Putting Together the Pieces of the Universe

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Putting Together the Pieces of the Universe
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A lecture delivered by UCI Professor James Bullock on February 11, 2009. James Bullock, Associate Professor of Physics and Astronomy at UC Irvine, is part of a team of scientists who believe they have discovered the minimum mass for galaxies in the universe -- 10 million times the mass of the sun. This mass could be the smallest known "building block" of the mysterious, invisible substance called dark matter. Stars that form within these building blocks clump together and turn into galaxies. Dark matter governs the growth of structure in the universe. Without it, galaxies like our own Milky Way would not exist. Dark matter's gravity attracts normal matter and causes galaxies to form small galaxies and to merge to create larger galaxies.
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James Bullock worry prouder have him he's a man who is asking those big questions has the universe always existed at the time have a beginning what makes us think that the Earth goes around the sun what is a black hole How fast is light store about here from someone who asked the big big questions will you please give a warm inside edge welcomed the
Jamesport makes for a much it's a pleasure to be here I thought number so I'm elated Ayers talk about some of it these were found and understand the feel of cars myology II work in that building right over there those of physics and astronomy department we have a center for Margie that was started about 4 years ago and the is all about trying to answer the kind of big questions that we're just hearing about that so that's what were doing and I thought what I would do today is just forgive you will an overview of what we're trying to do some the big questions that we have to do my best recent time and arm for questions normally 1 of these kinds of talks I like to keep it very free Foreman opens of anyone has any comments or questions at any time I'm happy to address them now I understand since recording us that might make it a little bit logistically difficult have people running around microphones so what I'm gonna do that as do my best to make sure I don't talk too much in and climate he enters for general questions if you have an urgent question and anytime you just need Ascot meeting do that let's just keep it open air so Carmita's I would start with someone other things I like to do when I talk about cosmology is to show the pictures as the picture was taken by photographer name are rubbish and I thought was really beautiful but 1 of the things that I will I don't find attractive about who's telling me when he took this picture he arm was in this canyon in the Southwest any notice that there were patchwork of ancient Petra what's left on a canyon walls and this reminds me think of a really China doing cars cosmetology which is it's a scientific exploration of the kinds of questions that you ask when you look up the nite sky so you can a mad and the people who who who made these Patrick these ancient peoples who were drawing into the canyon walls and they look up the nite sky they probably have similar questions the conquest that we have to look up the the nite sky so how old is the universe was always there what's the universe made powdered structure like us come to be so these I was in a lot of us quarter busses ask ourselves and in many ways seismology is older science because you could imagine people always ask themselves and the questions while we're trying to do is to answer these questions in a scientific concepts were trying to make testable predictions and see if they come through and use that to build up a theory for how the universe began emerged arm and for the 1st time build that In a scientifically tested concepts and that's what we're trying to do don't I'd like to do is cellular but about what we believe about universal how we think universe came to be in some basic facts and that may go on until story of how we began to shape his ideas so this is kind of a cartoon picture of a your review of modern science because ever present understanding of what universe is and how it began so but the 1st order picture here is that on time and space time and space itself began on a summer we call the Big Bang which is just a word about 14 billion years ago I the universe was very very hot and early times universe is expanding so that a universe is quite big early signs universal smaller and smaller its expanding of to go back in time like movie it's hot and very early times factor was so hot at early times that you know you know if you crank up the temperature thing starter melt if you keep cranking up the temperature even molecules can hang together in more cranking up the temperature even Adams becomes so hot that even Adams can hang together in warm electrons will fly off of proton and very very early universe it was so hot that even even elementary particles could exist somewhere down the most fundamental constituents of nature and that sends it was a very smooth sums and simple beginning From this Allergan beginning is very very simple beginning emerged as a universe schools and fools overtime or complicated structures can be and form a new start making plants such as we have a situation where we have relating the real-time Orioles soup early universes primordial soup and from their structure room and eventually we end up with galaxies like ours the Golota that we live in the Milky Way and in these galaxies their stars in our galaxy their billions of stars around 1 of these stars orbits plant that's very low low-mass is mostly rock and and Sollie like understand is how Ms. picture emerges another things I wanna added water mentioned it is this they don't numbers like 14 billion don't seem that big anymore worry about the national debt but about 14 billion is war is is still a big number so 40 million is a very long time if you talk the entire range of the universe and scrunched down 1 year assailed reference for that is that Shakespeare living in the 17th century Road is plays about a 2nd so you take the whole expanse of finance truncheons one-year Shakespeare was walking around about a 2nd ago so that's that's these of a time frames were talk about true cosmological conference on other things we would like understand is envisions a sort of the size of university age of the universe we like others understand what a fundamental constituents of the universe are and this represents a pie chart of our current understanding of the composition of the past and I'll talk a little about these different pieces here is just words by however just give you an overview now then you notice serious area right here this little yellow sliver in this pie chart is was representative of healthy heavy elements and that heavy elements just means anytime Adam is heavier than hydrogen helium so basically arts and the earth and concerns of a global sort of composition of the universe that represents only about . 0 3 per cent of the composition of a tiny tiny sliver of what we believe is out there about only about 5 per cent of the universe is made out of things that we have a really good understanding of what what they are OK so the entire periodic table of elements everything you learning chemistry class In fact everything that they study in every department on this campus except for hours is in this piece of the pie right here i . neutrinos their Purvis leaders the kind of elementary particle that was discovered by Fred dynasties Our Noble laureate over there half put that on chart a North . 3 per cent on whether residues jar all Star after we really don't understand not talk a bit about this not 25 per cent of universes consists of something we called dark matter are matters some weird stuff that all talk about later and there's even weirder stuff cold dark energy that makes up 70 per cent of the universe so this is really a statement of our ignorance on this pie chart we have a pretty good idea what we don't understand but as we all know that I start you have to understand you don't understand is this is this is this is art Our ignorance administered here these are the big questions were tried to answer now sorry so I imagine cars Mandy is in many ways the older science as far as I know every culture on earth has have their own story of Cosmo I was here began an old years added we emerge on 1 of the oldest pictures when the oldest cosmological models was actually that of aerosol Arman and later on refined by Ptolemy and aerosols aerosols model year sits at the center of the universe and all the plants in the sun orbit the Earth and the stars extend out and the celestial sphere and this was the picture they hadn't anyhow Our aerosols none of them got right you look up the sky it looks like the sun fire on earth and so and factors the longest lasting cause want scientific cosmological model in its history it lasted 100 years but eventually this idea
was broken by Copernicus Galileo in Newton people like that on white the prettiest said as he said well enough you actually sonnet the sinner and what the planets boron assigned I could also explain Ollie observations and me that seems just pretty seems little bit more elegant but that was not the end of it OK and there sort of this it wasn't clear whether that was really truly or what the thing that really changed the way people saw the universe was when Galileo turned telescope to the heavens and actually started testing some of these ideas he showed Ramon scar on Jupiter and that and that's the movie itself was corrupt that is at hand mountains and things that wasn't perfect celestial sphere and a finger herself what's going on and from this piece of technology and the application of this technology in direct observation is order shattered this idea that people at very long time a lot of very smart people Paramount was really the tools the Galileo had that allow the asserted extend this idea so this began his begins a of the sort of modern theory of cause mild where a yard that time cause Monty was the solar system is is everything now what it sees as remarkable about this is not only does this move the position of the earth relative to the sun transforms forever How was it it sort of it's represent of how was or the universe had of the district it was that no 1 had ever conceived the idea that the Earth might be going around the sun before arranging agreed to propose that idea but they will decided that was crazy and the reason why they so that was crazy as if you have something that's going around the sun but they asked for going around the time of day were moving a big distance from 1 somebody you're the next so fast ruin your movie or why you look at something you're moving like this position about saying on a rise will shift to right near train to stop by Turner the only way you don't have to turn around on a train is when you look at sea a mountain peak that's really really far away but this man is if this is true as meant the universe stores that were really far away which we never see shifts from 1 summit here next must be really really far away so by by putting the the sign at the Center Avenue vertical around the song was actually was Zoran many ways because it meant the universe was much much bigger than anyone had ever mentioned before someone other things is kind of interesting about scientific cosmologist I think almost every step of the way they data tell us something that's much crazier than anyone had ever thought of before I think it's true with every step of the way you look out cause motto proceeds it a freeze your crazier universe whatever met even very creative people so today I mean does not see it at the end of the 20th century progressed significantly and people had finally figured out how measure the tiny wiggle and the distances the stars on the rise and that allow the figure how far away the stars work it was realized that our song with just 1 among billions of stars in the sky out there in the galaxy is huge get a galaxy it tastes like a 100 thousand years across arms are now so just to explain what I'm trying to say here is that if I am a flashlight and I turned the flashlight on white travels from my flashlight and a 186 thousand miles of I turn a flashlight on a white alight we could go around the Earth 10 times in 1 it was really fast but it's moving a finite speed White that leaves the son takes 8 minutes to get here so it is and that time but it's the old in know the way White takes on 100 thousand years across the galaxy to give you an idea of sorts day it's big very big exactly did take the a son is big we really don't have account of how big it is but the Earth we have some rough idea public there's no target of 4 hours they place or Honduras across the face of the sun on as took the sign and frank about the size of a grain of sand OK Our galaxy would be the size of the earth so the size of our sun size the galaxies like the size of a grain of sand to earth these are the distances are trying to deal with Albania's at the end of the 20th century free sooner and when all Allwood realizes abnormal looking through his telescope he would soon prove that actually there a blobs of staff and the sky that we call nebulae but that the timetable and know what they worry would eventually figure out Beaver actually distant galaxies on home so that the universe is actually filled with billions of galaxies like ours so yes billions and Billy just like cross he was right get so this our
kind picture of the Milky Way mode USA are dogs is a distant stars answer right thing a mail recall bulge it's about a hundred thousand light years across and we live kind at edge firm in the middle I'm out of our outskirts years this autumn blowup of the sun and its circular plans by around it like I said it takes 8 minutes from get the fund years but takes a 100 thousand years for light go across the South it's a pretty big place but this is nothing 100 thousand years of travel time for light is small potatoes compared to the size of the universe is in the nearest big egality to us all the Andromeda galaxy Cetus earlier I sometimes when it's a it a slight 2 and a half million years to reach us from this galaxy is I just think about this this picture is what Andromeda looked like 2 and a half million years ago so before they're almost a B and still look up at the sky that's on the slight left and so we are looking back in time and the farther things are a way of further back in time and that's 1 of the techniques that we try to use which I understand how universe is assembled over time as as we look at suffers further away were looking at what the universe was white go and from achieving imagine trying to build a movie house was assembled over time to you use this fact that light can travel infinitely fast to your advantage is it actually look at what the universe look like in the past 3 to make maps of what our local environment looks like this is or water astronomers like do this year's our galaxy the Milky Way in here is Andromeda 1 hours is showing you to half million light-years away and there's lots of other little galaxies all around rivets you big boys on the block but there these little things that float around our own things were but lost their South 3rd galaxies their salads of our galaxy just like their plants that are so it's a sock remain around us in gravity is the subtraction leaving zoom out against this is 3 million light years this of resume out again this is 30 million light years we can make maps there too and they're so maybe things but eventually stopped me so many things but all these guys have names you know their named after the constellations a lot of them are named after the consolation the books group to see the you have a look through 4 acts consolation the sea before next Alex your whatever nest that's when the naming convention comes from so this is 30 million light-years every dark on this point every dot on this picture is a galaxy we meeting keep zooming out of this is 300 million light years Missouri out name and stuff forget if he's got back it sort of arbitrarily cut off in but it keeps going so galaxies like aware all round other galaxies they cluster together clusters of galaxies mogul super clusters in the giant structures and the Scott I want like understand is why how many times and that's all these things I just shown you were cartoon pictures with this is actually a picture of real data is the largest continuous map of the universe that's ever been made by a survey called the Sloan Digital Sky Survey heard of the offer is Sloan Foundation they funded this sky survey to take a huge section of the sky and just look very deeply and had a map continuously all the Galaxy is a beautiful survey on the total amount of data is 15 terabytes was equivalent to about the Library of Congress so that's the kind of data that they've taken on for this 1 this 1 picture so these maps were trying to make want to know what the universe looks like others another technique rather then looking at sort of Broadway everything we could point at 1 point on the skies go very very deep and the way you do better the same way you'd open up a shudder Cameron a really faint image you do that with a telescope at media back up to you that Osama show explain
1st self or your Swisher camera is not good anybody can take things pictures of things that are very faint by keeping a shutter open for a long time as what we do what we can do with the telescope so the telescope yelled deal lands is sort of 8 meters cross 8 meters across it is the biggest telescopes in whirling point them at 1 point on the sky and leave the shutter open CDC stoppage really far away the Hubble Space Telescope is a big telescope like is not quite that big but further Hubble Space Telescope sold 1 saying that the whole folks dead is a pointed it take place on the sky was completely dark nothing mayor and a point in the Hubble Space Telescope there for 12 days straight is of appointed pointed a summary here is a consolation might be familiar with I'm initially now's a movie that zooms into this point that it's complete blackness other Ghana's demands and what they're doing is their site progressively deeper and deeper images Of the same part of the sky more looking at now where's were saying nothing but galaxies were way past the stars burrowing deeper and deeper into a sort of a deep Pennsylvania men's universe and this is it this is called the whole offered deep field it'd region of space hobbled a sound for 12 days and the light from these galaxies left these galaxies on about 12 billion years ago so this is actually a movie a snapshot of what universe looked like some 12 billion years ago and noticed that the galaxies look I messed up they look like they're not fully formed after these are the movies tried a make and interpreter we want understand how from this kind of stuff from Ursa galaxies is like arms say yes I was so we like ask ordered all this stuff come from How do we get here so I am 1 of these you do we you have a question what they sometimes about people who is you ask the smartest person you know so far stores person I know it's right sign on somehow we begin to sort of take measure of of these of observation it turns out that size and context of the theory that seems to be we see that universe that expanding you understand the nature of space and time sort of all grounds really beginning of modern knowledge was really what this guy here when he had a short hair cut off a 1905 you propose a series of special theory wrote as part of this theory you had this famous equation eagles MC Square but like the backbone of the duration of this equation was that there is some kind of in a relationship between space and time y signed realize this the show the actual way in which time 6 along New Year's points In some ways with space and how fast people move through it those owner shattering on conclusion that he made and what it meant was obvious concepts of space and time along and that in fact the ideas that Newton had about how gravity operates on Earth and why Apple's often trees had to be revised 90 realize this in 1905 and and for the next 10 years he said or I need to fix gravity major out remedy really works because people study does people MC Square according to new grab 1st so now or talk about 10 years of Einstein time years of my time that would be as Ike 600 years of my time and in 1915 he he comes upon what's called a general theory of relativity and in this series by the way is largely is regarded by most professional physicist as the single greatest achievement ever by anyone period very impressive arm when he realizes that you could understand gravity is actually warping of space so that if but I mean away a way of characterizing it is a bit of a bowling ball and sat on a mattress and there's like in the mattress imagine taking a marble flick flicking it on a mattress and a marble would roll and band as an approach that dipped mattress is in a similar way that I signed understood how plans go around the sun and that there is a deer a space time around the sun and planets go-around on circles because that seems to them to be a straight line and that her face you describe all gravity that way but I think the sort of back-up ramification of this is that space is not something that states that you just travel through it and work and In twist so if you think about this a little better it is sort of it's sort of your mouth were position region of space itself not being static not always been so soon after this paper came out with a guy named Friedman ready and you realize that hey you now if I if I look your equations I realized that the universe to be expanded two-year equation the rabbit it now I signed set off Mets off sprays even to me that's crazy even this great I'm a creative genius Einstein was couldn't accept that it was his own theory is a changed his equations he changed his theory at to account for it added basically a fudge factor is called which is now called the cosmological constant like put a wedge in the at the door from close the start he could do it was his theory he did it but of course this is widely regarded now on its claim that he said it was his greatest wonder if we could have predicted that the universe is expanding but he did then in 1929 the same guy Edwin Hubble is in 104 per telescope but not too far from here solidarity with the galaxies orders into us to remove your way From us faster this implies the universe is expanding so in some level it fit in with the theory that I cited proposed but he didn't quite have the guts to stick with predictions now what this gives rise to an ideas that were eliminated and and a lotta data came after people studied us for a long time and now were off to this idea where because the universe is expanding if you just run the movie backwards it was smaller in the past week he takes something in you scrunch it down smaller and smaller and smaller b Adams and enter the gas and we'll get hotter you might notice a sometime before holding a bicycle bomb pumping it get hot scrunch air together tends to get his daughter's compressed sank on a thing of the universe French smaller it's harder earlier than that it was smaller and even harder so it's not 14 billion years as the Big Bang and now it's very cool about 3 degrees above absolute 0 empty space on bought universe at early times is very very hot and it turns out it was so hot mineral universes radiation that's left over from that it was realized that should be observed in a factor 1965 and it's in Wilson discovered the glow From the Big Bang just the consequently background radiation from that they were given a Nobel Prize and arm it's sort of solidified this idea that in the past Universal's hot for we have now is a picture of the universe where not only does it Abbas map but it's moving away so I thought I would mention a couple more words and I'll stop and open up questions but when you look at 1 of these galaxies in particular it turns out now we don't have just became just don't just sort of take pictures of the see where they are BSE study them in detail and understand things like how fast are they spinning around on edge because it's a desk it turns out us and our own galaxy were spinning around around the center of this In fact if you look at the stars and galaxies you expect them to spin around but as you go out to the edge of the galaxy is expected to go around more slowly Gaza's West gravity In fact called planet where are more slowly around the sun and the earth because further away there's less gravity from the sun is expected as well understood as a when people look at these galaxies what they what they expect to see is at a speed they rotate really fast and the center and speed rolls off quickly at large distances from the seventies so woman member Rubin who went out factually measure faster spinning around what Vera discovered it that's not what's happening in fact you're still going really fast way out here In a way we eventually can't understand this that there extended distributions of matter all around galaxies matters are because can't see it is what started there really is credited with this arm observation although there are a lot of other people who found evidence for it even before their Rubin just as interesting tidbit 1st sign is a professor of mathematics a map of our here I'm there's a lot more
evidence for for dark matter by studying galaxy clusters clusters of galaxies we can measure how fast of moving in those galaxy clusters and there's little I guess all forms of a lot of evidence that it's not just the strategic the tremendous amounts of another question that people have and there's a
severe going after the surgery was easy members ever ever stop expanding in re collapse in have a big club in order for us to know what's going to happen on if I go something like this is a matter that I took this pointer and I threw up an ear eventually come back down comic down rowdy sort of Alabama plant that was really really White said in how much gravity force remedy would be less they like on the moon invites you to imagine drawing as often as escaping the mood and never coming back down to the question What universes it's going on now will accommodate down and from crucial question is how much masses there was a lot amassed it will slow down but never come back down starters there's not much massive might slow down Comeback down a little while a massive will slow down and re collapse so people in the EU were looking to see this what's gonna happen so mad and this is distance this timing to throw a ball off you might expect from backed down or might keep going up and how much mask the planet has much Massey University were married heavy universe we expect this theory light leaders expected bolder just keep going up mirrors expanding so much astronomers 1 part of the team was led by team at Berkeley was looking at us exit turn in the late nineties and actually got result so this is a big crunch picture and this is not a big can't front pictures universe keeps expanding his what they want solidity observation and this is what they found what they found is you throw the ball off and rather coming back down or slowing down its ease off as a goes up as we're it's that we're is exactly that we're that's dark energy so some force in the universe that's making the universe expands it accelerated rate we do not understand this met on a farm auditors our ideas for this arm while everybody cellular but about our ideas and this is the dark energy peace I was living in a Cirrus accelerate is dark matter piece is living a galaxy around fast and is disease that we understand chemistry ICT
facing much hours from our forces are so simple that such images of him off so self here that a question was the dark matter was the dark energy how galaxies like ours emerge from this early universe what was going on earlier universe anyway so these are the car questions were try to answer what is the dark matter a play what we know is starkly doesn't shine but that really means is a dozen interact with light it doesn't interact with things electromagnetic so I a ball of dark matter it was traveling to the wall you go right through the wall the only reason balls bounce off walls is because electrons hit each other and make it back its electoral electrical repulsion there's no electoral report with our a dozen anorak watches as an direct flight but it does attract 2 other matter writer gravity and most seismologist believe that the bar matters of fundamental article of nature that we just haven't discovered and big programs look for is a big particle accelerator in Switzerland call the Large Hadron Collider they're taking particles and zooming around a 17 mile loop slam them together retreat hot temperatures the universe and try and make observers that's going on now Rossell satellite
projects they're looking for glows of high energy gamma-rays which might be evidence of a star matter and also were looking for directly rethink their dark matter particles streaming 3 years all the time we don't feel them Bill detectors that will field a might affect would be interest Felicity way
looking for a dark energy is much
harder to start doesn't shine its energy because the universe to accelerate but it does not attract stuff together like normal manner in fact it's a lot like the cosmological constant signed signed proposed effect is possible that the dark
energy is this cosmological constant I signed thought was greatest state you might be his greatest prediction guys always right quintessence some another idea ideas of their other ideas in each of these are just words another possibility is that Einstein's theory of gravity and our whole interpretation of why the universe is slowing down or speeding up is just wrong because it's based on Einstein gravity so all the young physicists hope that this is true because they wanna be the 1 for what the right the number of bodies it is flash on the
future of a few questions how we gonna try to answer some questions on 0
miners and Malta the survey called the large synoptic survey telescope This is that little Sloan diagram which is the largest continuous map of the universe that's ever been made shown on the scale of what we wanted it so we wanna make we map about quarter of the visible universe with this project Zambia telescope in Chile army were also
involved in some eagled the 30 meter telescope 30 meter tall so we'll Lodhis optical telescope that's ever been built arm and there's sunny else's comment on online for the whole space telescope which will was the James Webb Space Telescope which is the successor of the hobbled its 10 times more powerful than these things are coming on line a meet me show you just give you
some perspective about what were getting ready to the Hocker telescope was a 100 inches across which is big because of the cost of the Edwin Hubble use discovered that the universe was expanding at that time I didn't know it was gonna discover that and the power Mark 208 stellar this is the biggest most of the world and 19 49 it was this telescope of course I was built no 1 had any idea but eventually they would be able to measure Galaxy spinning around in discovered are now it was with
a cat telescope which is built in 1993 which is currently the largest most of the world that we use discover the theorists accelerating its expansion when also was built that if you set that somebody would fire crazy so now this is the 30 meter telescope
SunOS organ a fine now I will close them was saying this is the real future for I'm raw their across the the building over there and people really do the work are the graduate students at all these young people on and so I that I was asked if if I was had anything to say I don't have anything to sell why do you kind of have to Salas this center and really these people there people or they're doing really great work and in hour working contact me efficient supporting network you contact me specifically supporting maybe 1 of his people got a telescopes and do some observations that would really help us by self let's leave with be the picture but it is a viable question the starter with Taiwan armor this Sam was up 1st chef FFA yes thank you were much asylum OK if I could if we can look into the far reaches in order to see back in time and see a mutt a very primitive part of the guests of the universe yes if I were able to stand in that primitive part asset 4 of weight and yes I eventually seat back to where we are now and that is OK so if you're and that faraway place the university you look toward us yet you would see us as we were 10 million years ago so there be no son was there Milky Way way was yes so that's a good question the Milky Way rethink base we came into existence about 11 to 12 billion years ago and the sun was born and us for a 2nd generation of stars about 5 billion years ago as you know all the year in the sum of subatomic world gravity has not yet and so that's why I actually respect news those guys lot that kind stuff but that's how they eyesight period of armored next to the point that making his have you have you guys cleaned in too the summit subatomic nears the guy has a degree question on Monday I skipped over really fastest in fact that's a lot of what particle physics tries to do so and the very early universe was very very hot so that there really was nothing but some of our articles there's nothing on the big scale the universe was tiny and very very hot at this time in what particle accelerators do what particle physicists do is particles and slammed the gather at very high energies decree very high temperatures and see what flies out throughout the subatomic world is made up their rigid finds said that it's like taking a switch will switch watch trying wall and watching what flies out what it's made up that's what that's what's done and that has deep ties the cosmology because cosmology unite these feels subatomic physics governs what's going on the very early universe which sets the stage for all that emerges affect all the structure of the universe we believe originated in tiny fluctuations that were originally Quanah chemical processes ever developed some 14 billion years ago a process known as cosmic inflation that eventually grew to be the galaxies we are today so it Alquier mechanics there'd be nothing according to that on earlier we were talking about Aston and the wonderful Research Institute their deaths last summer I heard a lecture again on universe and they were talking about and I want to say energy polarization when you have a Gallup see that it's flat and there are these energy Spears if you will 1 going youse Punjab vanity well yes yes and how create energy like me as wondering if you could pull that in New York a little bit so the Jets you're talking on galaxies so I galaxies are observed a house on polar jets of materials streaming out of like that's what that actually is fueled by as a black hole with her son over a massive black hole the creates a very strong gravitational field and that heats up matter makes it very hard at the same time it creates a magnetic field twists and enough tribal stormed out and has a very interesting subject and that's what people people are using that the study black holes and black calls are really fundamental object because a source said at the cost the threshold of us understanding gravity in the extreme so another way we're trying to test their theories of gravity is by signing these black holes 3 jets have a rather pedestrian question at noticing that there when showing a galaxy how it all seems to be rotating on 1 plane yes rather than yes all the all is now within that plane does that do the plants all around the sun rhodium same as a great but how about the eighties the moon around the Earth yes so his comments are so what they do and why yes so that the planet's do not orbit the sun and the same plan that a galaxies is going around its tilted by about 60 degrees and it turns out that the stars were so far away from each other that they don't really back effect is small if if our son was the size of a basketball the nearest star would be in white so size skills are very big they don't really interact with each other very strongly so there's really not a strong correlation has to do with smaller-scale process it's almost like whether we believe in gap in early Galaxy general told the gap our our Rob are alignment and all the plans what point a lot line on basically and the moon similarly the moon is sort of worry in a slightly different plane as well that's why we have phases of the moon because it's not exactly why nobody Earth in the sun I want more and you could you know that string theory and eventually I have I to have faith that I have 30 Sega's explained here string theory that that is any a string theory is that there's this idea and particle physics at all the elementary things are single points electrons a single point a new model about string theory says now now maybe their strengths and turns out if their strain is a lot of ugliness goes away a lot of divergences there are a lot of infinity pop up every remember you're doing basic math in there and affinities everywhere and that that does not exist as offered physicist get that all the time but if you do string theory a lot of that stuff goes away string theory is an idea that subatomic world's really based on these one-dimensional loops and that in fact I'm very very small scales universes more high-dimensional as many more dimensions than just 4 but a fundamental reason for that is if you don't do that theories break trying to unify gravity and quantum mechanics this issue brought appeared cannot happen you can understand gravity in a modern sent a letter do something like string theory we really don't know where it's going there no testable predictions of string theory right now but a lot of extremely smart people work on house how