New Revolutions in Particle Physics: Basic Concepts | Lecture 1

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New Revolutions in Particle Physics: Basic Concepts | Lecture 1
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(October 12, 2009) Leonard Susskind gives the first lecture of a three-quarter sequence of courses that will explore the new revolutions in particle physics. In this lecture he explores light, particles and quantum field theory.
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Measurement White Two-way radio Cosmic distance ladder Light Weather front Finger protocol Fulling Audio frequency Wavelength Interference (wave propagation) Fahrgeschwindigkeit Chain Steckverbinder Orbital period Measurement Elementary particle Speed of sound Microwave
Theory of relativity Pump Negativer Widerstand Light Ultraviolett B Group delay and phase delay Bird vocalization Pattern (sewing) Wavelength Elementary particle Atmosphere of Earth Cylinder block Hull (watercraft) Ground station Command-line interface FACTS (newspaper) Buckelschweißen Cartridge (firearms) Narrow gauge railway Measurement Dimmer Book design Screen printing Microwave Hot working Speed of light Year Measurement Crystal structure Infrared Basis (linear algebra) Zeitdiskretes Signal Buoy tender Alcohol proof Bahnelement Orbital period Steckverbinder Radiation Gamma ray Fundamental frequency Backpack Radio spectrum Two-way radio White Electromagnetic radiation Finger protocol Metre Black hole Audio frequency Microwave Angle of attack Interference (wave propagation) X-ray Plant (control theory) Opacity (optics) Hour RRS Discovery Semi-trailer truck
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show was particle physics about particle physics is about particles Gates a bank the question and this is a a very ancient questioned at least I suspect about 20 500 years all of nature this discreet me the same of polite but rather that matter substances and energy and think about energy but thought about matters that matter columns in discrete units and indivisible are you events which of course the Greeks called Adam told the word Adams means indivisible despite the fact of course we break up Adams or crime nevertheless that was the year of origin of the word indivisible that all things the universe are made up Our our something discrete let's call them particles particles as a good name for some screen something indivisible that idea over said extremely ancient composed of idea it is also ancient began I don't know precisely where was 1st formulated happened remember a little more about the history of the atomic idea that I was workers incidentally not trust my history not because I don't know the history but sometimes How history in which show which I organize things logically wrath rather than Kemper already so don't just prime sequence I have you it often represents what I wish the sequence was what actually wants but the it's good for me presentable logical what happened the presented a logically compelling way reverie stricter star forward it is a case Our lure these characters cool worthy Adonis and we can't be opposite of them the people who thought that matter material and so forth was continuously distributed continuously distributed means simply not made up of discrete elements but unauthorized were uniformly continuous is the right way right were schmear migrant workers the we're smeared out or space and some uniform continuous crime away only might call back the field theory of matter fields what Orfeo fields are functions and space for example they could be the density of material our you know in a given region of space they could be electric and magnetic fields those are good examples electric and magnetic fields that are charged particles more provocative fields themselves electric and magnetic fields of things a we conceive our as being uniformly distributed space not done on a formal particles and so perhaps manner liquids solids and so forth are also in some sense continuous just like electromagnetic field that was the opposite idea off b particle idea the discrete idea have words like molecules patterns and so forth collisions and particles continuum idea continual was right were the continuum idea words like field attached to it continuous fields of properties of various kinds which turned out to be right in some sense neither involved some since neither and both turned out to be right the subtleties of quantum mechanics got in the way all either of them being completely right but also got away either of them being completely wall that can a supple and difficult subject our as are many of the preliminaries a particle physics I think I have called or by now several times and they do exist on the Internet the Internet tho lectures about given around them and party advise you are there so I will try to keep its self-contained but I am going to assume some extend the knowledge that I have worked previews clusters can be picked up off the internet very easily our I don't how do I could do it for a lot of actors have lectures but everybody else do it and were grow our real reasons like looking at myself so I never I never do my own lectures but they're out there and early complete their release 2 courses out there on quantum mechanics 1 on classical lover mechanics at least 1 on special theory of relativity and electromagnetism survived but that effort in we are now going to try are drawn after they but in the future you lose many of the things you have lectures Bob OK our as I said the particle physics question is whether nature is discreet on let's just go a little bit of history which I will probably give wrong but chronologically to my knowledge the 1st real evidence again to my knowledge the 1st real evidence that mattered was discreet came of course from chemistry and income from physics came from chemistry the division between chemistry and physics is a highly artificial chemistry simply
just be basically the physics of atoms molecules but does it came from the chemist those were John John Bolton Jonathan Trumbull altering who realized that the masses Our can calls the mass of a given number of molecules given number of marchers how he knew that he was you a given number of molecules might be talking on the 1 hand the hydrogen ever hand of our carbon backside of something how he knew it was a given number of molecules itself a story of regard rose name comes in it so for the word mold not creature was on the ground but you yeah our Moeller's I got a number of molecules how they knew or how many molecule government remark was having no had compare different substances and both of them have the the same number molecules that itself was interesting story but story tells the story I want Cal had to do with the Mets are a more material a mess of a given number off guard a number of molecules that it came in discrete multiples on a mass I'm a of hydrogen no not exactly Poquoson off to a pretty good precision of a Mass mold of garb Movie Group is Eddie 8 journey multiple not 3 not 3 heads not hide a somewhat pursuing number but some integer times mass Of the number of molecules of hydrogen as oil suggested the pulp and that they were building blocks that about carbon was accommodate carbon 12 carbon 12 had Wells Yulia of whatever part hydrogen 1 add hydrogen was 1 staff where staff was carbon while the whatever whatever numbers were so it seemed like things are being built up basic units with basically have the same Mass as a hydrogen atoms almost as tho everything was made up of units of hydrogen aug Dalton I think proposed something like that that they were basic units basic units have amassed rough whereby hydrogen atoms so that was the 1st new evidence and of course this was essentially right today we understand just OUY from from today's perspective Africa mystery out our everything is made out of Adams and Adams are made of protons neutrons and electrons electrons are very very white compared to protons and neutrons counting up the massive Adam electrons and Ivory signature electron has about a massive 1 2000 not wanting to be I want thousand 1 through thousands of mass of a proton neutron Sewell electrons don't come into the equation no-bid comedy equation but only a very small firms forget about protons and neutrons constitute most of the mass almost all of the mass of ordinary materials million protons and neutrons surprisingly there's no way reserve good reason for it but there were prepared for time was certainly no No reason effect for pars of neutrons warned don't bother protons and neutrons have about the same as each other said about 2 thousand times of mayors from electronic and so the man's molecule is basically the mass of protons neutrons they have about the same mass and therefore the mess of a molecule is an integer multiple of a man's a report from trial on the other hand hydrogen the nucleus of hydrogen is just 1 proton and so it did turn out that Bolton was right all materials having which is approximately was an approximation protons and neutrons don't have quite the same slightly different less than a percentage 3 of the 4 % story off whereas electrons are so light don't commit to it very much absorb open was right there was a 1st the minority the 1st real evidence that matters came in discrete units now molecules patterns of course took a little while longer the find out of molecules were made up out of Adams and the Adams just protons and neutrons a hydrogen that Adams themselves the things we now call Adams that your about a hundred out from a hundred different kinds of course a great triumph chemistry of the 19th century and early 20th century to identify all of the elements go in the periodic table instead of the periodic table was not very pericardiaca tha he really look at it it's it's a bit of fake what's numbered Korea are off but nevertheless I did a fine separate Adams the elements the elements on some things which are composed are all the same car you know story bear paws of Adams identifying the Adams and the end of the identification of Adams roughly about a hundred of them less 100 hours car nature our 92 would be precise while more dramatic include ice ropes spot broader a 100 different kinds of Adams and everything made up out of
Adams Adams was at the end of the 19th century things we call Adams or elements were building blocks elementary particles of nature the gossip that another 5 years after the turn of the century finds starting to do something nailed really really nailed a molecular theory of matter it wasn't until 1905 that I started to explain in detail how are you could prove that matter was really particles but there are long before that chemists physicists are for most part that firm that everything was made out of his 92 elements so they were the elementary particles now some all hell broke loose in the beginning of the 20th century very very end of the 19th century when some discoveries were made the electron was discovered after 3 years I think before a turn-of-the-century refractory ores electron was discovered a number of other things were discovered a particular radioactivity was discovered radioactivity was the 1st reel off single off figure which was later be calm nuclear physics and nuclear physics particle physics and all things that needed to be explained so there what indicators so teII kind you version so only just remind you about radioactivity justified boss who was discovered radioactivity member and as Marie Curie who discovered radioactivity thinks I was or else it was Pepperell we are still married to a jury was she did woes a lot somewhat experiments there were great but was was said he had a chuckle away don't ask me why he did it so I do not know we have a chunk of Web Warhol image Web white back and some material down here radio actor I guess the 1st thing that happened was he had some radioactive material presumably radium or something like it in his laboratory and a half photographic plate accidentally the photographic plate happened to be near Our material Mafia here aerial photographic plates and a photographic plate that ruling by a ruling by the presence of the radioactive material radioactive materials are just ruined Europe was like a light shining on room for a record like anybody else are not anybody else probably me you would just thrown over the right of the plate offices Ron was part of a play stop experiment over again but Pepperell realize he discovered something here discovered that radioactive materials do something of a photographic plate as if they had been eliminated by some of our radiation so I decided to study that radiation that and he put the source of it deepen a block of led how you use let her know what led was a good substance because very gates and put it in a hole drilled and led the was photographic played out here and abroad I wanted to see whether it would eliminate a single spot always here everything was complicated by this whole he wanted to see whether words or create a sharp will spot as if something more common about hauled and indeed it they had solved he got the idea of Eden of some sort was being ejected or something was being rejected by radioactive material and b column May the honor of being that was a 1st particle beam was a 1st beam of particles out while what did he had no idea where workers but then I guess a 2nd work accident people's an excellent begin making up the history war closed off yet Mad River laboratory and for some reason the magnet was in the position here were a magnetic field was created me away these particles were would be ejected what happened when he put the magnetic field but the magnet nearest is being Split in read separate beams 3 separate beings 1 went straight ahead just arrows if you have a magnetic field was not 1 of the deviated left 1 of them that deviated from right left right right where for 1 even more than the other in fact Asymetrix the Vaccarello or somebody who whoever was around new enough to realize that beams particles trajectories of particles gave made by magnetic force you to have a magnet and you have a charged particle charged particle goes through the magnetic field and either bands of a right or the left depending on the size of the magnetic field and the charge of a particle other particles of positively charged particle it would be 1 way of magnetic field of was negatively charged particle it would be the other way magnetic field I want back RLF plan that it 3 kinds of radiation 1 behaving as if it was composed of electrically neutral particles which 1 was electrically neutral the 1 that wasn't deviated at because you know although particles always knew was column made effect happened that illuminated the Yom the our sector of the screen you have before a graphic plays 1 of them that deviated from our right as if it were a key negatively charged particles he called lack component of the radiation call component data the component that went straight ahead he called gamma component that he needed me or other direction as if a war positively charged recalled how far these became a 3 distinct kinds of radioactive wrong the effects of 3 distinct kinds of radioactivity beta radioactivity gamma d'amore and how fraught just forget just making suspense to Europe Mr. what they want you probably know what they were mostly what many of you know what they were beta was electron negatively charged particles our which were just electron said already had been previously discovered cathode ray tubes and that kind of thing electrons coming out of the alpha alpha-particles we now understand that time there was no precedent for it but they are helium nuclei 2 protons and 2 neutrons stuck together atomic number for our Baltimore were heavy and had access to helium which he didn't you would helium was number 4 a new Zorro and is an integer collection of materials and gamma are photons electrically neutral nor electricity or and they are these 3 cards right now trauma I think he did it again I remember history but he might have had a sufficiently by load source that these particles arrived at 1 of its time at their destination like case you would not have seen it a bright spot over here you would have seen grip but but but illumination crying more spots of Carling discreet little spots occurring for electron remind us that all those of particles particles arriving 1 kind illuminating the screen discreetly you would have done exactly the same thing for the alpha particles you would have found the alpha-particles drive 1 of a kind nobody could have used that they probably did you the screen here as a counter analogous to a Geiger counter or something where did or not I don't know about you but it's something you could imagine that he he had the particles from 1 of a kind that would certainly be feasible with the Geiger counter and evidence that whatever this radiation is it's coming discreet little bundles but would call partner what about cannot say they forget Damariscotta 1 of a kind but at that time Vaccaro had no idea knew that anybody else are what gamma wars are
charged that was or was not to illuminated Our the screen just as the others look at that was as I said in the some since the 1st particle physics experiment will Campos later particle physics experiments enough I outlets next talks about electromagnetic radiation ordinary electromagnetic radiation all while I said I was going to make suspends Gamma as far apart gamut is White gamut who Srihari you right with gamma it is in some way connected ordinary white so tantalite Gallo was a big mystery because there were no neutral particles known that turned back there could account for for gamma radiation is again was a mystery that mystery persisted on Ontario fairly a fairly late in the very early said 20th century wrote that were fairly late very early 20th century are was of course plot in styrene really stars who were the 1st ones the stood on stairs River White columns In quanta white comes in for farms were what's go back life was sort of be strong strong case for something which was not made of particles like was something which was clearly made of was made of the electromagnetic field electromagnetic field electric fields and magnetic fields forming waves when you shake a charge waves give given off the wave fields are continuous wave fields at least according to a classical electrodynamics they give off waves that propagate through space completely continuously and uh no of course talk of white woes Our was particles but not by that time had been completely relegated to the bus in the least as the theory of light wine your experiments some of them my nose himself that strongly said like his way you might not particles so let's just talk about lighter little bit electromagnetic radiation take electromagnetic radiation comes in waves soft as a source of electromagnetic radiation and can some form of antenna emitting radio waves could be microwaves it could be infrared could be light could be ultraviolet and Adam is a perfectly good antenna and that doesn't have to to be a big macroscopic power and Adam would be charged going around the circle is an antenna contenders amid waves and I electromagnetic waves when they also fall a photographic plate or other device which is sensitive polite to radiation will eliminate that about ruminate back and Turner white or black black against and the character of white how we know that these things are waivers are point but there were also not bullets shot our shrug the Saucier salt 1 thing you might restore there is something very similar to what was here put structure who hold and see whether White is column mated exactly use if Warren bullets being shot I've here with bullets to ruminate spot cost what happens is that you don't illuminate such a small spot you eliminate something which is fuzzy that you only get a funny oppose you region but that itself did not approve light was weighed not all you could say well just maybe when these particles go through this opening here maybe they have little forces exerted are by the edges of the hall here or whatever which reflect summer and it reflected and so maybe you get more so picture smearing image you might hope for solo was not just that these got deflected a white beans got deflected that itself was not enough to argue Ferrer for particle structure for white or Osorio waved structure quiet but you do something else which is much more sensitive to the wave character write your visit as a screen or here again your butt off totals pool halls next to each other it White was simply particles would you would expect a fine here basically to smear same Carrene just superimposed on top of each other maybe a little extra days a center where they overlap but just through smears won the image of this whole won the image of Apple with nothing unusual was of course is not what happens or happens is each halt amid waves you could this same trek with water waves that are hard centric waterways and water waves this is the high point of a wave coming out of here and his Vermont point ways of places where the high points commodities from 2 walls reinforce each other places were a high point from 1 whole meets a low point from the other Hall cancel each other so the effect is to see whether hits the screen he pursued ban bands of positive reinforcement wary high points a shit missing places with no light where the high points meet low points as an interference pattern interference pattern as a real signal waved white emotional wave behavior ways you could do this as a civil war you just to procure a finger in the water and wiggle 2 fingers and 2 waves toward you will spread out some places reinforced some places canceled and so rather peculiar way but not nothing terribly unusual are places which were would've been eliminated by either of the 2 laws by themselves as destructive interference get canceled and places you get constructive interference you get extra intensity that as the kind of thing this interference property was kind of thing that really nailed wave theory of life so I was a way of fact but this did not occur after you really occurred before Newton Hoggins Hoggins were always very 17 a 17th century point the boss the 17th century but previous 2 million all young yup yeah but the bar's volumes already have the basic ideas of waived propagation and that's from the 16 hundreds of arms this debate went back and Norton had done many experiments himself which should have been interpreted as were as interference occurs interference were you interference but did it in any case after these experiments Young's experiment bothers woes definitely confronted with rap White is made Our waves appear what kind of waves while Maxwell Maxwell realized that they were waves of electric and magnetic field in on electric and magnetic field is an electric field while I'm worker out on all electric and magnetic fields analyte a weedy motion of electric and magnetic fields all-white is a way of ending future wave moving down the axis or that waiver wave is a waiver of electric field theory electric field was pointing back where refuse pointing up electric fields pointing balance line through here alternating electric field up down up down at all things more was off with the speed of light of off the speed of light electric field incidentally is also on magnetic field attached to to the thing complicated the object as magnetic field also the magnetic field is perpendicular to the electric field the comment sticks out this way as far lightwave would look like if you could see sample with electric and magnetic field was Pascual courses of passes you constantly alternate very
rapidly of of ordinary life where much too rapidly be but if foreign extremely long radio wave very very long radio waves you might be able to see the field oscillating in front of you and services as a server would look like it's a wave being a waiver will exhibit interference patterns Maxwell have absolutely may also be wave and electromagnetic theory of white so let's talk about waves a little bit before we Our before we talk about particles the Bookaloo more waves and the properties where the 1st property of a wave that God is not waver white wavelength is simply dissidents along the way before you return before you returned 1 full cycle of Annex ways spot here and you go and you come back from receive exactly the fingers over here that's 1 cycle all 1 wave white and life for symbol for Waverly Islam Greek Alam Land only a story right and the measured in other units of distance measures meter is measured in centimeters review choice of units are off they saw when the Eagles were a great way way other property is if you want still and is what's the way law past you ahead go up and down up and down up and down your Hassan frequency harmony cycles per 2nd this is not the link of the wave in space it's kind of a number of cycles per 2nd or perhaps even something simpler kind but it takes to go through 1 cycle as it passes you that recalled the period of the waiver period of time is measures sectors our end a light wave has a very very short Korea up and down up and down extremely fast and my 15th 2nd on whatever the longer wavelength slower period the shorter wavelength beyond the faster the short short away from her look what's the connection between Waverly period right so I think about the way we passed you 1 vying for how long the how far does it moved its move distance slander how long it taking a stake in Korea the distance that removes abided by the time it takes from that this is the velocity of away from a light that would be the speed of light it is not wave might be moving with different speed the toward wave would be much smaller speed of sound waves of small speed but for wave the wavelength divided by the Korean is always equal to the speed of light whatever wavelength
period is given in terms of a right away In terms of her that's a
fundamental relations that usually expressed a different way the inverse of the period 1 over the period is called the frequency and the number of waves the number of oscillations per 2nd beyond number of oscillations per unit time is called the frequency and that's equal to 1 or the parrot fast period shorter frequency and also right as the Lane crimes the frequency is equal to the speed of light so I give you away you good from the frequency of I give you a frequency you could come in the way of solving this equation
fundamental connection between wavelength Russia is 1 of the things I really don't want to teach you a little bit is the terminology a physicist used for and they tend not to use the terminology of cycles per 2nd for frequency use something else it's radiance precise was Avenue a Magill thing going around a circle it's going around the circle but where frequency f that means death times around the circle per 2nd this is tender use resist and mathematicians and views not the number of times you go around a 2nd but the number of radio radios about 57 degrees angle about that big harmony radiance purse on the relationship between the frequency in of cycles per 2nd and the frequency in radiance per 2nd is very simple terms of radios Pesek and we call all maker for mayor and then it closely connected to each other or maybe it was just Tour Pyay plans frequency White took 5 because too party radiant circle so are frequent sickening measures evil way physicist tend to use Omega except when they're writing elementary physics books undergraduate pre-med majors in which case they lose half an hour were physicists were all grown up all so we can use Omega like go the world of physics from a guy is the frequency Of the white measured not in cycles per 2nd but radiance 2nd you say Where is the angle from white we're going already anger was just provide frequency would multiply frequented by 2 party and that there the plans on a proportional which so we can also write this and as are behind but try persuade frequency on arrived frequency is equal to see provided by where that now are a subset for frequency omega provided by 2 pine growing yet we get all maker is equal to what see all that fundamental equation wave motion that the frequency measuring radio and be wavelength a related by Tupaiidae harms a speed of light is of course is draw for any waiver to plug in the right of Austria they will use that equation from prime prime get them back as a like comes in different wavelengths laws differ wavelengths characterized the different kinds of radiation and radio waves a very long wavelengths meters or should be more than that so more than you are a microscopic or its radio waves could be anything from white few centimeters through our and centimeters of rather remember exactly where the radio spectrum begins now I have got any arbitrarily long wavelengths recalls radio waves you know no radio could work gardener on the basis of waves of wavelength of a billion light years but still still call radio waves with small what's Moss radio wave I think about a pack smoke and is a highly arbitrary division of course completely arbitrary what small radio waves more wavelength microwaves microwaves goal from a few centimeters down through work crime gravitas micron lust small wave wave and microwaves infrared infrared waves from infrared waves you have light waves visible light visible light is a rather narrow range of frequencies over wavelengths and columns of ultraviolet shorter wavelengths X-rays and gamma rays gamma rays just exactly these objects very very short wavelength extremely short would throw radiation and that's what our discovered coming out of air nor Troy was the Vaccarello discovered discrete pumps your discrete blips 1 of a kind and rough rice continuous wait years OK that it brings us go the puzzle of quantum mechanics now when I got to go into with many great depth certain are tonight Bob let's just recount history of better Einstein and plant realized for a variety of reasons mostly thermodynamic properties of white that are you start light I had to be thought of as being made up of discrete indivisible elements Owyhee might have it might have been an experimental discovery in fact in some sense that Corrales discovery was Rivera experimental discover it's just he didn't realize thing he was seen was electromagnetic radiation so I won't go through the actual history but let's make up the imaginary history of how the discreteness of white might have been discovered group this way again shiny alike farmer show on screen In your lawmaker screen and of course with you see is a nice continuous blob of white it could either be an interference pattern or it could just be a single hole in which case would just be be a blob on the screen but I the experiment differently he is resource of white you put up structure and the way obstructions of as a filter which option is promoter Young a semitransparent semi opaque playing with blocks our a certain percentage of OIT what happens over here hero blob dimmer tents you'll make it sector Western parents use U.S. light arriving for a unit of time and you make it even a little bit sector and at some point all of a sudden character awards here changes and instead of seeing a Bob you see on the screen you go through with your way along time these will blips buildup and they build up the something which has exactly the same pattern as the blob so blob in this case there is some sort of a fact that has to do with lots of little but somberly little blips that you can't recognize and being individual Bob but if you were 10 you wait for white and
cut down so that they can't coming through here is really really small what used to be but this experiment can actually be done and it was not done in those early days but you can imagine and this is what Einstein had suggested really does happen in his photoelectric about a light comes through an absolutely discreet being the mother a chauffeur was was thermodynamics number things but this might have been the form of discovery discovering these individual blips on screen and this is what really would have something very very confusing or White away if proven the fact here 40 put a screen over here with total haul Zurich pool we will again see a light coming 0 bit by bit One at car if we leave it up there a long time the foresaw a fill-in nor are they will form is interference pattern so it became clear that the ahead clearer but still very confused about life is made up of indivisible elements score for and that's the way he character of rely really represents over wave pattern really represents the probability of a photon appears at different places of the world as randomly arriving blips but they arrive with a probability in different locations which follows the pattern that was established by sea wave theory the wave theory gives you a wave theory of probabilities as climate we may have to talk of our we will have to cover requirement character Greek Gilmore shot this kind of experiment is kind of observation about life was the 1st example of a connection which is really in a sense workers courses or about connection 1st of all between waves of any car and particles D'Amato different things from our waves and particles are 2 manifestations of the city's after combat that Trevor explained perhaps again later now I'm just throwing in some early relief facts shot mostly just to set the the stage for waves and particles at least 20 Kinkel light or that was somehow intimately connected and makes sense to say light as a particle board didn't make sense to say a wave our broad has manifestations of at the situation only got more complicated when electrons was studied electrons are clearly particles everybody knows electrons of particles who was no ambiguity about that no more ambiguity the new was about whether White was a wave walk but yet something funny well something funny also happened electron you could do exactly the same kind of experiment with electrons as you can this experiment can really be done are at times was a bit of a thought experiment but equivalent experiment you have to put a halt ethnic screen you put a hold much closer to to each other a few warm duel of electrons warned Reasoner you send electrons of costs they come through time everybody eel electrons particles came through 1 of the Cotton was probably unexpected is all were expected was that electrons when you open tool holes former interference pattern straw it wasn't just that light was fine particles fighting in general off electrons exhibited wave properties light exert exhibited particle properties in fact had taken the alpha particles which are much heavier than electrons much much heavier France 8 thousand pounds heavier than electron much harder to do is kind of experiments with but send them to pool halls like back we also would see interference patterns this is being done with objects which are much much bigger than helium nuclei buckyballs buckyballs through were our interference experiments and seen form the same kind of interference pattern so often remain blocking Borland 60 Congress career as a 60 year EEA instead of a generalized soccer ball gown right hours is regulators regular cycle ball 6 yard perceptible not satisfy really a soccer ball Seoul and is widely believed that they would bowling balls where you can't really go bowling balls March too understand the people of it buckyballs tried do with living cells viruses the viruses are quite a mechanical the act of virus what the virus folks were February what God the waves and particles are somehow the same many of you wanna penetrate that more deeply our corner Khammixay quite do it to disarm the right lectures which cost anything the army Internet OK that's now let's talk about the properties of 4 times a little protons armies discrete indivisible elements of light White has energy if your absorb sunlight if he'd things obviously has energy so that photons averaging were we know about the energy of a photon photons being indivisible we know the energy must come and very discreet back was a photon characterized by while lightweight imagine a lightwave Canadian composed of these discrete photons nonfat pictures and possible picture where White actually falls on a screen forms easily not stored particles made a particles but we see some away from our mama associated with the wave phenomena is associated with a wavelength and therefore a frequency and angular frequency we discover that bad light waves made up out of discrete units each with an
indivisible bit of energy cannot be subdivided the energy of 1 the energy of every single photon it is like being given wavelength a given frequency is given by our number called age Ma plants can't stand 1 0 points minicar or or clerks from good H borrow you can't use all maker another word or maybe it is large when the link the short the shorter away with a lot of the frequencies Roger frequency of a sort of the way when the larger of energy and every 4 John Rose Lester sure wavelength 4 kinds water energy long wavelength individual for prawns have Peru energy bill cost 80 radio wave could carry on a huge amount of energy was not questioned you could make radio waves with lots and lots of energy How do you make way radio waves with lots of energy you piled lots of all time is up many many fault Torrence all With the same wavelength from the same frequency but there is something of a last some remnant of the discrete namely the energy of such a waiver is always an integer multiple the energy of a fraud trial the energy Ave a light gray Bucher scorer or white is some integer number integer multiples of age from chrysolite ways can't indivisible every light gray every lie with with every pulse of light With a given frequency and there are wave number wave wave as an integer multiple of energy units Our each much of this is important equation this equation of absolutes central importance for understanding why particle physics is the way particular it's very very central to the question of why we have the bill giant machines to see small small objects are my grandson records of market researchers already asked me 1 day how calm you have no bigger and bigger machines seize more and more of the hangings Wileyville small machines the sooner I giant questions but this is a central fact that the energy is proportional to the frequency from a photo of a of a single four-part on our would through waves and particles photons beamed carrying discrete units of energy convoy another set of concepts now Mrs. when I was certainly not abandoning this warned authority barred there's another warrant thought that I want to remind you of mostly remind you were not quantum mechanics of a special theory of relativity special theory of relativity plays a very important role in particle physics particle physics is in a sense relativistic quantum mechanics the combination wrote Caribbean clonic X and so let me just remind you 1 particular simple fact and then be clear about what that fact means most famous equation affairs equals M C squared this equation also right a very important role in the reason for our in explaining why particle physics is the way areas and use M C squared with just be very clear about what it means are in the early days of relativity people spoke Of the rest mass or objects and the moving massive amount of molding menace and the rest of us were different rests on object was minimal where was standing still wanted more massive increases you still Oui back in elementary physics textbooks but you never read it in any hour nearly work of modern physics you never read a on object depends on state of motion Eds largely a change in language the change in languages such that what we now call match is what used to be called rest period when I referred mess of an object I'm talking about rest although electrons have exactly the same rest or electrons have exactly the same man period if you look up the masses of particles a year a North table of the masses and so forth you will not find them call the rest master will just disqualify called so from now on we will never speak about the rest mass will speak about the mass of the electron as a number of experimental physicist measures great detail every electron has exactly the same as the river rely on the mass is not something which depends on state of motion but of course the energy is something which the depends on of motion fast electron moves the more Connecticut edgy there's still something wrong with this equation yes this something wrong with this equation this equation is no longer a you know it's the most famous equation in physics it's not the right equation at least with modern terminology energy is only equal amassed Times Square for an object at rest the right way to say is energy of an object at rest if they object has no net motion Joe it could be a complicated object with all sorts of internal motions but it could be a box of gas or modules flying around like mad as long as the box of gasses it's all stationary when we speak of its rest mass Allegre speak of arrest energy the energy of that box guest were standing still and Einstein's equations says that the rest energy of an object is the rest may have just the man's arms a speed white square or what exactly like the magic to which parents but you might do to confirm just or understand precisely where need take a part of our pot a box of modules and you put our scale for merger a swathe mash draw scale can the molecules are called to begin with b box of gas recall and units of a man sorry measure yes you measurement you get
some number value feeds on energy into a box you heated up to heat up a molecules in here you would increase their energy box is still a rash molecules are not the molecules of moving around a boxes arrest we can ask what it is the rest masses on the box get the answer is if you increase energy by getting thermal energy you add a certain number of calories or a certain number of Jules Jules unit of energy for the box you will discover that the box Mass but I guess Mayor increases in its wake increased not me I'm not that it would increase is so kind if you increase the temperature by thousand degrees or something it's so tiny that it would be quite on measurable but in principle this is the meaning of peoples and square of an object at rest UN energy toured mass increases weight increases also Watson should increase product motor another example of this is viewed with this example was not something you could really go for the other example of something that is your real experimental physics observational physics your Starlight not you start with electrons and positrons we haven't talked about and that particles which just a ignore the fact that we have talked about for a moment tho kinds of particles electrons which have negative charge positrons which have positive charge they have exactly the same maps precisely the same at the aren't every respect similar except for the fact that they have opposite electric charge because they have opposite electric charge making combining disappears have plus charge charged make charges you wrote nothing prevents them from disappearing while something doesn't prevent from disappearing they have energy each 1 has an energy left for supposed to particles arrest would bring together each 1 has an energy equal to M C squared so the portal energy is twice and square wall and where fridge particle will bring together energy can disappear energy is conserved while happens urging that energy becomes photons photons go out like John metal positron and annihilate forced out go of some sense energy they can be absorbed by a material and heat the material they can be converted all forms of energy and how much energy you get by annihilating an electron or positron be answer is twice the mess of electron from speed of light squares I came out of energy and just have 1 electron-positron you couldn't do much with it you need are your huge numbers of them terror heat a cup of coffee but In principle wraps were happens of course this is this is an observational fact Massimino of equals M C squared another led really Sarah the right where was to say energy harassed at least 4 object the rest of us think while you have Dominique wagers really it's just a conversion of units from what we call mass units to what we call energy of Mr. you the convergent roughly like a conversion From meters who are the centimeters or whatever this is conversion between energy unit to master Suite the Medicaid another massive an object in your or how much energy we get it disappeared multiply brothers were reversed wife she got energy more it was a speed of light was plants constant what's right down numerical values of the speed of light or can't be there were 4 here and 1 4 yeah Paul drama to hero arrest terror there has to be well happy as it has have a mechanism we haven't talked about that Americans much of what's stand on the outside and say Look this thing happens in March on a pass from April together would just disappear now has what mechanism is the 1 thing we know is independent of the mechanism energy should be considered if the Eagles MC Square for the electrons that energy has just show up somewhere so there are some things you say without knowing what the mechanism conservation laws will you know things are conserved you could often say important things about a system without knowing detailed mechanisms OK let's talk about numbers the speed of light is a big number of plant constant was a very small number that are not small number while the energy of both partners of clean energy the frequency of light waves is very large so a better be that age for a small number of America sees the speed of light that is equal to tool . 9 9 7 6 home farm Clark right I'd like to be rooster also mine something Norwest digital ads meters hello units units report we knew this not just 2 . 9 7 6 2 0 4 5 8 5 and VAT into that number of meters per 2nd best pure white about punks crimes that I like everybody of course will memorize this number because it's important terms class our number 1 . same thing he'll memorize sworn 1 . 0 5 4 5 5 Sara 1 6 to 8 times 10 to the minus 34 are very small number 1 units anybody nor the units I worked out the units but now it energy transfer back while while unit of energy Mass from velocity squared right M C squared MC Square met also mass killer whale crimes Lane square prime square about energy and plants stand chasm you remember our lengthened elite of time a pet store clerks constant is measured in for June best kilograms kg meter squared the divided by sectors so why these numbers so crazy why they someday why this was more wireless or or couldn't nature playing some awful joke on us put these that make these numbers 0 assault awkward arm all people just being foolish in using peculiar you'll see for example the speed of light is something which depends on your choice of either if you measure it instead of measuring 8 meters per 2nd you measure it in feed Pa hours you get a different answer those nothing sacred about the number it depends on the choice of units links units in this case and pioneer you could certainly only work with you in which the speed of light was a more convenient number could work with units in which the speed of light was 1 of the units would be light years per year for example the speed of light as 1 like Europe per year or 1 like 2nd per 2nd so it's not hard to Jews the speed of light we want
you just euros different units of space and time say a stroke plant because you could use units in which plants constant is equal quarters but why is it that we actually use peculiar Why don't want talk on the people invented units Mr. metric or everyone's that the British are worse the metric system what they were really perverse 5 thousand 280 feet and my premier from a spot on account of a 16 armed men where is your from and I was a stone 16 what they found even worse 16 who is divisible by tool 204 time up 14 14 am I now and I think that's another good warned about horsepower this is our units metric units are better but they're also very very arbitrary example meters at the door of how far man's Hindus from knows why was using measuring weighed the rope or something off so there's a highly arbitrary units and have more to do with biology you have to do with physics that do a biology in the sense that the real question is not why meter is what is the real wire meter is worried it's a question of why I want or last a however X number of molecules there was nothing special about given that you could ask you live on their own better choices of units Of the 3 units were we need we have a winning 3 units we need a late 3 things in because of your with me all feature wherever Kleiner Shaq things for years waters or something else and met all the other units in physics can be really expressed her duties a complete set Europe's periphery of an elite can chose them in various ways for example instead of using a kilogram we could use the massive opera stars as the basic unit of of the mass of the sun so for use different units of mass on certain things in astrophysics are a lot easier not easier bollock bursts more equations a simpler they involve West constant fewer cars and if you use units in which the mass of the sun is 1 of our equations In Nauclea physics are simpler only simpler in the sense that they don't involve as many your arbitrary constants if you use units in which the a broke calendars warm so you could make your equations simpler and get rid of these weird numbers and how many numbers can you get rid of a was can you get rid of for a while you have a choice of 3 units mesquite and that means you consume off I read Of the constants of nature or free ARV be stack of concerts here are your set chemical for 1 of few like so it astrophysics Oren cosmologic you might want to use the light years of took a much better car unit and the 7 guide if you use a light year also year light years distant year for high speed of light comes out 1 of course can simplify 3 murmurs usually and morally to Ottawa look the questioner which numbers we simplify might depend on what kind of physics would do if we're doing astrophysics we might want to simplify certain numbers if we're doing comic physics we might want a book by other numbers and particle physics the particle physics are but agreed these constitutes which weakens set equaled 1 by appropriate choices of your crop which are of see equaled warned as easy you just you units in which Prime is measures are in such a way that kind of distance measured in such a way that the distant something moves in when you unit of times when you this you could also set bar equal 1 you have a choice about 1 the Watson good unit Cassetty 1 of good Europe there are a mess she wanted to study called warm in particle physics now you could use a proprietor of form the Higgs bars on or or not a new year of new partner for while the answer is obvious if it isn't the best there is no particularly good unit of mass which will simplified EU particle physics so there were the best you could at best Yukos at 1 0 arbitrary particle have amassed a warm end back that would be foolish because there would be no no particular reason focus on anyone particle 1 otherwise really fix the speed of light plants can't as where and Peter Willey Dole appearance summary equations the massive broke although size of the proton wiII an ogre Al tell you why are there are 2 would very very fundamental facts about plants scars from the speed of light on way that Australia is just say the word not all object in nature more was fast speed of light it doesn't matter what is no matter how you try to accelerate accelerated you could get up closer and closer to the speed of light can pass right for any object in nature any of us on the universal about the speed of light it's a universal barreled universal old forms of matter that anything that we can make it has a certain universe all objects are constrained by the speed of light so has some but has some reasons to be thought of as something universal or about constitutes plants constant Comment anything where you would want to say everything in the world necessarily has precisely this property what it's a uncertainty principle we haven't discussed the uncertainty principle all objects in nature of the precision with which you could measure their positions and velocities momenta are constrained by exactly the the same constant fear uncertainty and position on the uncertainty among meant that I'll always constrained to be as big or bigger the talks constant again everything all particles not just particles objects of war car you are constrained by the same number of so it's for that reason the specialness of these 2 constants that it makes a lot of sense to set them equal toward the size of the proton for example or not the size of a probe well at the size of the proton mass of a proton is nothing very special about 4 times the Proton was 1 of hundreds of tormented prior elementary 1 of of hundreds of objects were why didn't we set the about an hour give me some weird elements from Farah rubidium when we mess of rubidium atoms forewarned because you say rubidium is not nearly weighed more special than her for a whole year learning about right yeah chemistry knowledge is nothing special about rubidium is just 1 of many say is true of the Proton which is 1 of many the electron is 1 of many so there's nothing universal is 3rd universal quantity which is so special that we might want to equal award something which everything is constrained body
young shows electric charges a dimensionless quantity but if we could Arthur electric charge is a fundamental constant like that gravity G Matt Walker say we can say all objects in nature attract each other where forest which is equal to a product of the masses provided by the square of the distance between them Hinds Newton's constant we'll make any exceptions it's not that there are some objects which do that another objects which opened a case of electric charge of course neutral particles from out all objects interact and white electrically but everything in the world interacts exactly the same way product of a master was provided by the square of the distance between them climbs Newton's constant for Milan's Konstanze universal GE and always 6 . 7 4 8 3 1 5 more I assure you it's not knowing anything like that kind of precision there is 6 . 7 times remind us 11 and some units forever it's another thing that makes a lot of sense equal quarters while we do in particle physics the reason is that particle physics and if hopefully search of grab the gravitational force between objects and particle physics absolutely negligible sold gravity would be of stupid thing to say article born because gravity just doesn't come into the equation of particle physics particles of full light to experience significant amounts of gravity particles that we know about just light to experience any significant gravity and so it is no particular value since none of the equation particle physics involved that lever along just go away and not fix whatever you just leave a free How will is it is it or of that if she is so big class a well of course we know they are subject to grab a bigger not particles form near bag another enough particle got so that the that we don't really really know were all Howell elementary particles well now we still the Casella take 1 elementary particle and see how it behaves in the field of of Steward falls in new single particles before a few years but how single particles would influence each other gravitational read that of course is never measured and so that so it's possible the question whether the universal gravitation applies particles are I don't think many physicist who question the main point is a practical point there's no benefit gotten by setting GT Global One particle physics because he just wasn't Common Article physics at least 0 and Corinne the versions of particle physics your others such as track to off for the next meal volume of Robert A. Phillips said those who would wish it if he were a Rashid protracted repel but now on feel a little progress that goes but or does it does dorms yeah you you could use units and we often do from which they were charges award how clashed over also the 3rd last yacht include Fuqua you could you could you visually we have a knack for this we have haven't love is the reason that we have learned will eventually get it but we're not sure she he are you have a charge the charge it is equal born over 100 square overcharges people 1 or a 137 mention was measure the charge and said to completely dimensionless number Her Burma will Conte with will conquer what it means the new code that has often said that after last shot in there quotes not at right 3rd full last week also flew off a broader you quote for whatever reason starkly we have from there was probably no particular Burford In any case we will use units which C & H R Oracle Kwan quite often not always but sometimes only when I want to illustrate the size of numbers were right but see image far back into equation so we are pull some equations Comerica supporting our Siegel the want that he is em energy and Leonard and energy a message is the same we are equation over here already energy for a photon misses the energy of a massive particle which has some rest laughs and your vote on it is equal to each bar Omega that simplifies of research H h Oracle swarmed energy is just equal the frequency Cook so show that about wraps just an illustration of our views are we whatever nor well yes yes yes you have enough ruffled torn have raft over this is OK there's a difference between the meaning of EU these equations in this equation its rest mash and rest energy by photons can never be what arrest nevertheless they do have energy but not rest energy Sierra basically kinetic energy photons have Connecticut Energy our energy emotion sorrow Oh this is just plain energy whatever the energy years and sequel to frequencies subitum different de yah law passed due to a bruised us as we got of time yes yeah unwell just forget who addressed now forget order reduces I know what it is we were not the universe and the laboratory we're talking about yet dollar the laboratory energies of measured relative to the laboratory energies are different depending on the state of motion observer you have off O'Connor anything else in 2 different observers observers they seek to different energies obviously even the Newtonian physics at if I have an object here Rice USA has no kinetic energy you're running a 100 miles an hour you look at it and you see them as kinetic energy energy is something both sides dark energy is something that depends on the state emotional about it makes sense to ask what the energy of this cup of coffee what's
arrest that is just the internal motion the modules so forth and no no overall kinetic energy that's a thing which is B and away when you right In duty Bookamer Australia's counters that the university Council now by a regional is addressed the relative to that the point is that energy is measured relative to a given frame of reference energy is now universal thing that everybody will agree on this relative to a particular frame of reference wrote that the Meyer frame of reference have cup of coffee we're standing still wrote To me it was you who who for bird off however is here on the shelves of these I know I didn't what disease I was a are Osama does back where it sees me shouldn't hot rate where to buy back is more harm to their exact who grew a warrant for a few more complex as well with court yeah I here that they had some mathematical simplicity irradians were were that I think the answer is you look lowly quite right down your right in both of frequencies in your right in terms of all years and you see in which former encounter fewer factors of party by last jointly sensitive areas off if he or she should be a slot the answer is that Our ground them back this week bottles of water vessel for energy right the principles of crack heard on the very very far from Gore's depends on what you mean by part of Florida for you our core your article why are what's elementary here not closes a source also where source also were source of frantically collisions filled me with Will you knew you were free of how not to views with cases veal Tuesday at a time like this that were not the react on time pointers to correspond pursuing G 1 now so not Maryland 1 of the reasons that we will you might not want do that is what you set free of these equal 1 more then you'll have unnatural you move away from natural you move Carmen natural you match the natural unit of Lane when usage equaled 1 over quarters is called upon and it's very very much more than anything it comes up and normal particle physics so you would not want the measure particle sizes particle radio so forth in units Of the clock Parkway is just too small a much smaller than anything that occurs so that's the reason I'm going iii you use black holes all anything that really involves gravity inquiry mechanic together and relativity makes sense or renew warm part Burke if only tore them are important you may only Morris tool war OK let's say however will bid for fervor score Wilbert forever where the basic concepts that will draw on all over North America just listing basically preliminary concepts practically establishing narrower language energy nets particles way use fields but thought about another concept the cons of poor In Over in particle physics as icons of all over and over offers momentum both if you take get object and its arrest it has nor momentum rebel may have energy as equals M C squared energy but it has no comment from an object of rest it was more of a typically has momentum momentum as conserved just like energy when Tobe objects it could hit each other the net amount of momentum doesn't change our some momentum a conserved quantity because it's a conserved quantities it has an important Schroeder anything could serve as important momentum is a combination on the a mass of an object or better yet the rest of its energy its energy and direction emotion its massive velocity and direction of motion a vector quantity it's a vector quantity as a role it's proportional as a vector quantity points along the direction of motion of an object points along a velocity from nonrelativistic objects and object moving with much than than the speed of light the momentum Of course it is equal to that kind of Austin our power means a vector quantity direction from mass times velocity momentum in non relativistic physics but it's not quite the right expression for a relativistic physics and particularly not quite the right thing for things moving with the speed of light so let's talk about life was like have more result of white have energy yet a beam of light shining on something he said it was light have momentum now ordinary life if get your chest pain doesn't give you much of rope Porsche it's because and like a sewer mood and just doesn't have much of a kick but you got hit by a laser beam make marrow across the bay of your stars were placed on little Moriarty peppers great bigger lasers are laser shines as white than when it hits a piece of material it just both was that's imploding in the momentum of a white pure sheer momentum to be so yes light has momentum and a pulse of light moving along parts of the region a pulse of light moving along the X-axis every pulse of light moving along a given direction from core of real light might have some dispersion right there are some of my goal out some parts of the lightwave may go 1 way some parts we go the other way both life is very calm made it's moving along a particular Baxter's men the right formula they are not going to progress from point of programs going to tell you the right formula from light beam is that it is energy of a light beam provided by the speed of light just compare it with us or another
later right the energy is to seek times he recklessly was formed here but it is compare these 2 variables momentum as may at times velocity momentum is energy provider Barbara lasted just a simple question are they dimensional Rivas the image so took in quality
eventually the same all you have to remember that mentions of energies on mass times the speed of light square 0 just in terms of units energy is like M C squared provided by sea just tells you that the the momentum of a beam of light is it's may at times Boston not really its message may test the rest of the light beam really 0 or has no Marash rest mass but in terms of you it's it's equal toward energy I'm C squared starter mass times square the right to get a point just a question of Europe's this doesn't look like this in terms of units 1 has a velocity upstairs 1 of velocity downstairs but it is the same in units when you remember that equals MC squared or so this is the formula earlier momentum what a relationship between the momentum and the energy of a light beam yeah points in the direction along with state almost abstract that Our arteritis but just say the magnitude of the points along the direction of a light beam but the magnitude of the moment is equal to the energy provided by the magnitude of the moment correction is along the direction of Axis of white beans or the state-owned barracks emotional white cream the magnitude of the moment and the size of it is equal to the energy of alike being divided by the of light Ulysses now momentum food is energy divided by see that's why that's why the momentum is so small you could be kept the energy or are being shaped canard heats up good heats up over water of heats up with evaporates water and so forth are hard to detect the energy but quite hard had the momentum of a white beard and that's because seat in the nominating momentum over white beans were small typically qwest if you as a set of calm proper like being enough 15 quite a case right so that overall that's what's to 1 little exercise their rights just values young momentum on a like a energy provided by the speed of light now we have formula under the formula for the energy of photon would stick 1 photon 1 photon is an example of a light beam let's figure out what the momentum of photon so it is equal to its energy divided by the speed of light ports in a duel for cars baseball later so the momentum magnitude is equal age far Omega divided by the speed of light now they remember the relationship between frequency wavelength the speed of light we have that before that not woes the freak of frequency tie-ins wavelength is equal to see right frequency fans were away from our fighting broke homemaker he Our maker times land is what the pipeline of by the by time right took pride piracy not proprietor will be by auto fight your price Joe right yes but a II way or maybe it is bigger than for F Omega is big right I Jaffe right so where I don't believe you don't believe you're gonna do myself we have frequency times land the Eagles seem right for that so FOR yacht Solheim now right on is equal to 2 5 times frequency right so frequencies omega priced this is or make up all the 2 piety opponents and I say that Omega times land that is took 5 times city and I was right price on May Get times land to Hi so let's get rid of the or maybe a year and right maker is equal to tilt feisty although I am just provided by Alam was just do what we get we get momentum photon age bar provided by city and now times or and I'll make it is took piety Orlando times Caesar cancel out that's good because minorities should cancel out where we find it we find the momentum of a photo to fight age that's a number provided by the wave right what they were for set yeah occupied Merkel's age right because that's right right right so he is also eagled to just over fashion of bioarm visit examples where we Bush there was passed possibly not so smart use by I can look at the cities 51 where another death someplace attributed to always corrupt where came from OK on was a saying this is a short novel Waverly the larger the momentum of 0 about a single photon of radio waves has a very very small moment from a single photon on gamma-ray gamma-ray is a very very short wavelength for times as a good kicked away 1 photon Vermont hit too it's still a pretty small kept what this is telling you is that the momentum is related to the wavelength shorter wavelength the bigger the moment that is an extremely important Western short the wavelength of bigger momentum and also of course to bigger the energy the energy and momentum our related of proportional to each other so if you try and make very short whaling photons result will be that you have to spend a lot of energy to make them now it becomes clearer why physicists have to build bigger and bigger machines To see smaller and more rain reason is if you wanna see a small thing you have to use Short wavelengths yeah few tried to take a picture of me with radio waves I would look like a if you want to see any sort of this thing Mr. Mike features you won't have to use wave which is short of the size of my here if you want to see our O'Hare on my head you have to use wave which are as small as the thickness of the hair on my the small the object that you want to see in a microscope short of the wavelength of light but you have to to you if you want to see and Adam literally see what's going on is that you'll have to illuminate it with radiation was whaling is as short as the
size of the ad but that means the shorter wavelength the smaller the object you want to see the larger the momentum of the photons that you have use to see your RC really small things you have to use very make very Hari energy particles very energy photons or particles of different type I have you make high energy particles you accelerate them and bigger and bigger accelerators your more and more energy into man to make very high-energy particles salt this equation and it's near a relative or is it me a relative equals H-bomb a these 2 equations also the central theme of particle physics trapped particle physics progresses by making Hollywood higher energy particles because the higher and higher energy particles have shorter and shorter wavelength allow you to seize more and more structures at the pattern was held sway all over basically a century of particle physics almost a century particle physics are striving for small and small distances that's obviously what you want to do Morrissey smaller and more things and at the same time the striving for shorter and shorter wavelengths which means higher and higher momentum or higher and higher particles said in well yes No yes some sense yes we think when you get down to a plant claim something new begins happened we can talk about that at some point His lectures where it may bottom out all were very far from the place where bombs out of bombs are probably bottoms out Plunk Lane wages 0 17 orders of magnitude smaller scale and were trying to see if LHC don't always to go a very long way to go you by fight those are the basic facts that I want to forget our proud view they sort of determined largely how particle physics progressed said it has progressed by going at every stage the shortest shorter wavelengths larger and larger momentum and energy and small more objects your risk then that wavelength for of what did bird related fly higher on real life he thought 3rd a roughly speaking his right arm if you haven't given capacity to accelerate nor what determines your capacity to accelerate the size of the electric and magnetic fields you could create so let's suppose you take the largest feels it you could create an error magnet made of steel was being that determines but determined to your ability to to accelerate ability to accelerate means energy that Yukon pomp something Harrer Meter meter of accelerator How much energy can you pump I've started double the amount of energy that slack produces it would have to be twice you want or around about a website around gives you another problem the problem around gives you use of particles woven circular orbits they radiate from irradiated was energies so let's take the case of linear accelerator the the linear accelerator is the higher the energy to compile the particles and pretty much linearly is mood proportional to the size of accelerator that if resolution sign off for our young young so if you want to get this while going public in accelerator would have that well as 17 orders of magnitude longer and we Stern accelerative no I think it's more like a galaxy now each guy code could be rebound Catron E. right now for I here higher on the highest grade and 41 5 freeware my mind is what quick rumors while 10 the the 12 G's EU these whereas the accelerator In now well no it factory the highest energy cosmic rays and 12 G's but but the problem is the problem is cosmic rays that may have this huge energy but they can't stationary targets whereas In accelerated sooner colliding products and so you get more bang for your buck from colliding particles still still cosmic rays I'm much more energy than effective energy accelerators a problem with them is in order to really do good experiments you have to have a few a huge flocks of particles you can't do experiment with 1 high-energy particle or it will probably miss your target were probably won't be a good fit on a head-on collision away from you and removed from what you want is not flocks of particles song that server at you have a good chance of having a significant number of head-on collisions at pixel are particles were targets a small so I tell you how big accelerator you have now I would tell you how many particles have call I noticed something interesting and I once worked how much energy you would take to fuel its accelerator that you could do experiments on a reasonable amount of time they have something like a 100 trillion barrels of oil a 2nd so solo our need accelerators because the Galaxy being fueled by some that Eagles a 100 trillion barrels of war or sectors it's gonna be wild who we are experiments but these but is real distance scales are really really do comment physics puzzle when the question is how the program her get them without being able to spend over 100 billion barrels oil and builder galactic size accelerator so I was P E P know how is more who wants to Yorklyn warehouse here what I did now the calls for your current duties from now Our when you have a particle hitting a stationary target take that 10 to 12 and square root and the 6th is like having a 10th of the 6 GDP colliding particles each word collided survey took particles colliding each 1 with 10 of the 60 GUT if I want particle would tend 12th hitting a stationary article about 10 the 6 that's a million GV thousand TV so wished very low compared to work toward cosmic rays but if you have a handful cosmic rays coming in the chances are good doing interesting collisions are negligible for
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