Demystifying the Higgs Boson with Leonard Susskind


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Demystifying the Higgs Boson with Leonard Susskind
Susskind, Leonard
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(July 30, 2012) Professor Susskind presents an explanation of what the Higgs mechanism is, and what it means to "give mass to particles." He also explains what's at stake for the future of physics and cosmology.
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and I did not carry or vote the floor horror Red all back years probably with all of the young I need the site is was played salt water for our land our view of the fact that America 1st of all before I say these VXI had them the is justified by the virus is just part of our history a half normally ready for war but that's not what might not work right away were my whole life shot show so farmers here in 1 hour which is tough well woods boy of war former foes planned they can't walk away from a formula yet for all you talk about that what stuck for a short time firing a quarter of a block from where he left by also list let slide just call yet there are quite thought Our works for ethanol is a lot always ratify you or are really do it right a little that's a hard core chemicals you cannot really where are what can age is I would what will set course he wanted terrorists but is what but what I mean the economy discreet in the 3rd form quarter they hear what then that angular momentum angular momentum properties of additional already high there are what part of the economy yes we that Our won't they want of plants look at that as a warning to you novel about for the most part about parliament can I that concert easier 1 family said thank you want classes after Xavier field of seal of African there could be aware of the magnetic field of gravitational field where are you make our being present in Venice which characterizes behavior of that instead of that place in space and time close he'll places those fields that air Normanton and these places recalled back but quality cares for you that they are lawyers and not voters are the quantum mechanics require design that could face others you are here to stay directors field magnetic field sold more by them and what we of physics that says that as we can but landed were also after that unless you that there will be there we there a at a world in which he just he hit and a Slovak feel that they had ideals of or was fatally audience to things the 1st was that quantum mechanics were summarized by 1 simple statement that these are are quantized in quantum mechanics quantized means a common Greek most important example Is angular momentum most for a share of the most for example but the most important example for tonight will be angular momentum and angular momentum is just to do a rotating objects and so forth angular momentum in quantum Rick Erickson like classical mechanics calmly in discrete units units clerks constant you can have a 10th of a unit of angular momentum you Yukon only have angular momentum 0 1 through 3 minus 1 might still minus 3 but you could also have have figures but Micro worry about that right but no you can angular momentum height only discreet and arts 1st throw back I want to remember the other faction from quite mechanics or after remember also is the the uncertainty
principle will come forward now nothing we spoke about 4 hours Field field offerings it controls based electric field magnetic field gravitational field other kinds of fields that exists in physics they are functions of space could vary from place to place and they have that for example the way things move an example would be an electric field affecting which are article now I really was you could imagine a world you wet for all practical purposes empty space is filled with a field an example would be of our out of their offices career back and see crew and what I'll quit at sea don't scream Hi young Weber's opera employs some capacity they capacitor play badly worn out make an electric field between the Parker we can see them we would say that the world it is a world exists for magnetic field now we would say that charged particles movement peculiar way but that was just a fact of nature on don't speaking Fields cost energy the space without out electric field has Zero energy with an electric field it has energy every worker the plot the energy of a field of typical field could be electrical billing there could be something else Chile we imagine that the field of energy as a function of the field horizontally imagine the value of a field vertically its energy 0 off-field right we imagine exciting the field causing the provide causing it vibrate by giving up push from regional space and nearby vibrate bows vibrations are Of the field they are particles that are particles the quite of vibration of field of particles now you might have a situation where there is more than 1 few road let's call it a fight and fight crime your for doesn't matter then instead of plotting the field as one-dimensional we might plotted as so the original must place the value of some collection of fields and then the energy would depend on both feels it is an example of energy function which looks like that which simply says Mama how you displays before you'll recall now imagine that this upside down paraboloid your editors was sister let that bison rotationally symmetric in the field space exactly like the top of my happier as rich as you could use replica this off the field as a R yes were their sets the field as a function of position would most likely be as well as possible just sit at a bomb on the potential energy of the field just the energy as much as possible so we might think of the field at every point and space a little ball which can be made possible back and forth and do things another just oscillations of the behavior of physics a local regions space said they often correspondent quantum particles of oscillations but for the moment that the oscillation Bell was the things we could do it if we had a field whose values while like the position in the half year it would be the started displaced from the origin of the here and this started movie in a circle does the same way you could take his ball who was that was really license would symmetric Europe question or go around a circle that secular most of the field is very very similar away the angular momentum this sooner angular momentum space but a kind of angular momentum that exists in the field that angular momentum like angular momenta quantized In the Jew multiples of parked forms what are they correspond to recall something else there was also quantized nature of the value for example of electric charge so a month physics Hawaii 1 thinks about the electric charge in a region is that a regional space of conical charged particle a charged particle is viewed as Exxon creation of a field north field was made being around In the internal space of the field not a real space but the internal space of people that's 1 way factor the main way that we think about charge as a kind of rotation internal space OK now what I want to do a magic taking off for her and turning it over imagine that the potential energy was
not always this way Excuse me this way is aware of potential or reduced minimum at the crown or perhaps but the potential energy really look like that so there was a maximum of the popular hat Harper had would not be a position of equilibrium would be a position of unstable equilibrium will look I guess but we're are lot have the crown of the hat narrow which is way ahead of 305 doesn't show of force just as may be but how's wear what factors Laporte due process umbrella right was a Mexican Hat physicists call this kind of potential energy functions on Mexican Hat we call the Mexican Hat back almost the top as unstable if Paul ball was put at the top they were rolled back will you go it we go to the brim of a hat if for some reason the potential energy of a field was like this then the state of Lower spirited you would not be at Zero four-year-old it would be out here Lieutenant it would be a vacuum a world which had a field just like having electric field except our field puts a value on the field at every point in space was nonzero you might notice How would you notice while you might notice it because it might affect other things indeed it does affect on things as we will say but is now something interesting you can't do that you could go here all here if you want to set this thing in the rotation your have to displace the because it doesn't mean anything to rotate your 1st set up a rotation your displays the field and where so making a charged particle costs Summit here your Cromer Magellan's 17 this thing rotation with just a little flair cost because no energy because you don't have the right up beside the hat notorious you could have a motion which have not you got a value of the EUR animosity which that field slowly vote was known around the top of the potential if I could do it everywhere simultaneously not real space but in this field space that will correspond again a charge if rotation in this internal space corresponds with some kind of charge but now the whole world as the whole field was moving right back where have eluded charge density charge filling space as saying Chile cost of energy Best phenomenon is called theory can't called spontaneous symmetry breaking were also called a convent condensate in space but might say OK look I want the final due to the vacuum from the displaced and head of my best that is the make the field not move with harm just like a ball at the bottom of a sombrero have here is also can now make energy motion causing of field to move around the circle like that would cost of energy they would say patrolled lowest energy state Of the world should be with the field you here or hero here it could be any wears along the rim of a hat but it should be standing still write a problem with no angular momentum or Norway charge and space should not have charged a problem with that is the uncertainty principle may remind you what the uncertainty principle said says that if you have a object you're interested in its position X in ordinary space now and its momentum p Bossidy if you like the uncertainty principle says the uncertainty in this position plans uncertainty in the momentum is greater than or equal the wire plants constant your kids have something most still and having 0 momentum then sorry can't have something standing still really no momentum and also a localized a point but the the people of the X is greater say thing a here if you where the field Is on this Mexican Hat you nor with great precision it follows from the uncertainty principle must have a very large arms certainty and how fast moving around here on battered arresting I would say that you can't have space with no charges can have empty space with no charge it because if you lay the field down at this point you know where it is on the rim of a hat and if you know where it is unnecessary uncertainty in the charge
the charge being like angular momentum I don't wear Ali there if this were the case for electric charge for ordinary electric charge we would say that vacuum and these space not only is filled with charge in the a certain sense but probably on a certain amount of charge probably uncertain and this is a quantum effects probably on a certain amount of charge you would be equal probability let's figure volume of space would be equal probability but the charge was 0 Ross work the charge was warned almighty Aswan were tool for minus to furry about this true off this is not something you should try to visualize because he visualize certain American charge but nevertheless matters what they regional space would look like if you measure charge it could be anything from my innocence in the al-Qaeda now I want you to a merger that you have extra charged particle an extra charged particles and you throw it in you don't know initially what the charges what does that do it displaces the charge by 1 year but suppose it was a positive charge you displace the charge by 1 year and was 0 to begin with it's now war was 1 begin with us now to your too to begin with its 3 was minus 1 0 0 0 1 when was warmer 2 words or but that's exactly the same as always started where we start with something which had on certain amount of charge equally likely for any value of charge what we end up with after we threw the charge in exactly the same thing was which clocked the charge out this I think so condensate is a funny configuration of space where with respect to whatever kind of charge with talking of our it's so once said that you would even realize if you put an extra 1 pulled out now the real world is not like that With respect to electric charge we know if we have a charge in space so it's not like that with respect to electric charge however we are materials
behave like Paris superconductors superconductors are exactly like so it's not unheard Ovitz not totally new things perhaps a condensate of charge where in a region the charges completely OK that was module No. 1 if you write condensate or sometimes called the spontaneous breaking surgery my Diller No. 2 of the standard model now we come the particle physics are you a short course in particle physics 1st of particles and masks and may ask me anywhere from 0 0 we're talking about small particles that we're not talking about a railroad engines or star talking about small particles will call on elementary particles but is also a maximum domestic have if they will that they would form a black hole if more massive point particle was more massive something it would form a black hole and would be something different salt after some maximum and then maximum was called upon it is not a large Maris neither a very large minister over a small happens to be about 100 thousand grammar a small dust but that is the heaviest Ochoa wary elementary particle could be without you will called the US Airways on this charter from 0 Rawl Lewis is called and plant Optima maximum where are we ordinary particles electrons of photons the quarks they are away with a down here but the largest mass Nolan elementary particle is about came the list 17 all the clock merits while other particles of light while 1 answer is in order to detect massive particles you have a lot of energy in order have a lot of energy in the big accelerator we may accelerate the summer sign results for all we know the rest of this is filled with particles and that's probably true is probably true but what is special about these particles 1st of all let lean them and then I'll tell you what's special about them makes clump bop at 0 armrest lessening the particles of the Standard Model recovered varieties it is not important that you know the difference for your rough idea with differences become until varieties called for early on a Mozart the firmly on solar particles that make up the matter in usual sense the electron which score he well of the neutrino all goes along with the electron do direct charm trio quarks was a variety of different caught incidentally there several different kinds of electrons we call them electron you want power was a matter but they're very electron like most of all kinds of neutrinos electrons have electric charge between now and then there are quarks a variety of different kinds of quarks up 1 found corpses this kind of work that kind of war goggles caught several different kinds of quarks you nor the role of them the maker of proton and that's about it for Firfer on for firmly on the ball songs on the other hand the 1st of all a photon Gamma Gamma for a gamma-ray for as an object called the glow on GE is very much like a photon is very much like a photon but doesn't have anything to do with Adams it has to do with nuclei and protons and neutrons plays the same role in holding nucleus of ability at proton figures as
a photon plays creating electrical fields in Siam Arum gone and there tour others call W. bows on this gazebo zones for the most part we will be interested in any of them except photon will mostly will be in the restrooms eagles on that's it that's a standard model that's all there is to it with 1 exception left something out of the UK find out about them soul will come it if it was no laws are then this would be here now what is special about this set of particles with special about them if a reasons I'm going to come even tho come through all of these particles in the standard model has isolated out here with nothing else would all have vast equal to 0 it would be mass works the last play white various Waroway we often here that's the role of the Higgs bars create for particles ought to give the particles mail that's expression of the Higgs gives particles white but light particles have been given a mail why can't they had massed the wrong 1 have to been given as well as it does out for reasons will explained this set of particles is exactly the sort of particles which would have no asked if this was all 1 now pirate that explains his book and pot explains why the particles these particles Our silvery-white it's because still slow settlement well not quite we can live with that because we know the particles really do address next question withdraw some figures over here what are these particles do what kind of process is that they evolved fight the basic process of the Standard Model this is an oversimplification but it's qualitatively right is that the early hours is a fairly on moving along and I will describe the firmly on solid line solid because that's what makes up start salt warning as moving from 1 . based aren't aware of a point of space what the standard model does is it causes be emissions on HBO's are electron will belong in Guinea a photon electron moving along amid a photon and that's connected with electric charge and electrically charged particles can get a photo a photo that's the 1st thing that the standard model rows of course adjust quantum electrodynamics it does not have to be the electron it could be we are electrically charged particle next b quarter to room here I was the quarter quirks court Q required to made glow precisely the same apparel quarter units a blow on her work what could also limit of photon happens to be electrically charged quarks are electrically charged electrons cannot be glue on of the fees of barring quirks together the whole together with protons neutrons and then is 1 of more important process for me and I have to more process used by just right down 1 here and it is either an electron all incidentally neutrino cannot commit a photon it has elected charged it cannot amid low on stock work both electrons and the 3 hours at a quarter but I can get busy balls are was able to bars are right here what they do Sul Zeeb owes on being electrically neutral we electric charge where is he doesn't change this is a moment process of the Standard Model describes that 1st of all a YEAR bows on mask works well off the bottom was restless we know that it travels at the speed of light now could only make a theory in which the assault on handsome man yes we cook but the more important thing is that we can make a theory in which the photon doesn't have a rare white because the photon doesn't have a man you within the same kind of eerie busy bows on would not have amassed and it will or will not have a mess everything would be mask works easily the processes that could happen easily the particles they will all be merciless OK now how do you feel how feel give particles or better yet more simply Ma a simple example through a simple example now the simple example was how a field can affect the merits of a particle will come back in a moment our can give something which didn't have grass but let's take a more modest questioned how only feels that the mayor or better yet How might they make different masses different particles from Russia show an example as examples contrived some real example all 1 of molecules have the basic properties that thumbnails they have a plus in the and electrically charged class in the minors and our actually have the more use 1 would free and but we do think of them as class and bomb bells remind us now the a water molecule more modules have massed in this of more water molecules doesn't depend on us orientation if we turned it over made a Mokulu my here and the plaster and here it would have exactly the same white if the symmetry of space spaces as saying that every direction solve by symmetry we would say that a water molecule standing up straight has exactly the same the water molecules standing on its head but don't worry about whether it's lying outside while mechanics coveralls we don't have to worry about anything but standing up straight line to fight so that such total water molecules that saying until water molecules now as particles think of them just as particles known or what they are going to school elementary particles we can see them so we have kinds of particles standing in the these and had particle with exactly the same Matt I so I have a purple no purport from the prefer for refused Orange Weber will resist them the board merely follow right I had my co-worker loading North's here from blog look solar was Brown from me there there's Brown let's create a region which is an electric field will make a field it could be between 2 capacitor plates the capacitor pledge could be far apart as ever but capacitor plates end here it is a sign that region let's create an electric field electric field this case pointing out that means pushed past charges optimize charges Barham hammer signs right let's take 1 of these wanna modules and inserted in here was censored the mark to India the energy of the standing
for module and the upside down more mark on different which 1 has less energy the 1 with the class has less energy and the warm turned Over has larger energy want suffers electrically neutral and no electric charge but it's a little by Paul has a pair of charges which 1 has more energy depends on the sign of the electric field OK so that we are we have 2 Watermark your 2 types of water molecules through different particles we different things we call water and Scotch a water molecule has won 2 1 energy the Scotch mortal has a number of our energy very well by E equals M C squared this also tells us that the 2 molecules have different may have practices would be pricey different test between them but they would have different maps the same effect of this field which exerts itself on charged particles there's something the neutral water Watermark is simply not a dozen exert and left for summer Lorimar to all a water molecule move smoothly through it with know for nor NATO force acting on it but it was a difference in the op In these talk configurations of war molecule is not as if we had particles of 2 different may have so this is just an example of how feel creates mess in this case it increases 1 s and decreases of America Is it only if you read some of the literature value about how young Higgs field gives the maps I've read any number of places with something like space being filled with molasses it is not like space being Goldwyn OF the vacuum was not sticky 1 of things of molasses would do well over the idea is that massive particles move slower than massless particles so the idea is that molasses slows the barrel but fields don't slow particles if you give particle push in this direction it will just continue to move because no net for sorry you just slide right through this fracture nor I no impedance No no friction acid is not the other the other allergy I once heard is that it was like a try to push a snow plow through a bit heavy snow with nothing to do with whatever that that's all lazy way to explain the wrong way with pointed OK a so half but now let's think of this In a slightly different way electric field in here can also be picture in terms of photons a field is another way of talking about a collection a condensate of photon electric field would replace electric field Marty we can't say the same kind of come to the same kind of photons draw arms mergers squiggly lines software photons hazard know which way the electric field as point things while photons have polarization we could be up over could be down just imagine this thing being filled with fault but now filled in the usual way of filled and condensate was a condensate condensate means of our poor our doesn't make any difference but put extra 1 in it doesn't make any difference that's the kind a definite number of full-time that's what fielders indefinite the report found nothing happens military introduced the water molecule Bustios drug watermark through here America were module reverie my color coding is a water molecule moving through here I was going to do it has charged particles inside the charged particles can make an absorbed photons amid and absorbed photons we the photons Green now Sony mitts photons if a photon putting an extra fault-tolerant doesn't matter so usually drawback I just but cross the cross simply means that drawing an extra photon doesn't affect anything on 8 and just as absorbed borrows just bomb disappears and the car as this object dumbbell Moussa rule the electric field constantly and mini and absorbing these photons which lost In the car and say that another way of talking about how we Field Effect of particle and depending on whether the fault tolerance a polarized up or down this effect of constantly being absorbing and emitting photons will have the effect of shifting the energy of configurations of the year of the dumbbell that's simply an example of how feel could affect mescal article and how it can be thought of in terms of particles and condensates soared to keep in mind that picture OK don't come through elementary particles not dumb bells not molecules 1st question is it a lean reason why a particle or objects just can't have amassed doesn't need an excuse that government doesn't need anything called Higgs former wrestler lots of things in nature have and have nothing whatever to do With the Higgs amount to an example imagine you have a box of Let's make that box as extremely light stuff but why this stuff you could think of but some box with good reflecting walls and facility where watts of high-energy radiation bouncing off the walls but never getting out its may have massless the photons of massless they have the box were imagining is made up of stuff which is exceedingly light doesn't have much matter but us plenty of energy and there are lots of lots of emerging well E equals M C squared the this box will behave exactly as if it however man we need anything give just energy that's all it took particles which like this which get has nothing to do with the Higgs a anything else yes the brought on the proton as a particle which is made up of quarks quarks 3 quarks a bunch of gone G's but warns a large number of blue 1 quirk walk in the standard model from hustlers exactly that the proton would be massless if the courts and one's own restless not at all year quarks and 1 from mass words the effect on the proton would be on a 1 per cent the reason West changes there's not much at all wears a mask come from it comes from very can then over the use of force particles rattling around in a box box being created by the proton so this doesn't pass the cloned from a black holes another example Black also pressed the button from from Riggs was the with pigs so what is it about the models of the of the particles of the Standard Model which require rushed to introduce a new
ingredients someone concentrate on electron let's concentrate on electron don't need all of this for me to tell you about Barak of electron who who will a really really after Nova and much of the Dirac theory always has been always of electrons have been further more of an electron was moving very fast around the axis but cost the speed of light really accelerate than this 2 possibilities the spilled of the electron could be right here back from my farmers of director most of the electron from knowing that weight like my right hand me going that way for my left here warned Gaza could do not talk always electrons right hand and left here but now the right here the electron always state right can they fled and become a left-handed right-handed become a left left him from a right-handed yacht that's exactly what the Dirac theory says but it was also the speed of light it couldn't quite because of something is moving with the speed of light Prime is instantly slowed down and nothing can happen the object moves along but nothing can happen truly the object of mass woes you roll it could reflect but ended their raft fear this flipping back and forth between III thing to do with this Web site right this way this way this way this way that is Italy associated with a mass of the particle In fact remain direct particle is simply proportional to the rate at which it flips from left to right that the Dirac theory is the rate electron of slip back and forth from left to right of course the festive going slower it will flat but after right to take that into account so unless it is left to right laughter right now we could draw the motion of electrons following light is electron about access at 1st right hand instead of going this way and that has left him that's going this way those right 52 tho different maybe not circuit it jumps from 1 other probability or the rate at which it jumps is a measure of the mass of the electron tho it don't back and forth back and forth now KSU believe something really crazy remembers Izzy bows on players was on on was associated was emitted Kobe emitted from electrons it to be emitted from neutrinos let's concentrate on white charm and it is not the same as the photo and the thing which he hits it is not the same as the electric charge is another kind of charge are completely separate kind of charge it's like charge but emits Z bars are real name for it we don't have a name for where we do have a name for a very awkward it's called the week hyper charge I don't like that b Quonset thing which he gets Z HMOs I quote Villa Villa villages like electric charge but is not electric charge where particle which has zilch accelerates both on and they also Minnesota a also happens have electric charge but now electrons both right and left him the same electric charge look but left-handed and right-handed electrons do not have the same zeal In the model part of the mathematics of the Standard Model left-handed and right-handed electron have different zilch the left electron has plus 1 and there are right here in the electron has 0 zilch I make this off fact my friend Steve Weinberg and make Iraq if anybody to appease up there Rivera marrow from aware it is just the way it is the waiver mathematics of the standard model works drive the left-handed and right-handed particles have different Zoltan Al we have puzzled when electron over along foot from left to right that means Brazil which goes from plus 1 0 but villages like electric charge of conservative Crocker go from 0 to 1 it him it can and that's the reason the electrons model doesn't have a man Pierce a left-handed or right-handed have different value of conserved quantity Mr. left key and pagoda right Korean rats how we get around we get around this by introducing a new ingredient and no ingredient is called his things bars are it's not the Higgs bars are not yet we haven't gotten the bows on ran the zigzag balls on those things balls on is 1 of a new ingredient is closely connected with his Mexican Hat tried configuration here it's kind of particle but if forms are condensate trip you can't tell harmony of a Yukon but warning you could take 1 hour or so 4 without changing the vacuum so we have 1 or ingredient condensate space is filled with and the nature of the condensate is doesn't have electric charge it has Zulch prostate meaning of your but as coach in Norfolk happens to take or how it happens and what's it has now what that means left electron from as
a result of 1 scored a E of 1 variety has Z equals 0 factor left-handers equals 1 is possible only if you eat meant something at this point which carries off as equals 1 it exists as rigs woes on carries equals for what happened story tough tough where does it go goes into the condensate it gets lost in the condensate prose you put 1 and just gets absorbed into a crime electron goes on to Mary condensate absorbs because 1 0 but then I can borrow a particle back from the car borrowing back it doesn't have the borrower the for 1 hour nothing changes again until oppose us very away From left and the right here the from left to right every time it's which is 18 met a particle carrying his results quantum number which vendors absorbed into a car that's the mechanism by which a field and in this case it's a field which forms a condensate by by itself it doesn't require capacitor plates just requires energy to be such that the field naturally issue did and that the mechanism by which electrons quarterbacks and the various partners a roast particles new particle Beyond Powell left arm most ordinary ordinary and extraordinary particles the firm Iran's get their mass by this phenomenon here doesn't really have the means to call the spontaneous breaking of Cairo's symmetry but there because of the sluggish White now disease are Tony before the on like a fault massless how is Ozie bars are less thought this something very similar happens the zeal of a streamlined that's oversee both I can do it can take a seat particle which has and in particular was green Zig sparkled it could take Zeta Phi Oracle because it's particle can emit easy balls on it has charged not real charged by the old oak emits Theobald right now but says what that means that means that a Z both are moving along this something eluded similar progress it can absorb farm zilch RV Condon seat from the state but now it has zilch originally it was just as it in both has it absorbed some zilch becalmed these eggs bows on becomes thinks but then it can the eggs which has lost in the condensate again Wednesday ignores arms as woes merry way constantly going back and forth from being a Z always on the being 1 of these imaginary not manager very zinc particles that's the nature of the way particles that Mass From fields this phenomenon of Lizzie balls are getting a man called the Bravo on where pigs phenomena this is or called The Hague phenomenon B Z bows on getting a mail this could happen to the photon had been been a condensate of wouldn't it be charged particles the photon would become aggressive we would all be dead if that were the case massive photons would not be healthy for us so we are very lucky that Her that this From our Monday I did not apply toward electric charge Will we ever discovered the particle show we discovered long ago it's just pause are busy bows easy balls on was discovered that killers postulated 1967 by or even before that many people might it was discovered irinum around 1980 s forgot experiment slack 1st discovered the existence experimentally but when I was discovered that those losing both on had vast and there were properties was studied the properties were not only consistent but required that was thing which went back and forth and back and forth and back and forth between pure z goes on and was part of particle something this with not in doubt about and we never Lara ways after many years so far I have not mentioned the league's bars on so what is the Higgs bars are well the maybe bars on has to do with this condensate has said condoms but it's a different kind of expectations of sliding around the year of the edge of the Summerall here does not have to move it's not something which has to do was sliding around here it has dual outplayed to different ways to think about our condensate you could imagine the condensate hasn't been to density of the use of fictitious particles from a magic something which changes the density of the cast sound waves compression wave of some cars which squeezes them closer and further quota apart more and more West Bank that kind of vibration is warheads will on another later
think about this it is out it doesn't have to do was sliding around the periphery of the its you go replace based and start the field oscillating this way is and how this way a further layer is the stronger condensate closer to the center of a weaker currency source is back in for a kind of a compression in these countries say that mold track phenomenon that oscillation is what is called a Higgs boson behavior bows on is like the sound waves propagating through the can't erase it has been so important is because it was the 1 element that had not yet been discovered lawyer said this is a exhaust discovered long ago VUW the W lecture on all the others were discovered long ago the next question which I'll try to answer a couple of farm is why it was so horrible discovered what we discovered bomb and very very quickly what the future might all might bring a couple of minutes OK strobe what kind of thing was the Higgs on itself now we're talking about Higgs balls on opposite laws are not busy bows ardent itself 1 the 1 that's been so elusive all these years is called H I want to do with some probability for example create readers from left to right to bars on more belonged during the start of OF create an electron a positron it can create a pair of quarks it could also create other things being new particle or top court for about quarter of all the different quarks electrons also neutrinos all of various firming arms can be created in Paris where he blows on became if they saga sound way White as the cable believe me sound waves decay indicate you continue to hear my voice ringing forever went to the sound waves do indicate that it is possible the think of sound raises became by creating articles so they both on decays the decays quickly if it exists the really existed the case quickly either electron-positron appear quarks or maybe some other reform Iran's that exist in nature you could read this diagram in 2 different ways always a deadly the probability a Higgs decay like is proportional to the mass of the article a case in which the heavier the mass more strongly that particle is coupled with was so heavy particles are favored light particles Moffett could this diagram even direction because is bars on decays but you could also say an electron positron confused together making exports on well through makings HBO's answer see them in a laboratory we worry the diagram from right to left say this is a process whereby a pair of electrons can come together make his balls off we declining electrons and positrons for a long long car almost as long as I've been a physicist not quite there our colliding electrons and positrons together and nobody was ever able to discover the Higgs don't easily early days as it can out the is a fairly heavy particle for you it matters as a fairly heavy particle and unless you have enough energy you don't have enough energy to make false on because of more important reason fact slack awaited the use of wife have plenty of illegitimate the problem was all week Of the coupling a small most of the mass of the electron translated you go a very weak probable cross section 2 small effect torn more likely to make the the Higgs collide electrons together a high energy electrons and is not favorable to light because they tend for not making any appreciable probability was not quirks who acquired quarks together the usual quirks that make up the protons and neutrons are also very light and because they are like also unlikely to ever make a Higgs on I'm sure they will made slack but never in appreciable numbers that it was possible to detect them so that was the main difficulty likeness of these particles was essentially prohibit us from making Higgs is in abundance of slack or other laboratories where collision took place 1 of the most favorable particle most likely particle for The Hague became the heaviest the heaviest of the firmly on and the heaviest of firmly answers called the top for the top quark is Harwinton hundreds thousands of times heavier than the electron many many many times many thousands of times heavier electron then the Higgs preferentially will decay the top quarks sodas cost the quarks they are quirks but they're very heavy 170 times mass of a proton basically which is heavy and a nearby top have quirks in APEC will sell you say Well look melody easy to make follows on you just whoa actually in fact not possible for the Higgs syndicated to top works because of the top ought to have but if you read it the other way and you take a pair of top quarks and collide together you could make it Higgs Chelsea easy we just go on a laboratory pickup there Top Court's collide together and make it here well the problem is but it's not so easy defined top quarks nature why not Nikkei very rapidly the not sitting around you can't put them into the accelerator accelerate they disappear a fraction of a 2nd top quarks sitting around lot not even buried inside broke so for money and buried inside other kinds of particles are on top ports around so I have to make the top quark somehow keenly collision how you make it tough for is a way to make a top or a glow want to come along if this is gone now Gorilla Glue ones do couple of quarks 1 possibility Is the gone could make a top quark and they have top or well fund will arms around as will see in a moment so I would just take a warm and make a top quark amid a top court that the reason is because glow wants a light they almost almost restless we March
quotes very heavily is simply not enough energy in the form of the creative so all we have to do is we have to take up a pair of glue warns that he is a process that you command the pair of forms were a lot of energy moving toward each other with a huge speed plenty of energy let 1 of them make a pair of top quarks for a short period of time and the other calm and be absorbed by 1 of the top quarks now we have a pair of top quarks created by a pair of blue ones appear Hari energy Lawrence Mass together and make a pair of top quarks once we've created those of top quarks the top quarks could come together and make His woes the where usually draw sister destroyed gone warned triangle pigs is a top quarks going around the loopy that's the most efficient process From making making his balls are always really cool from norms are a foreigner well yes they are proton filled with Google on the propped on mess of the protons maybe 50 % energy from want something like that it's filled with qualms and quarks you take protons a new car like them together in the global arms inside the protons call you during coercion and that was what was detected at rights LHC is a proton proton collider collides protons together protons very indirect way to protons collide together for warmth from each 1 of them scattered Koweit create a pair of top quarks the Taft Court you have plenty of room were pumped a governor create massive processor was discovered at George dog a long time to get there it was a hard thing to do was a very hard thing to do but now the aren't we know the rest of pigs balls on a 125 of our 127 pounds of massive approach such I think I've finished a fact before I quit talk about the near future where aligned we learned that the standard model is essentially correct we run the standard model essentially collect everything seems to fit together the Higgs bars on together it's not the Higgs boson are really gives the particles massive Z's balls
are behaves bars I was the 4th left over when you think of these density oscillations of the last remaining pieces Maryland place it's finished but is everything fitting together exactly right quantitatively right that we don't know we all know because we want he 1 hand of a discrepancy of 30 what the discrepancies let's heroes drew this picture true ugly drug again over here the process Our creating a Higgs my true forms countries together 1 1 Top quark going around and Higgs now this same process the Higgs is creating also allows the Higgs could decay what's not easy to see glow on the laboratory they're difficult to work with that's not the best process for looking for the Higgs bars on AFT you've created the best process is to replace the blue ones by photon after a picture book on exactly the same process are wants changes created by what I'm rooting created it can be OK he wanted to two-photon on the intricate process involves a lot of fury off calculation of find diagram you calculate you calculated that the pens or on the properties of the top quark going around here at the moment is the moment nonexplorative I only quote Rudd told a mark the moment the Higgs boson that was produced at the laboratory of Peters decay 2 photons are a little too quickly 2 about 1 and a half too quickly Meryl Everybody agrees but that was not a statistically you really significant fact yet well what will it mean if it persists it doesn't seem like a big deal one-and-a-half times too fast but the point is that theorists have the ability to calculate that rate very accurately a one-and-a-half times big a race serious means something is going on the most likely thing that would be going on is that is not the kind of particle editions of the top quark there has not been discovered yet they can also participate in the same kind of its called a triangle diagram other kind of particle lack of course would be big rooms something they have not described by the standard model would be big could be a supersymmetric particle which could be anything all kinds of things this is something a watch for now the buzz words are the decay of the Higgs until a pair of photons 80 excess of about 1 and a half I think it took to stigma effect whatever that means some statisticians on In means they're not so robust but it could be right exactly right it means that we discovered something on expected 1 something that's expected but something new way beyond the standard model remember standard models over 50 years old well over 50 years or so 1967 riots since the summer of 97 compelled no getting on 50 years old so this scum remains vows I wasn't really discovering he was confirming some this should be off by a factor of 1 and a half 1 will have discovered something absolutely you wanna watch if you don't wanna be a spectator the sport in your watch what happens this is being the watch for next with the Higgs decays consistent with them more working with different from what should be ruled a toe work for what caused a barrel of laughs group yes don't unsatisfied warned answer use but the firmly on hand it did what caused different family on after masses the masses every evidence 7 afterward that relate oscillation of the same Masters weak coupling strain coupling constant pools thee relevant particle OVER the Higgs field more actors particle moose chase yes each 1 has a separate coupling constant admits this what I call eggs misses exerts gets lost was a call efficiency which is basically a probability each 1 and we'll know why they are what they are we not it but we don't know how to explain it each kind of particle XAB new particle or whatever happens to be a different constant fear and that constant constant which turns the rate we a met the which comes in into 0 telling you how rapidly the Higgs decays into his particles and therefore the heavier the particle the stronger the case out the question I meant to say something about plant if not with her prolonged foreign 40 GUV value on the expectation value is From 1 language it's simply the displacement of the field in another language the density of a car figurine away the density of the condensate war as the value of this placement of the field and that's why the oscillations in the magnitude of the field was the the same as a density fluctuations it was I thirdly box of caribou in half well yes I think it does but there are many many other things a given energy density and for whatever reason they almost all cancel out of the great mysteries of server agree questions to which we don't have an answer OK I hope you got something out of that I have fun preparing in figuring out how try to explain it saw for some of you probably got something others mystified talk about Ms. for more please visit us at
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