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New Revolutions in Particle Physics: Standard Model | Lecture 2

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we start we're going to talk about quantum chromodynamics quantum chromodynamics and we're not going to talk about the mathematics of Red firm Army going to if we have basically 1 lectures quite Cuomo dynamics which is a huge subject a subject which easily fix a quarter Hostetler higher rights are you were what the basic intuitive pictures of quantum chromodynamics is similar quantum electrodynamics on elective amendments theory of electrons and protons the source of the theory of a call long forest require mechanical he really cool armed forces are if applied for the problem Adams in which you do not worry about the emotional or the nature on the New Glarus structure of the new grass you simply think of the nucleus of the fixed point creating electric field then quantum electrodynamics is also the theory of Adams same sense quantum calm or barracks his a theory of course books go on and the and the things that quirks and want make things a court will ones make called a draw on each they said 0 in S. Johns a and they consider start things like protons and neutrons to Cora Barry arms were tapped Net quark number or net Barry on number about imbalance of quirks worked three-quarters of a proton three-quarters of neutron matters on which reported by backcourt Perez told them offload gone is Ava electrically neutral staff I which is the global the binding of staff where holds the corpses were once together much the same way that electromagnetic field who long four-year-old is the binding agent their homes are atoms together are electrostatic rebound object to cry but before we go into it I want to remind you of little bit about the mathematics of B B costs very 1st of all that particularly mathematics will come up in the number guy but also or simply related it will also come are your guys on quantity called concept called color we're not going to do group theory quest will travel to mess it but the basic mathematics or were talking about is group theory as I said I'm not going to use group theory not court group theory as readers they a spin the fury of Spain is the theory of a group of growth your growth just Norris pride but the group is a group of rotations of space serious spin is also the theory of the symmetry of physics with respect to repay priced but are we'd finesse fan might not talking about the theory of rotations but talking about the theory of angular momentum of just remind you very quickly that are we derive everything about angular momentum from some basic calmly come commutation relations which are the former acts with L Y was quiet times elves we I think foreign but bird they are there where those components of angular momentum we work that out West quarter found some rather surprisingly interesting things fall of course there are 3 other relations like this which I've gotten by renewing extra y y convenes back extra Watkins bound but when we are worried about the consequences of its 1st of all we broke the symmetry say we broke a cemetery and talking about something of symmetry breaking in nature just we broke the symmetry on mathematical description of the symmetry being symmetry rotation or are symmetry which interchanges ex-wife means of what we broke it in our heads maybe not real physics but just by focusing on component of on busy component of angular momentum basically focused on it we cannot measure of all 3 components simultaneously they don't commit with each other here have it on Camilla military and most 1 of them commutes with itself the cost of salt and Knoedler them from Europe most you could talk about what of they are or measuring 1 at a time when we arbitrarily Charles Elzy we did that and use these commutation relations will we their wives 1st that Ellis quantized and the difference between the neighboring values L was always 1 you 1 them until we focused on a on speed and we describe different Spain possibilities the 1st set of possibilities weather have been object of things which we call from also the object whose screened was centered about viewer Raul in such a way that the the 1st level of 1st Zeke component of was ahead and the first one in the opposite direction was minus half and my rear so over from eons of fright right now point was the mathematics are spin or angular momentum gave rise some Malta where they were 1st has been have multiplied that was a mockup with wear remind us that have been crossed a half like the spin of electrons showers associated with been particles from him both sons which far purposes now just think integers and the first one was just 0 on their particles was 0 have most then that's of most of all they end their of particles been 1 of the folk dances warned article there are those who want particles there on nuclei and Adams was scrim and they have to restate its cost 1 minus 1 units which 0 and then the next interesting family has been free have been 3 have again goes on may have been column he America's warned him minus 1 here 3 have my are there are particles with or certainly nuclei with 3 Arabs Adams with really have so if things also exert likewise work comes after spin ones until we fool euros In 1 minus 1 or rosy component of Spain's warned minus 1 tool Mike is labels he or others ie components of the a now when you speak about object of
spin Eyal failed is not patient these note the highest value on component of so this would be be a whore and you could use am ordinarily accused him are immoral because that works Tuesday all but you know will be different them when you speak of spin L your speaking about an object whose the maximum speed along the z-axis is L so this would be it there have no accord restorer Rubio equaled 1 No result for harmony states are commonly independent of Air Force a 4th particle with spin L 2 low-cost warned will cost warning for example was fair have twice 1 plus 1 is state if I was white rice 1 wars through air or more referee respect Enzo tour course the number of states the number of independent this date for a given value of our forgiving Barry you are there were so that's a arrest something I want you to remember yeah they are another thing if you have more than 1 particles such as an electron we'll have to spare spins can be combined wet consider what you could make in the way of spin by combining together the spins of tour West forget the fact that electrons orbit around each other Sonora what usually called orbital angular momentum and just concentrate on the spin angular momenta what kind of angular momentum can you make for To have spray particles well the maximum a value on the steep component of His wife 1 if way he would reach far let's forget age are now YCU in America you the maximum Ucon have along the axis is 1 from both spins are pointing along stringer runs most opens up pointing upward along with z-axis the reactors so you can have angular momentum warning you can have angular momentum like this 1 and you could also have angular momentum for Izzy component of a angular momentum 0 but in fact you could have 2 state where busy component of angular momentum is 0 this warned that but I'm back water was warm and I want to 2 States 2 independent states who was Zeke component of angular momentum is 0 How money states are there for a spin 1 object 12 plus 1 parent there must be yes In 1 combination because we can make total spin off equal the 1 that's the maximum of must be somewhere there a some combination must correspond was been warned what has been 1 hand it has 1 all the access spin minus 1 along the axis and 0 but there 2 states with spins 0 with component of spin over 0 they can't both be part of this spring warned mockup where white could extra 1 B Sky B he has been zeros and ones and twos and threes and 4 and a half and might have and a half 3 Italy found but what's right embarrass both spins off almost see component of their components false are that's got be component pickled award for Spain's that's got decomposed Bacova from minus war and end there seemed to be cool with Izzy component equal to 0 but I look it's been wanting it also has a plus minus 0 there are only 3 of em so this cannot be a mockup this these 4 states can not all Karros farm 1 what else could be there besides been warned Spain 0 can't be sprint tool because the West have 5 spaced state the only other things 0 so there must be a Qantas state here really quantum states corresponding has been 1 and 1 cool when you put the spins together in U.S. what kind of angular momentum can you make you can make In 1 and spin 0 the only combination the only question is what combination what quantum mechanical combination of these to correspond to the euro and what combinations correspond to spin warned the missing spin warned and I'll tell you right now and that is the bad news from metric combinations plus starring Mr. Lee this interiors symmetric between in the chain Duke and think of a few light as 1 Spain 1 spent our jail labeled warmer here on a war over here this is stated that both up matter families spend state is saying you interchange to spare obviously a book about this 1 of also all them by itself is not symmetric at if you interchange spend few interchangeable 2 of them this 1 goes for this 1 and this way growth this 1 swap but there's 1 earlier combination 1 quantum mechanical combination which is symmetric under the interchange of plus minus class mines plus is electric stated what should you do it the maker have total probability global warned bye was Queiroz these are the 3 states which together 4 0 0 1 and minus 1 if you rotate the ax a transform into which are This is a spin 1 op This is a spin 1 now wears a wanderlust been 1 the other directions made up out of OK so this is a spin 1 mile let nor what about the other 1 missing state fall altogether you would have 3 linear combinations would still be a combination of the other orthogonal linear combination the minus 1 of ammonia where are bound might Barry off squirrel Ms. Winer masseuse
these 3 correspond to eloquent won the foreign cars on a week with 0 so these are not the way he is that you could put to spin half together the make the tour possible combinations this combination Ehrlich woes you're always apply with respect to its angular momentum issues a doesn't have any angular momentum its if they without angular momentum as follows he angular momentum goes it's like I'm not really may have some energy it may have other things charge whatever but as far as angular momentum grows like empty space got North are you might can up spin and abounds in calm together In the disappeared while those all kinds of reasons why electrons can disappear but just for angered pure angular momentum reads reads we just worry about conservation of angular momentum and nothing else then which of these combinations could just disappeared if you have a hazardous said if we worry about nothing but angular movement conservation and this disappear not because there's 2 units of angular momentum are I about ban amount this 1 yes on all but their worker may forget ripping gave another win be cost this 1 it is not without angular momentum it looks like it has nosy component of angular momentum and the doesn't but the angular momentum about the X and Y axes of it is not equal 0 it was not handle equals 0 and has early equals 1 this is the missing feature allows you to to rotate the angular momentum in the direction went out this 1 gap I wanna angular momentum 0 and a through if only consideration was angular momentum conservation it could OK could just disappear normally of thinking about it you could say it well on the outskirts could not structure of this 1 here How we're committed and that is now a F busy is 1 for Milan F however in which case no you get what I along the z-axis you would use your mind not only act of you measure the angular momentum or some other actors you're you're worn or minus toward gay at laps that the theory of angular momentum novel why am I bring that up now roads here is particular spent a half spinner hair and how you build out of it I missed and all incidentally Our like no let's try the build free hair but says what happens if you put together are 3 Sweden's what all pointing upward in the same direction and that would be the maximum or you get 3 have promised they saw there was 3 have From 100 altogether about are recently and which was perhaps Abe told Armstrong terms her work sorry a state altogether and they face on their power FOR around a spring 3 have subject for diarrhea what for worker not other formally Caribbean Osborn 3 have object not poor enough to close the revered figure has been freed of multiple there will be 8 1 state which has E component of spin 3 halves and 1 with minus 3 we already use those up said no war state which forms there's been 3 have mockup we use them out now all that's left now is spins whose maximum value is plus or minus a half sold white can be there what an addition to be Vera always been always been spree or half a year or so canaries knowing camp 0 because making Greece and they have never makes 0 although can make a spin 3 hands and spend were but we still have state swept over the implications direct food distinct ways to make in one-half shot there are combinations which correspond to spend 3 have the easiest warned of all 3 spins off of trees and now and then a more complicated 1 and then there are 2 distinct ways to make Spain one-half which altogether heads up before I saw you take 3 spinners 3 have been it's been 3 years it has been 1 half quite too distinct ways of doing it rescue their OK now why am I talking about now what I really want about her concept called iso spin so isotopic isotopic wads of 1st internal symmetry group that far 1st internal quantum number the 1st analog overspend which recorded particle physics that did not have to to do with the rotation of space had to do with the rotational unimaginably space or internal space warriorlike it just gave rise I'm another step of quite a mechanical variables which were basically I saw more completely Samoa spare the spinner have respect but it didn't have to do with spears and that the rotational space euchre Magill if you like that has to do with the rotation of some internal directions internal directions DiMaggio directions based on mathematical erection February from will already actually described it we have we talk about quarks enter we talk about as a whole but variety of different kinds of quarks but most of the quarks whereas heavy there were around heavy and have an appreciable Maris in yielded these off hundreds of MTV's The Natural mass scale for Haiti John physics is somewhere with hundreds of enemies the massive typical army was a couple of hundred communities the binding energy of particles is any these Miller's but hundreds of MTV's and hundreds of while object in nature has a binding energies or a few enemies no Quayle no clear nuclei things of hold protons and neutrons together but what holds neutron together as 3 quarts has a binding energy of a few hundred and parts a natural energy scale of 280 and will only 2 quarks which were very light
whose masters were very light by comparison were that they were the op quark and bound for the other courts are heavy and to make particles out of them because of cost and energy and over revealed lightest object most stable typically heavier objects will became a wider war a light objects of nuclear physics lightest objects from the ones which is stable the ones made of up and down quarks now often that courts have almost the same maps requested downcourt about twice as heavy as court but they both have very small masked by comparison with the hundreds of MTV's of war no no clear physics Johnson's 1st approximation you could say that we are poor and the band court I have no man America were more important masses are close that's how are symmetry what does that mean that means of took off work and replaced them old down works everything would be pretty similar not posse of caucus slightly more massive than the not back worker slightly more massive than me work took typically things made of bank works will be a little more heavy than the things made of a corresponding of works but the difference more for example I 1 what's in the bag work maker Proton who now works another quarter make neutron mass difference between Proton is very small are so that's an example of almost symmetry between off quartz and bound for John 1st approximation you just forget the difference of course and now works are symmetric with respect for each other In the same way your mathematically NYT gross spin off and Ramallah the case has been really has to do with the symmetry of space rotating act in the case Our Of course back work it's just a mathematical alone manufactured space you can imagine where you take a top quark toward downcourt by flipping some directions and now some you've erection in your head trolley doing it In the changing of quirks America works thinking or not what quirks as mathematically Hussein more mathematically isomorphic co-ops and balanced and you can't go a concert I still pop experience isotopic spin analog of spend about not all and the sense of the z axis and our flipping spare but up and down in the center of our ports and bank work force is nothing really up public about 50 interchange who labels are port down quarks whose only this the concept of isotopic barriers are and for all mathematical purpose is the replacement of our ports in backcourt vary analogous to the replacement by our rocked by bounced OK space we have to state Bob mail America magnifying Spain Of course we have often negative and that defines iso Assembly was would the iso crime from icicle icicle where see in a moment that isotopic spin the changes the shareware when you interchange up quarks bank work you interchange proton and neutron cost of you interchange proton and neutron nucleus warned them making eyes at top of summer of some Our comes from more hours our isotopic but what this is Iran's nuclear physics and all bases it was just the replacement of the change protons and neutrons and thinking of the proton and neutron as our most remote wait in a mathematical spins price was traced eventually just the fact that they were quite of corpses course he says printing the court careers minimizes young or on body charter yard or case isotopic Britain is not a precise symmetry of nature it is not a precise of nature in that 1st of all be up Orkin bound quark don't have exactly the same but even they did it would still be a distinction of physical distinction which show Our who would be which would make a difference and that is the electric charge but collected forces will end New Glarus except for a big knock where swarmed Oakley gives a big actual electric forces become strong but for small locally I am especially for protons and neutrons in electromagnetic forces are negligible by comparison with other forces holding protons and neutrons together an approximation Norman Aceh difference between protons and neutrons or ignore the mass difference between up court quirks and ignore the fact that they have electric charge altogether and concentrate on the or other forces of nature and particularly strong interaction forces which will calm and then areas a precise symmetry relating or work and that vary much like ordinary spins trees in Argos Conservatory of a let's talk about what you could make Poland our for 1 quarter by we will conquer were understand is not a physical object that we can examine the laboratory the simple subject that we can examine laboratories free quark proponent neutron buff I have increased man what can you make out of 3 spinners for can make Etheridge Britain's is I spent 3 have warm sprint 1 half and you could make a spin 1 half into 2 distinct ways of let's forget the 2 ways us just say we can make 3 have since been 1 and the same taking 3 quarks we can make an object of isotopic Spain 1 half or an object of isotopic expand rehab let's 1st concentrated on the object of isotopic one-half project of isotopic spin won him a mini state should have defied pure mathematical analogy with ordinary spare don't spinner half object has 2 states must have been ice ice was a arrived via a simplified word and I state of are one-half also would have to stay state well on course to states proton and neutron are store Web so our right Barry for broke neutron are caught Corey which cause now let's so let's a that such
trio that Proton let's imagine that we've who labeled B the quirks by label the courts automatic really located 3 distinct spot inside the on this course is not really trailed by the army move around but let's just simplify story and say there are 3 distinct quarks normal label their cars with 3 distinct labels is downpour and is off course I now Corica might be the quirk exposition warned I've got caught at position warned they offer quark might be at position and the EU quality other a group of pork might be a position for along with they quite suffer me armed what a firm Iran be quashed class quirks are firm their states should be enticed state should be in place now that suggests that may be the right combination of EU quarks store and buy symmetrise that would be correct but now are important started issue for us right now but I'm just being very precise that work and to walk off Court by symmetric state power is a proprietary can't isometric state of those Spain's makes been 0 1st of isospin 0 object harmed source and a half object as I've never mind this is this is the mathematics of France we don't need to worry about it this is a proton it has charge plus 1 To have start to 3rd what do there what parents and 3rd makes charge warned so at proton and yet it is the combination of 3 quarks which makes them Price was Brimmer have very 3 Spain's making us half of the prompt is also a member of a spin and isospin they have object until 1 is got by simply into changing option that adds up now now running out enough away the point about the cemetery here as 3rd track the proton and neutron in this language are symmetric with respect to each other and they form an isotopic Hussein stricter corporate 3 together to make a spent a half only to States saw isotopic spin invades the theory of protons and neutrons and this language just gives us phenomena defied quirk has isotopic have sorrow the neutron proton is another object which is very similar of protons neutrons many ways it's also made a 3 quarks but it's the combination always allegedly was beaten of proton under try actual speed one-half sold you take your pick and three-quarter works with the same beaten start 3 quarks with speed and 3 quarts work I saw spared and you made us then have an well it is not our object which has 3 quarts which Harris on Spain we have added I suppose 3 if you like real ordinary civilians are lined up in in the same direction and the 3 isospin lined about so what kind of thing Ave well the 3 I spend lined up that must mean that there are objects with 3 on court three-hour pork green down quarks also the 3 spinners or aligned the ordinary spear 3 spins were also Oregon performs been 3 for a bound or wherever Greek up 3 quarks up quarts of 3 down workers is not a neutron stars this is not trial Proton is no object which is a little bit more massive than a proton and it has a name called belt if uh I still spin 3 and it has spin Rehan Butt sometimes called the belt of 3 halves has both high so screens and spend retail let's forget its beer that this just a line of rewind the marble along the axis of all lined up to get back what about this and this we all there is when I suspend rehab state summary spaces demise as a spilled 3 have subject for right the 2 more there are 2 more are there are 2 more below the 3 Arab states who moreover and the 2 more are you knew me very you'd be poor state for objects all of which are related by the trees they all have very close to the same mass the only thing which distinguishes them as little more difference between masses of up and down quark and the role very similar to which our I'm telling you this for a reason this planet important historical role Herbert Perry about mourners are these for state court dealt with 3 him what's it charges of through charges was the charge of this 1 is moved Judy EU are already shot but what would the the love that were pot stated thus Zeke compound nor has it part of a mobile would which ice was and 3 have subject prices with him at both spinners isospin but by looking at these 2 0 you couldn't tell at you have to answer your nor a bit more about the nature of the way combined but it a dodo if we have component of our and just as the analog of disease component of Spain would be warned him but before property would be 3 at yes at remember every object which has been 3 Arabs courage for state for a state to the hour where warm air my we have mine 3 the same is true for iso spent Graber let's concentrate on spin from moment are these favor wrapped and the wonders of maximum and minimum spin but these 2 so that only
4 em we know that a they with open way have posed for states composed of isospin can be one-half of minus 1 but by analogy with ordinary Spain's your before OK boat so what's coming through the year parts of the important points but 1st beware charges this 1 has 3 charged two-thirds object that has charged to this 1 has chartered minus 1 NTU you'd has charged plus warm air and charged with this 1 0 so the charges are different well but we still don't have the same charges our sorry that make it is right you you'd be yah yah yah these happened Avastin charges protons and neutrons with these different OK all 4 of these objects have To win means a small discrepancy Hussein mass just as the proton and neutron have merit these have the same errors but that man is not the same as the proton proton and neutron math is about 940 in units are MTV's millions electron for the protons neutrons With the neutron being slightly heavier mouth by March the mass of the Delta is about 1200 every day don't there can became kinda into a proton and neutron and high art was to see our work let's take job the easy ones the easy ones have or Rick works the same pop pop pop really have me for more longer but how can that case was was it became tho it's going to cave in to OAU proton or neutron and a on Amazon has of course and bike work but it just drawn however for you have attacked us with Bob at half the tour chorus go Mr. Gore who also goes by Court separate like that I Kwok and backcourt appeared in between that Quark area that organ between could even be I'm bound quark or do not work so 1 possibility is that the Court and then this would be it and quark and this will be of course not quark enemy and Diop Court of 0 charge this would be the 80 of the Delta freehand where we have here this 1 never knows what can happen was when I actually can carry a possible we have put our work here this is not enough energy perhaps this would be an aunt died down a quarter out so what would this thing be up and down approach the prototype of a wider With enough leftover energy how much energy is left over but 260 MEV about right some may right that 380 roughly 300 me or semester opined on about 140 140 there's enough energy for the fact that still leave over some kinetic energy for the party on why away what can acquire users women noun bar with discharge two-thirds and one-third of his visit a pipe class and it broke apart Togo charged film this is the object was charged to fill these dealt the objects are not stable they also until a proton or neutron end a pirate and they're very shortly there was trying to work out America are prey what life time his order of magnitude order of magnitude kind of light would take crossed proton they figure protons reference to a minus 13 centimeters our forces like that can go against enemy of a 2nd and the minus 20 seconds from their West long but they don't last long enough to to be identifiable as the objects produce these doctors tho collisions particle collisions dealt with produced and the real object was here very very sure where he 1st lady who will now not enough but not for purposes here now so far we have learned that also what is that's OK that's exactly what we have I hear somethin long hair something rotten in the state of on what is it well we have real top quarks spins are all in the same direction we could put those spins we could we like to those they used to be called up and make a Delta 3 hands with its speed ordinary spin off with all free in the same direction and they all be freed up or quarks not the depart through firmly on the same day if if you could fiddle around with this maybe you could do something with the spend all of because of the same why they're the same because it has been 3 hair 3 quarks will spend 3 have have the same span they also have the same kind of all so we seem to have found the object which consists Our I think the co-op quarks facts on violations of the principle that you cannot court To beyond saying this was the clue will bear with eventually was called quantum chrome or by 6 it was realized the courts have backhand a number of property they must have the property are so low that the 3 quarks In the dealt with 3 hair can be different from each other firmly on statistics for fermionic property of them requires a baby different solve them must be a label on another label was hidden from view for some reason where charm which is Vera but not apparent in experiments that Labor was called court callers again highly arbitrary Turner has nothing whatever to do with ordinary color and I was just a label sure work that Frank different in different places the 3 collars of quarts different from some places red white and blue mostly in the southern part of the United States and other places
are red green and blue red green and blue being the primary colors of light up to would arise I will use red green and blue I have heard red white and blue being used for long Todd rapper progress Marin years or treble digital labels with just labels and nonsense on physically different wars from another of any sort of interesting measurable way the fact that there are 3 distinct 1 the not the scene is important they have exactly the same mass there exactly the same properties so but that's now write down what we know about Yarborough labeling of work all the various but there are a lot court found quarks the widest the charmed quarks strange quark have charm crimes Top Court bark or Bernard listed in order of mass the author of a van was next with charm is much heavier strange by a factor of about 8 or something like that and that we have the bottom of a clue perverse put off on top of bound in a white car these are these 6 distinct types of work but now each type of pork there is another label the courts are able to labels and the 2 labels on are raid Green them both the server want anybody to think they're really red green and blue best able and where they come from behind and we know always there well it's 1 of these things where a physicist simply follow houses they simply said Look there's something wrong with this squad model you can't have reports all in the same state they must differ by something else know they could get from my position but it was known that for 1 reason or another that it didn't have to do with position and momentum are rapturous was known to be irrelevant for dynamical reasons for energetic reasons that was not the issue military three-quarter all in the same state they must have been in fact the situation was actually quite similar to what happened in the public physics was discovered by a our back out a course of the year because of a panic spectroscopy helium had who electron saying state no nobody violates hourly principle well factory timing here I think maybe we'll be confused could award this way because Holly tells us that you can put things and maybe were came and I wasn't around them are bright the reason wore 1 of the reasons that scouts America might half of our history might have invented Spain's was because of the helium with 2 electrons apparently in the same orbital state salt you've got to attach to the heel of electrons on number quantum number another on the label network our work just fine it work a 2nd time history repeated itself and various people mambo mambo was the 1 who arrives Chernomyrdin our both Japanese Japanese American physicist realize that this called for another quantum number he said every court has perhaps another degree of freedom I don't think he called a collar suspect was among the virtue of many of the good times would be really said look what's going on here is that you put 3 quarks together 1 red 1 green and white knight normal violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is the same trick and we work for protons and neutrons are that you can understand the proton and neutron also as a red Label closing again we will so small part of these errors are measures no not in every possible way they are Hey except we know there are read they want so if you have warned you could tell while I believe there is a need for the Fox which I wanted check detectors look and see if you have warned you could tell you up that's a bus a complicated thing collisions you could count you have warned If you have to remember you could tell became big things that in are certainly the not young cadres concerned but also always 0 it's not my concern always 0 With funny conservation law but look you could say the same thing about that but he also follows for not forgive me do need there's something rewards to you but that the ideal Remondini that's why that's why historically built with 3 have played in the sports world it was looking at the sky here which was unambiguous 3 quarks parallels parallel iso spend some more you wanna be possible analyzes of protons and neutrons but it would have been no less convinced when Delta 3 him was interpreted in terms of quarks back really hit your ahead soul b ultimate resolution as we now know they're really experimentally extremely well we quirks of 3 different kinds of course are Rivera in or even with ordinary Spain what's the difference between a spin-off was wary spin that were not given them exactly the same properly those turned Our in this way unless you have another 1 set the director or something of a by-election Van Ness then you can't tell the difference between on the other hand if you have some object which picks out of direction and your brain speed up to it you couldn't tell whether this is a war a particular axis or not in the same way if you have a proton proton beat different than neutrons and protons and neutrons are identifiable objects laboratory if you how proton it picks out a direction in this I Spears state space the ice was direction bound and a nominal look work you can discover whether a quirk Harare has parallel tool in Harare of who the probe so yes you could tell but I think you could tell whether it are but their course if you have 1 object can provide a kind of free will referee warm and test the same path but were mathematics Palm quantum Cuomo more dynamic simply requires that you have these 3 different you could say maybe it's a violation of the Pauli principle
decorum there's no known mathematical framework discussing and apart from field theory crimes anything but From your are were you it was part of the 1st fall roof they had made a case that has it and who walk much much more sample much more sample more sample mom let come back where are would get after we talked a little bit about if you don't want of a CNN for that now Josh I just have a C I want he a down on of on on 1 1 of the works he now only 1 the question the question it's happening a follow shot noise you have the big of quantum superposition of state so you might write Burke stripper case were Her part of off barren rammed could be green Red Bull we have the right war dead possibilities for ways of combining them and that make it real pro or we have the use of quantum mechanics to serve the drives away functions store for symmetrise event by symmetrise appropriate bring don't be big advantage of the Gulf of 3 have you never know if you fancy the 3 all in the same direction OK on assure you could say Well maybe there was something wrong with our ideas about quantum field theory but final theory of quantum chromodynamics which is exactly Baycol mole as the with color color is important quantity corn Cromwell by Memorex just like charges important quantity and an electric on this theory is highly accurate description of experimental data associated with coercion pay dramas and its accuracy is way beyond what we question now so the ultimate answers that worked OK now let's talk about gone missing ingredient narrow we have the analog or electron accord firmly on behalf of tributes have some electric charge like electrons we stick together not quite the way on our chance victory nucleus perhaps a little more on the way electrons of apart from but they stick together somehow what's missing as what Dixon together or sticks together at firms it is the electrostatic field the electrostatic field a source of photons we can even think of a feline when every electronic creates feel around it all we can't think of a particle language that electrons e-mail and so on book on the exchange of photons back and forth between charged particles creates year are of a force of between whereabouts quirks watched sticks Figueroa show up article very very who will be your fault at 1st it was a speculation be such objects exist where theory was built a mathematical theory was built with court qualms being me and alarm for conservation or 4 times they have been won just like before time which means they have the same kind of polarization states Vassilis like photons very similar but with 1 big difference comfortable and they jump back and forth overkill or on 1 hand quark is a source of he'll that's associated with glow on the warmth field strengthened the electron source of electromagnetic fear on the other hand not a hand a similar hand Leon Cort Conine and absorb orders what are warns life why quantities Google once packed photons are pretty certain stand on interesting except for the fact that they have a polarization may have been polarization are ever momentum and they have a polarization that's about all they are heavily charged by itself a photo if it collide with another felt there are no forces now that's not exactly true there are forces between 4 times but this secondary effects not electrostatic forces because the on charged their secondary effects which cotton from quantum electrodynamics loops of quite complicated by environment of electrons but the prime ordeal interaction between photons there is no they move freely past each other and that's why a beam of light moving in 1 direction will pass passed through a beam of light moving in the direction with no interaction are Commerce urine some material focus of photons are not very interesting and in the sense that they don't interact with each other they or interesting from the point of view of their interaction with electrons and basically all of quantum electrodynamics is summarized by 1 and that diagrams with your several times easier mission off from electron electrons are drawn having a directionality direction along which the charges moving you can flip lines around and every time you see a narrow going downward that indicates a probe a positron but all 1 basic at back you could go for Suzuka Nova collisions everything else I just for the purposes are drawn book keeping think of a as having the same charge an electron and positron factor photons give air hit given electric energy can be came to an electron or positron it's not the least of all time is made of an electron positron at some point but a half and have the same properties as an electron positron in particular its electric charge I also has a angular momentum it has a span of 1 end with an electron-positron if you like this means you could also make a spin so in many ways a full time here but similar an electron or positron that sometimes indicated by drawing by thinking of the photon as fictitious composite of an electron and positron then this diagram by remote view mission of a fault can be drawn in just by saying a the electron comes along becomes electron over here they electron here was really of positron moving backward which turned around I was not content to all the center said without losing any electric charge you amid of
photon and you could see it directly you don't really is steadily don't need to see them electron commitment and that was no violation of charge consolation of Paul obvious electron can make them electrically neutral thing but nevertheless let's just draw the additional folk-art by thinking before as In composite of an electron of its it's not useful for elected an analog quite useful for corporate crime or dynamic OK now enough the quarks electrons with finished with and the important thing quantum grow more dynamics is the color so let's begin with quiet courts be red green or blue over player column vector I remember man use the language of quantum mechanics a quarter can either be in the red state the Greens state or the blue states liquor commerce and did like likewise would represent an guy court by a red green bar and will bar a goal 1st of all a cool 1 is an object that can be emitted by a court this is a course court goes off a global 1 can be emitted that but the interesting thing is gone behaves in some respects like a quarter it's not caught animated by court rule look don't tell you precisely what sensitive a report work but let's think of the gone as a court area by a quirk in the same way so had label if we label each quarter cholera was now becomes of quark animated by quarter quarter enemy course how money different kinds of quirks and in quirks are there well by United down your Omar's right right of a rumor articles while looking for wanted using are armed subtlety as a subtlety which will come through there really only 8 North there are power of a mind to begin work was not in court was a those knowing who warn that nite combinations but you could make by taking a quart and backcourt remember words they make a matrix of quarks harm room might think just for fun we might think our and backcourt is making role Red Bar green Ma will mark the glories would fill out a matrix of course a label of gone you would label it with 2 win this to colors nor would they be there would be read read bar Reg Green are Red why are green Greg bar green green bar Greenland Lamar or else br Bar Bar B Lotto then they that is a robber agree that no elements from Murray indistinguishable but but before it that the sum over Bago elements it is it is not an independent corn cracked so it seems like there on not later on we will talk about a particular sample B which tells us the quantum mechanical superposition of Red Red Bartlett green green who blow bar is nothing doesn't exist but for now for our purposes right now let's neglect that really only a cool warns but it really does work from this pattern here that should be not so what's the play with it as if it were not 5 then what kind of fighting diagrams can exist while Quark could become another kind of quark and e-mail have gone through drove veteran rat stake a case of any race toward becoming a green quart and many have born what kind of boring Red Reading where's
red green bar here right here red-green and a few like you could draw that were meet notation borrowed notation is just a bookkeeping device really adherents useful here nearly years from the think of the rent is going room and a green also was going through except for Web the Green Line all current becomes an can't by Green an array of a that it is if the red just when rule and the green annihilated agreeing that's the basic vertex of quantum chromodynamics not just 1 minute 9 of them are actually 8 but about about the Cavaliers quirk goes toward our kind of quark and gone is e-mail but if a red quark goes to a red quark man if Red red bar Rick or coastal blue quark move bottom and so forth sort that rest as a set of basic Berger basic phenomenon or be basic primitive building block of quantum chrome or by Yukon Gold also took all of sorry that half that's 1 of the building blocks there is another building block it is therefore quantum electrodynamics as I said photons don't interact with each other in particular buff all time he had he made a formal plan and another 4 electronic therefore electron photons me photon so photons don't interact with each other In anyway except In materials he yacht club the laws of the not later than it is now how war about as boss will lose would not changed those long that is the only way in which qualms remitted but there is something new war makes quantum Cromwell dynamics 1st of all far more complicated and far more interesting West they will want more usable on Merck's regrets that who want to be a hour but Ray Mubarak Qantas the Red Bull bar Gordon now can this happen numbers show you something maybe yes is really part of Hong Kong with Memorex maybe it's not too surprising once I draw this is not really a court purchased graduates of fictitious quark making warm I fictitious quarrel goes off for Crawford's of fictitious quark you'd better not really go off but will feel more what happened and the barkeep skyward but if these really work works a quirk and work form what kind of work and what would you like to put Green BuSpar green there Green going this way and this will be an going this way and this would be ready red goes through boom ba goes through with green becomes by green going that way for what I have now now we have a basic work which warrants come together but With drove on as wavy lines similar throughout the photon we now have a variety trucks which AU ready Mubarak becoming a red green bar and a green Mubarak will really have to remember what combination of possible only have to do is figure out which diagrams weakened drawn where all of the lines ghosts rule without being interrupted you could figure out what the various Our couplings or the various possible fundamental by all are connect finger who this is a new thing where it means is that glow arms interact with each other gone exert forces on warns in a way that would be unthinkable for photon photons cannot exchange for cars between them can exchange corn between them so that's come the gone behaves in a way which is perform most of which is work for farmers it can be exchanged is a diagram will you it's easy to draw diagrams where quark interact with each other on our tour draw yards short a diagram in which an intact court interacts work or right a bull
bars and work e-mail a will bar Green gone can't is green and now we really will want to read we're sorry received this would be a green bar this would be a blow green Marvel 1 his Green bar it is lower but let's say the moon goes right through artifact where we have here we have here now and exchangeable gone between of Warren a will making green Moran agreed but a kind of forest between them quirks that creates a force between quirks in very much the same way photons exchanged between electrons Greek forces are you might wanna make course between a blue Barham Boulevard supposing we wanted between a bull a blow make this will bar here I so we can make all sorts of forces is worrying for mouth wasn't between glorify war we have to do to this diagram as an Adamec to lined with what I have this originally laboratory robot the grim Bob here Green of most but not all Weiner's here islamic work now it's really going to be representing and this 1 works ready race goes right through but 1st of all I know he and earn a worker fair warned the beer because of that would be Mubarak warned this is now a diagram which represents the exchange of 1 between 2 walk this is really something new is something very very different and elected mix was a lead till it leaves the forces between glory quarks combined together I because of the exchange of blue ones and make a jarring but cool on combined together and make objects their objects In quantum Collymore dynamics which contains no quarks there are no found objects to balanced states composite objects in quantum electrodynamics just made about a photon the objects which is made up of corn how they happen they happen to be quashed wines can exchange glory factor for the good the of songwriters this by saying the force due to the exchange of Who Wants between are this would also mean for example that if you have 2 waves of cool one's going past each other they would interact with each other they would perform each other we will just go through each other just like electromagnetic waves in fact even if you have a single on ways moving along with different parts it would exert forces from each other and cause it to perform or do whatever might do strong the watchword is the dynamics of Gulu 1 9 9 0 9 there is a you just have to make sure the lions follow-through diagram Arteaga appeared on Westwood this that's what they're following lines it where value of a strong America I was very this to be green Va the should be green bottle green green now the is followed line or it turns around the time like that change Olympic and that's basically the only rule Hong Kong were members of a R interactions between quarks and glory there they have satisfy these caught fire line rule I'm an air-raid Thaksin between norms warned may also follow the line rule and a follow up to where father he pours part are really varsity bar that the other wears is we that were closes and the peres draws Murdoch said that as a matter of how a place on a guy have
blew a bar over here Red if I remember Crowley number Ray goes through it it stays red borrows over here and turned
around this must be bloom this Warner was will bars as mere Horgan a new quarter will bar straight through here and now we have our choice opera or so I figure with green going this way Green green green bar green goes right to a diagram OK now makes sense everyone is go straight through Red go straight that way but Boulevard goes great Lewis Wang Robert prepare a rib away case that our goal was to be a year not gone always property or for out will not fax a man regard calm to work meaning of the Mayer suburb quirk Irma ah yes they amassed 1st arms in a technical special up right now special sensors would quit right right now I'll give you an example where Carmona study this theory 1 what 1 more week talk about confinement of quarks talk about structure hate drives so 4th are but are just tell you and what kind of quark or glory does or does not have a mail or does or does not have the mess that we ascribe to it so imagined that I have object of mass and small object of a small object of mass and as patch to it an 80 hour out 1 of his whatever you want to be some sort or with goalies off the busy chewing gum our dangles offer are moved this object if I'm told the object with a very small force the 4th being so small that it doesn't perform the acceleration so slow that the whole thing moves off together but what kind of mess of the yesterday that has amassed Our whatever you put here class mass a of while chewing on the debate over thinking now purely nonrelativistic weighs just to give you a now on the other hand supposing I shake this thing with very high frequency and I are wire the properties of the motion of video of a quarrel over here when been subjected to a very very high frequency force of some sort what kind of masses have over here just a mess of subject all right for the rest of it doesn't have a kind of pill or who would just be the forces adjust still my maybe this is our we've all right but the very rapid oscillation here the response of the end he would be the response of an object of mass follows 1 of the last of it is that the mass of the sun on members of the mass of the thing the answers ill-defined the answer depends on the frequency of the force where you were you will exert on messes of objects are frequency dependent why are you in this since we have a massive this object we observe massive it showed that it would respond with would depend on the frequency of emotion in the same sense the mass of quirk news frequency dependence you shake a quarter some kind of object inside a hate 3 of them and a bunch of mushy glow stuff and a mail holding them together if want to try the move required by itself Barbara fewer try to move the quirk slowly if you grab the whole war could you could do so and you move they varies slowly the Hall of Fame would drag along and what would be the math or Matthew
experience Mass which amassed proton witches 930 something rose while about if you want to air exert a very high frequency for well Hollywood movie and so would be we normally called the mass of the quark masses 5 retain no immunity for an upper bound upper for about a quarter of the Nassau Court was subjected to a very high frequency or a limits he very hard in China see how it flies off dragging this stop behind me and Nichelle impulse that gets me in this velocity the goes off with will be sensitive we want value of a mass on the other hand if you had very slowly with a very gentle low-frequency for the whole thing would fill the concept of what is the Court is somewhat ambiguous are meant to keep the discussions simple but say myth that we usually ascribed to 4 per quarter high-frequency response analogous Tour massive and those who want to that not not really this is a completely climb in this case is a completely classical phenomena are met by your have very small little not at the end of a year with something or other you shake it very rapidly accelerates with 1 kind of acceleration accelerator with low-frequency sort it out classical drama now have to do what we did he let yacht yes yes yes West that's exactly right nor lesson is that parameters that we describe particles where are dependent on frequencies and wavelengths of these interactions with they the called run even tho it is time for both thus we have to sort out exactly what we mean by charger court reverses progress where is one-third the charger of prep time yes you're right we do after defined a carefully and that's our whole story were not what we call a mail order as he works to rest ahead not back at talk about rear bats next right my yacht is but a few what more so class battle charges but we are headed for a free this small talk that the current are you cable now while it was I have close number of closed are but by the time I came in physics the idea of quirk who've already established by thanking I will I was a graduate student in 1963 when Marine Martin announced the idea of quarter and I do know how we came to it are their work or was a roar of crews your lot close but they also a lot of inconsistency so it was a pattern our suggestion suggestive back together with apparent inconsistencies such as video violation of Lebanese and there was another factor which was very peculiar other back from the next time you have to do with the fact that quirks are never produced nor laboratory that always permanently confined inside protons neutrons mayors on our was another factor and the it was a 1 person who put together the whole variety of people thing together man will have the right idea Romero asserts please you have the right idea the whole thing up for together and your mail them Place the whole structure words are together over May woes was 80 uh all of our problems for us all to year yard burst there is a gnawing electrons now just like inclined electoral court really have to put together where to put them together into some coherence in which our core of electrons and photons abroad where formed 1 bigger structure some Ullrich has donned somber has not been now it is a process are high story always works were you isolate you know you are you the White House and then you have to put altogether OK God for more
please visit us at stanford died EDU
Magnetisches Dipolmoment
Satz <Drucktechnik>
Konzentrator <Nachrichtentechnik>
Angeregtes Atom
Knüppel <Halbzeug>
Matrize <Drucktechnik>
Natürliche Radioaktivität
Coulombsches Gesetz
Masse <Physik>
Optische Kohärenz
Relativistische Mechanik
Negativer Widerstand
Quark <Physik>
Kette <Zugmittel>
Optische Dichte
Elektromagnetische Welle
Absolute Datierung
Spieltisch <Möbel>
Scheinbare Helligkeit
Source <Elektronik>
Closed Loop Identification
A6M Zero-Sen
Elektronisches Bauelement
Rotierender Radiotransient
Maßstab <Messtechnik>
ISO <Astronomie>
Elektrische Entladung
Elektrische Ladung
Gedeckter Güterwagen
Digitales Fernsehen
Diesellokomotive Baureihe 219
Starke Wechselwirkung
Klassische Elektronentheorie
B 52
Direkte Messung
Glorie <Optik>
Mark <Maßeinheit>
Brennpunkt <Optik>
Maxwellsche Theorie


Formale Metadaten

Titel New Revolutions in Particle Physics: Standard Model | Lecture 2
Serientitel Lecture Collection | Particle Physics: Standard Model
Teil 2
Anzahl der Teile 10
Autor Susskind, Leonard
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 3.0 Deutschland:
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DOI 10.5446/15087
Herausgeber Stanford University
Erscheinungsjahr 2010
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Physik
Abstract (January 18, 2010) Professor Leonard Susskind discusses quantum chromodynamics, the theory of quarks, gluons, and hadrons.

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