informatik>
Bridge <Kommunikationstechnik>
Persönliche Identifikationsnummer
Prozess <Physik>
Uniforme Struktur
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Dreiecksfreier Graph
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Zellularer Automat
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Physikalisches System
Operations Research
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Leistung <Physik>
Einfach zusammenhängender Raum
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Physikalisches System
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Fundamentalsatz der Algebra
Dreiecksfreier Graph
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Medizinische Informatik
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Nichtlinearer Operator
Globale Optimierung
Twitter <Softwareplattform>
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Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
Matching <Graphentheorie>
Mapping <Computergraphik>


Formale Metadaten

Titel NAND Flash and FreeBSD
Untertitel Overview and FreeBSD
Serientitel The Technical BSD Conference 2014
Anzahl der Teile 24
Autor Losh, Warner
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/15352
Herausgeber Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
Erscheinungsjahr 2014
Sprache Englisch
Produktionsjahr 2014
Produktionsort Ottawa, Canada

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Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract An overview of NAND technology, its relevance to FreeBSD, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the NANDFS and other nand technology in FreeBSD. The first part of this talk will be generally about NAND flash, and is applicable to embedded, PCIe-based flash storage and SSD. The second part of the talk focuses on those technologies in FreeBSD to talk to raw NAND, what can be deployed today, and what additional work will be necessary in the future. NAND Flash technology continues to be important to some market segments in which FreeBSD is deployed. This talk will be in two parts. The first part of the talk will discuss NAND flash generally. The second part of the talk will focus on NAND in a FreeBSD context. In the first part, an overview of AND flash will be presented. Basics about NAND generations, NAND storage strategies (SLC, MLC, TLC), characteristics of NAND, and operational considerations will be discussed. An overview of the trends in NAND evolution and their implications will be presented. The talk will explore how these features apply to SSDs and PCIe cards. This part of the talk will be of interest to anybody using these technologies either directly attached, or in a storage product. The second part of the talk will be more focused on embedding FreeBSD, running FreeBSD from NAND and an exploration of the currently supported technology. Kernel configuration, build parameter and other details necessary to build a system will be presented. Creating a system image is a bigger challenge with NAND flash, because blocks on the part wear out and need to be retired (some blocks come from the factory this way), and how to compensate. The additional features need to be developed to deploy the latest NAND parts may be discussed. The second part of the talk will be more focused more on FreeBSD embedded systems using NAND.

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