Basic Physics III Lecture 27

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Basic Physics III Lecture 27
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Ship breaking Prozessleittechnik Tool Neutron Sunlight Nuclear fuel Neutrino Die proof (philately) Particle physics Density Roll forming Atomhülle Ship class Bahnelement Direct current Junk (ship) Spare part Forage harvester Nanotechnology Atmosphere of Earth Hose coupling Star Angeregter Zustand Last
Prozessleittechnik Feldelektronenmikroskop Neutron Harmonic Thermal Plasma (physics) Thin film Source (album) Speckle imaging Kette <Zugmittel> Phase (matter) Perturbation theory Nuclear fusion Rad (unit) Laser Radioactive decay Engine displacement Audio frequency Mat Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Photon Year Single (music) Rain Crystal structure Weapon Density Luftionisation Magnetic resonance imaging Atomism Fahrgeschwindigkeit Contactor Food storage Field-effect transistor Diffusion Grey Smart meter Bomb Particle physics Horn antenna Rotating radio transient Generation Mask Tissue paper Histology Spare part Orbital period Watercraft rowing Firearm Controller (control theory) Fusion power Key (engineering) Kilogram Drehmasse Measurement Angle of attack Game Laser Temperature Nuclear fusion Neutrino Manned mission to Mars Weapon Spring (season) Particle Gamma ray Plasma (physics) Dose (biochemistry) Solar energy Tape recorder Atmosphere of Earth Fuel Speckle imaging Decay chain Reaction (physics) Bomb Kette <Zugmittel> Evapotranspiration Hydrogen atom Plasma (physics) Leyden jar Thermal energy Nuclear fission Cartridge (firearms) Astra (satellite) Level staff Gradient Coulomb barrier Radioactive decay Reaction (physics) Cosmic distance ladder Tiefdruckgebiet Short circuit Measurement Emissionsvermögen Nuclear reaction Force Überschallstaustrahltriebwerk Field-effect transistor Becherwerk Nucleon Radiation Temperature Grey Tomography Density Material Nuclear power Typesetting Prozessleittechnik Tool Q factor Positron Fulling Caliber Effektive Dosis Neutronenaktivierung
Vacuum tube Weight Harmonic Brechung Source (album) Bird vocalization Separation process Gentleman Shock absorber Audio frequency Diffraction Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Sound Active laser medium Schwimmbadreaktor Acceleration Wavelength Monday Fahrgeschwindigkeit Sewing needle Beta particle Electronic media Disc brake Crest factor Audio frequency Sound Bomb Local Interconnect Network Particle physics Digitalis Fahrgeschwindigkeit Commodore MAX Machine Orbital period Spare part Nanotechnology Antiparticle Cosmic distance ladder Tin can Harmonic Intensity (physics) Sonic boom Force Hue Pendulum Ring (jewellery) Resonance Measurement Transversalwelle Angle of attack Ground effect vehicle Transfer function Flugbahn Ion Membrane potential Absolute threshold of hearing Wind wave Atmosphere of Earth Fundamental frequency Sonic boom Negativer Widerstand Spring (season) Hall effect Particle Bird vocalization Wavelength Laser Atmosphere of Earth Crest factor Luminous efficacy Voyager program Merinowolle Bauxitbergbau Sound pressure Pitch (music) Power (physics) Source (album) Leyden jar Echo <Ballonsatellit> Direct current Cartridge (firearms) Swimming (sport) Friction Mode of transport Material Lumber Resonance (chemistry) Barricade Thermographic camera Cosmic distance ladder Doppler-Verschiebung Catadioptric system Tiefdruckgebiet Force Reflexionskoeffizient Microwave Dumpy level String theory Friction Wind Shock wave Material Backpack Van Reference work Gel Tool Effects unit Lead Ramie Bill of materials High-temperature superconductivity Moon Gentleman Sizing Interference (wave propagation) Caliber
Active laser medium Geokorona Visible spectrum Brechung Relative articulation Magnet Ladungstrennung Light Wavelength Colorfulness Plane (tool) Color charge Mint-made errors Color code Electricity Audio frequency Speckle imaging Funk Phased array Rear-view mirror Committee Refractive index Active laser medium Relative articulation Brechung Light Source (album) Pair production Noise reduction Focus (optics) Wavelength Direct current Series and parallel circuits Cartridge (firearms) Hochfrequenzübertragung Switch Magnetism Cosmic distance ladder Speed of light Pressure Tiefdruckgebiet Stem (ship) Noah's Ark Bulk modulus Particle physics Gauze Reflexionskoeffizient Curved mirror Commodore MAX Machine Radiation Nanotechnology Angeregter Zustand Magnetization Intensity (physics) Superheterodyne receiver Buick Century Faraday cage Lead Measurement Focal length Totalreflexion Transversalwelle Angle of attack Electronic stability control Radiation pressure Sizing Transfer function Plant (control theory) Engine Color charge Atmosphere of Earth
Lugger Cosmic distance ladder Ground station Refractive index Hull (watercraft) Local Interconnect Network Order and disorder (physics) Camera lens Particle physics Speckle imaging Curved mirror Sharpening Brightness Paint Colorfulness Measuring instrument Nanotechnology Shutter (photography) Optics Cosmic distance ladder Speckle imaging Curved mirror Tool Rear-view mirror Automobile Camera lens Superheterodyne receiver Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Refractive index Crystallographic defect Magnifying glass Cylinder (geometry) Captain's gig Answering machine Evening Light Pair production Focal length Focus (optics) Brightness Shutter (photography)
Diffraction Active laser medium Refractive index Ground station Light Source (album) Light Flight Weather front Microwave Interference (wave propagation) Interference (wave propagation) Wind wave Angeregter Zustand Envelope
Audio frequency Active laser medium Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Refractive index Particle physics Source (album) Light Reflexionskoeffizient Weather front Phase (matter) Angle of attack Wavelength Interference (wave propagation) Alcohol proof Coherence (signal processing)
Aperture Active laser medium Brechung AM-Herculis-Stern Light Surfboard Brightness Gradient Wavelength Fox Gentleman Plane (tool) Spectrometer Diffraction Short circuit Narrow gauge railway Refractive index Evening Light Metal Wavelength X-ray Direct current Cartridge (firearms) Compact Muon Solenoid TARGET2 Fuel Diffraction grating Aperture Crystal structure Particle physics Presspassung Cardboard (paper product) Sharpening Microwave Interference (wave propagation) Band gap Dumpy level Bahnelement Measuring instrument Leistungsanpassung Material Optics Concentrated solar power Gaussian beam Intensity (physics) Captain's gig Microscope Lead Sheet metal Finger protocol Altimeter Transversalwelle Angle of attack Brightness Interference (wave propagation) Video Sharpening Commodore MAX Machine Glass RRS Discovery Electricity Wind wave Band gap
Kickstand Woodturning Effects unit Neutron Solar System Time projection chamber Ladungstrennung Light Kette <Zugmittel> Bird vocalization Scintillator Photographic emulsion Quark Radioactive decay Transport LEAR <Physik> Tool bit Model building Audio frequency Mat H-alpha Musical development Year Photon Visible spectrum Titan Saturn System Mission Flight Wavelength Atomism Scattering Book design Gas turbine Radiation Linear motor Elektronentheorie Sound Smart meter Local Interconnect Network Lead Scanning acoustic microscope Particle physics Photon Atom Orbital period Antiparticle Firearm Angeregter Zustand Telephone Mast (sailing) Miniaturization Kilogram Captain's gig Force Guild Measurement Quark Nyquist stability criterion Photonics Atomic nucleus Nuclear power Wind wave Restkern Model building Neutrino Bookbinding Electromagnetic spectrum Hypothetisches Teilchen Geokorona Netztransformator Bubble chamber Particle Wavelength Colorfulness Half-life Color charge Linear motor Quantum Alpha particle Sensor Electron Photoelectric effect Power (physics) Light Ladungstrennung Pair production Perturbation theory Cartridge (firearms) Astra (satellite) Electron microscope Ammeter Radioactive decay Semiconductor detector Measurement Force Cine film Neutrino Interval (mathematics) Energy level Nuclear physics Cougar Field-effect transistor Microwave Ship class Nucleon Radiation Video Electron Restkern Material Typesetting Counter (furniture) Vacuum tube Wolkengattung Particle Elektronentheorie Positron Quantization (physics) Strong interaction Plant (control theory) Caliber Week Firearm Last Neutronenaktivierung
welcome to the last class last lecture for a start the review
I just want finish the last couple of remarks followed a chapter for 2 and as a reminder of the air left off the talking of all nuclear fuel and the son and hair unique weakened action protons and neutrons and then producing arrogant and full of and then you make you with led by attaching another proton and Fuji fused together are combined form and protons and that is how most of the energy produced the son and his son also produces heavier elements by using those he the finished product he and tool our debt rose 7 with 7 4 other styles the disarming harvest last later we a different process which is covered with posters of the so-called Sunil cycle and you start of carbon 12 and his excessively attached protons and every once in a while to get a bigger plastic returns of neutrons right at the end the entire EU for and pops out when you attach the last so that's a different way of reducing energy in the hottest stars and finally the oldest stars which have exhausted their supplying they can use yield for of them perform problem but that doesn't happen in the sun because usually this intermediate state which is 8 Is a short-lived so it requires large density of fees for us to make sure that the at 1 time before this fund breaks apart again and throughout Part B experimental
evidence for this nuclear fusion process part of the solar neutrino because they are too neutrinos coming out of this key chain cycle by can actually measured the different types of solar neutrino these energy spectrum in the mob not so the predominant ones is the 1st process terms protons neutrons and 3 of those have been uniquely identified and for that reason we know that need no fusion processes happen unfortunately is so far there's no observational this In all entry the troubles 1 because that would prove that this Arbour process exists answers 1 can try and reproduce no diffusion processes on us because no 1 can produce however were unfortunately couldn't action processes 1 has to wait for a very long time all quite a large amount of fuel for this to happen efficiently and large among needs typically a sizable stuff and so on more reasonable nuclear reaction as a fusion of the TOUR more hydrogen told lift yeah wired and free until plus a so I also installs to get past the cooler various uses of thermal energy of the particles that games there matter gets so hot that goes into the last stayed with the atoms completely ionized and for it to stay that way at the plasma has to be confined if it's a dermal contact with another material that he that will destroy material or we utilize and staff stopped being a plasma and the staff the plasmas confined by gravity and we can try and use magnetic fields another possibility is to you use In Brussels confinement and that means that use high enough densities and temperatures for a short period of time and then all of those processes happened 4 period of time there and does not fall falls apart and the example of that nuclear weapons the H-bomb uses a conventional nuclear bomb put it was we and ignite the a less violent away is studied at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at the National Ignition Facility tries to use lasers for more control I was 1st this time and finally can use accelerated seems to come to court on the area for example 1 can buy relatively cheaply and tryst refused generators that produce neutrons the useful for finding oil deposits in for example and there may make the same process let me some RISC chapter of this chapter was all about all of ionizing radiation ionizing radiation damage material and are in particular biological tissue and the area was the unit that ought to reach measure of stores activity and 1 curious 3 . 7 times 10 10 record and won back world means 1 atomic disintegration Pesek law rather than for damage these very off Gray rat which absorbed dose for energy deposit 1 that a 0 . 0 1 grade and 1 Grays 1 Jewell per kilogram of mosques and finally for biological damage what is most relevant effectively since different types of radiation damage biological tissue in different ways and so multiplies be absorbed those by air quality factor of which depends on the type of radiation and the only then or Seaver stands for unpredictable equivalent Mac 1 Mariners 0 . 0 1 wrote 1 c the quality factor terms 1 Greg and effective dose of 10 deaths and sewer and radiation has beneficial uses for example and use it to can 1 can also use and no clear processes to study our biological structure and of full medical most it tomographic imaging techniques 1 uses multiple angles to reconstruct images Of the human body for example and CT scans a positron emission strands of single photon emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and the magnetic resonance imaging was a asleep Nokia dramatic moments and residents so no clear reactions include among other things up and decay and nuclear fission and fusion and it could do was realized told parliament and finally an assortment of tumors straight the chain tools awful protons and and his policy son
Letson our review would be an arrest of the class and start all the way at the beginning we started our our journey of a discussion of simple harmonic motion and a typical example of simple harmonic motion is a must and spring and these important part is that for us is not a constant and another processes so the forces proportional that is not is not a constant for for proportional to the displacement and there's a spring constant that the proportionality so resulting motionless assigned Osorio motion so we can define the the period but the distance between successive minimal maximum or the time of 1 cycle the frequencies in rows of 1 cycle the Abbott told this year among the maximal deviation of displacement from the room next year on and the phase it is the distance between me 1st maximum and be an orange and described this mathematically by this x equals Exira 8 times opposed that time as the angular frequency richest too High Times this frequencies and Amadeus given the ratio KOM case spring constant and mask and a and high depend on the initial conditions meaning but the displacement of time equals 0 and what as the velocity a ton equals so
the air the energy simple harmonic motion the sum the kinetic energy one-half of these square last a potential energy 1 Katie exporters it's not square changes back 4th between Connecticut potential and energy traded back and forth but the total energy stays the same another system that undergoes simple harmonic motion this simple pendulum badly residents frequency or the angular resonant frequency on ominous given by the ratio of the constant gravity the string length and does not depend on the vast friction leads to bad Taiwan and motions the most interesting cases the underpants system where we get something like this simple harmonic motion but me and the food is modulated exponential factor we knew that the average decreases exponentially has also critical damping would ban but no oscillations protocol if an external forces applied to the oscillating system the would can get very large if the frequency of that forces the audit for is closed the natural resonant frequency and therefore this phenomenon is called residents and larger damping leads to broader resonance let's move on tool waited motion 1st of all as such oscillating systems just discussed act as sources of waste and our property from space for example soundly systems like a hot spring 1 can transmit single pulses all continuous as dinosaur solid will leave their defying in addition to being a man with a frequency To period redefined the wavelength and that is the distance From our race rests with that of course we still have food aid and a wave velocity winning how fast the wave crest propagating has given by the product of frequency waves can be transversal among the pool knowledge transfer persuaded oscillations of particles in the medium of perpendicular to the direction of propagation and demanded to know laser disk Carol a waste transport energy and intensity on the power play areas proportional to the square off and for three-dimensional intensity decreases the square the distance and the Abbott told decreases linearly when can also defined the the wave number which is 2 Piney divided by a wave length in a similar way that the angular frequencies To find fury and on this table spring constant and in a sign wave when mathematically describes the wave arrests displacement a functional both space and time at a time sign of X plus or minus on the or a barricade prime disease Ex plus-minus VTB propagation velocity of the wave and airwaves parcel the same regional space at the same time they add to the principle of superposition and this is also called interference and can be constructive destructive or partially destroyed and parades and can't objects that reflect of those objects and angle directions equals the angle of incidence but loss reflection and win the waiver encounters a bomb with different media then it can be the reflect all refract and fractions of change of direction and it originates because of different weights speeds and an end to media and they a lot of refraction is that the ratio this he incident and refracted equals the ratio of the phase velocity and finally there's said a diffraction and raising count obstacles the way seemed to flow around those obstacles in the angle of that out of that direction changes approximately the wavelength divided by the size of the object waves can interfere with their own reflections and if that happens then I usually standing waves are produced and these appeal as bad as vibrations but there there is no sense of motion and was standing yes several such modes of vibration and back a just means a particular matter all particular pack each mode has its own resonance frequencies are the lowest of those is called the fundamental and the others called overtones and all our sordid and labeled as and on Monday we have a dog typically defined by those regions that showed no vibration all and at time of those regions that showed maximal libraries and if you have a quarter of length fixed on both sides wavelength of the and harmonica it's about twice the length divided by and where there's a positive integer and the frequencies and times the velocity divided by twice so the 1st wave that we studied was
sound and a sound 1st of all means both sensation iron ore mine and be physical phenomenon that a cause for the Suns solemnly outnumbered told and Santos transported in a or another materials this the sensational pitch and that is related to the frequency and the audible ranges between 20 hurts and 20 thousand 20 cycles per 2nd 20 thousand cycles a 2nd the sensation of loudness is related tool intensity please loudness is actually proportional to the moral intensity not till the intensity itself and wonderful defines the sound level beta tests a new decibel 10 decibels times the lover of racial I realized intensity and I'm not some reference intensity which is taken as the human hearing threshold Temple minus 12 walks square end the sources vibrating objects that typically standing waves of produced and then those vibrating objects they originate traveling waves and the wool is that the frequency in here the same the frequency object but the wavelength and doesn't have to be there the region on the fundamental at a wavelength of strings and open to this the saying the fundamentalist twice the length art and even higher harmonics exist if we are to with open on both sides was closed on 1 side and the fundamental wavelength becomes twice as long 4 times only the odd harmonics exists so the wavelength of the Amazon monarchists lumber 1 0 and the frequency of harmonic at 1 time kind so that's the same as for the strange there's the so-called Doppler effect which changes the picture of sounded the source the listeners moving and its described by this formula which encompasses all of such cases and warnings a take care of getting the proper signed for the list if the needle wolves for example 1 has way 1 can reduce their motion assuming that this source by changing the emotional the source this because of that principle of relativity thereby can always at constant velocity to to all fleet part of the system had listened source and 80 objects that will faster than the song velocity which shock waves so-called Sonic Bull and sold medical imaging devices uses ultrasound echoes the term distance of 2 objects and beat so the next yeah wave that drink on wants an electromagnetic waves and
those are governed by Maxwell's equations and that is the culmination of 19th century physics and therefore Maxwell equations the first one is was a slow for the electric field meaning that electric charges on the sources the electric field in Gaza slot for the magnetic field is that there are not lot challenges then Faraday's law states that committee changing magnetic field of flux induces a circular electric field and that has lost states that the current or changing electric field flux induces a circular magnetic field Maxwell's equations predict transfers electromagnetic waves and making from charges of those charges are accelerated the provocation speed it's given by radiation overseas square times New not times that amount equals 1 and that from plants and the number of propagation speed of lead times 10 8 in the 2nd which is also the speed of light for playing son electromagnetic waves I 1 can really be elected the 2 would you not to the magnetic found to be not by the speed of the speed of light and electric and magnetic fields of perpendicular to each other and I think it did with the direction of propagation which means the electromagnetic waves of transfers with it as a very large elect amendment Aguiar spectral meaning many different frequencies where 1 can define appointing Rector which the cross so dark electric demand medic field or will not that gives the intensity of it light is want that tide of electromagnetic waves of different wavelengths typically on the order of about 500 and electromagnetic waves and momentum well and they exert radiation pressure and electromagnetic waves essential in our and you can't case we studied the reflection and refraction electromagnetic waves and there in general and light in
particular so in general at slows down when a proper basin and new electromagnetic slows and propagates in the medium and the amount of slowdown characterized by the index of refraction meaning that the propagation speed Speed of light in into divided by the index of refraction and just life always have the of reflection reflected Anglo equals incident and no 1 can use that to to make plain a switch make a virtual images which are always up right and at the same time all 110 makes very of curvature radius and those have a focal point being that reflections from parallel raise and connect Our reflected it commute and In this focal point and the focal length is given by radius of curvature by half of the radius and distinguishes the concave 1 assumes that this lady is bigger than you and the comics it's as 0 and concave means the world looks like this with the light on the side and Convex means that there could be other ways 110 back construct great diagrams focal raised reflect parallel on sentry Grace which seemed to go through the center of the sphere reflect on themselves and center erased reflect as if it was a plane and with the reader front-end constructed image or can also use rewrote creation which relates the object's distance With the image distance the focal length and advanced 1 has those distances 1 can determine the magnification image with respect to the size of the objects that is the size of the image that the size of a real image admits a real race and virtual image just appears Be occasional arrays on admitted but Norway's actually coming from the point in space complex will only make a virtual images that are smaller than we are there are being counted the loss of refraction again so the spatial sign is related to the ratio of phase velocities and therefore we the product of refractive index and sign stays the same ignorant refraction light of wavelength lumber the EU with the index of refraction has reduced my soul and the frequency doesn't change before polite frequency determined the color but the the wavelength and used to describe so 409 leader needs violent and 750 needs In between is the visible spectrum the index of refraction depends on the wavelength of dispersion and if the index of refracted was smaller than index fraction in the incident and total internal reflection happens if the angle is is bigger than the critical angle the critical angle as defined by this so we moved
on to lenses and optical instruments and
lens users like a fraction image objects and like the spherical Morales there's a focal point of the focal length and 1 distinguishes Yukon Virginia lands from the diverging upon Virginia and is described positive a focal length diverging lends described by a negative 1 and add that corresponds to the concave and convex be careful equal Virginia lessons can be a convex or concave it depends on the index of refraction lens Powell defined as the inverse of the focal length and 1 can get equation very similar to the creation which relates the focal length and the object of image and magnification equation is also the same as for the and contest do I make sure that that we find In this for those pieces in the creation are evaluated correctly otherwise be an appreciable gave the wrong answer so 1 can do Ray facing similar to spherical and the lens makers equation relates how old the color to get the focal length on the index of refraction and the curvature I can Steelers lenses to image and the focusing a stunned by moving the lens with respect to to the field to make sure that you the image distance corresponds the distance between film and meant the brightness is adjusted by ES stop the focal length over the diameter of the shutter speed VIA doesn't have a shot of it focuses on image on the retina buyout motivation meaning that curvature of the just that and can use converging and order Virginia lenses volume and cylindrical lenses tool to correct defects in the curvature of just call the stigma a magnifying glass it's a simple . converging lengths which forms a virtual image if of the object is at a focal point and be magnification 1 can get from such a simple object is the point divided by a focal length and point for the normalized 25 centered in an astronomical telescope 1 has an objective the focal length at all which can be a lens and an eye peace easy to view the image of the object so 1 has faced 2 images and the total magnification as is roughly the new points times length which is the distance between I peace and objectives divided by the product of the 2 focal length and finally defects of lends imaging called operations and that limits the sharpness of images and some can be correct we looked
at a nature I and
start the interference phenomena and the wave nature of light is apparent in view of the interference of the diffraction of flight and the appointments principles states that 1 can assume that every point on away from us is the source of a spherical wave and then be added next front is constructed the envelope of those wavelengths of in in a medium with index of refraction and reduced as we discussed for and the 1st demonstration of interference is the young double slipped experiment and in
that double slid experiment constructive interference of Curtis angle on the rich what it is you would favor detonsa sign of trader equals an integral number of times the wavelength and this integral number can be a 0 1 2 reform are until you hit the 90 degree boundary and destructive interference of 1st get an plus one-half of to sources of life up coherent if they they have the the same frequency maintained the same phase relationship and interference can only be observed the light could you so
interference can also occur between reflections from the front and back surfaces of the thin thin-film light undergoes a 180 degree phase change if it reflects from a medium of higher the index of refraction
then moved on to the diffraction and means that light bands around obstacles and produces a diffraction happened and that diffraction pattern has also constructive as destructive interference and the easiest example is a narrow slit single slipped off with deeds and observe a bright white as central maximum and made a lot for the conditions signed favor equals and rely on the and don't be confused that is the same formula for the maximum double slipped experiment but in this and can be plus minus 1 2 and 3 but not the euro because you always actually the bright light a central Max the wave nature of might actually limits Bush optical instruments the rating criteria and demands that is derived from the circular aperture which has a slightly different conditions for the 1st and only this on its 1 . 2 Thailand with diva diameter therefore the largest a useful light microscope magnification based on this the Israeli criterion is 600 times if you magnify and more than match than all you will see interference half from the diffraction 1 can now use multiple slits as well and that both these are the diffraction and interference between the different slips observed and in extreme cases you get a diffraction grating many many its next each from makes a it's not enough we're just produces a very sharp bright maximum brightness and the condition for those Maxima has given by these and between it is just about there no positions of the diffraction gratings I used for example in spectrometers to separated measured differently wavelength for example the alliance From from the different elements and X-rays also elect on May the grace and they have shorter wavelength produced by collisions of high-voltage accelerated counselors a glass metal targets useful to study these crystals structural materials and they played a role in the discovery of the double helix structure in a light since it's a plans wave also has the phenomenon of ization polarized light means that the electric field director it is of course perpendicular to the direction of motion but it has Sweden light shows like that electric field vector can also this way this way diagonally manage on polarized when there's no preference for any of it is called polarized if the electric field vector also listened 1 plain old lead and then you can see that our horizontal on vertical polarized all this with a diagonal and that they can't polarized being that passes through which she becomes polarized if you have to Polaroid's the first one acts full rival and the 2nd 1 is analyzed and the transmitted intensity of the 2nd 1 be intensity after the 1st run times cos science career of the favor Of the angle between the between the 2 board sheets we reflected light from optically thin optically dense medium becomes also polarized and 100 cent polarization observed all rising and Brewster angle which is given by the time fate P equals and toward more on those those indices of refraction lead and then moved on to
modern physics in
particular quantum theory and condoms he restarts with plant quantum hypothesis explaining and blackbody radiation from Seoul molecular vibration and G the hypothesis that it is quantized In units of at mean that you can have not any energy but just that integral number at times each time step and the frequency of the light and H is a new constant discovered on and on and Einstein suggested as a consequence of particle fury of life like consists of particles called photons and a photon has subject f and the momentum Rachel landowner and this explains the photoelectric effect and Compton effect and electron-positron pair production my test therefore a dual nature of both particle and and wave and the bodies then suggested that particles like electron should also have a wave properties and the wavelength of the electron for example is given by age old he the the momentum of the island and this that toes the development of the electron microscope In quantum mechanics the principle of complementarity demands that 1 needs to take into account both the particle and wave aspect of egalite on matter to fully understand friend the experimental set will decide the wave of the particle nature of flight all matters early scattering experiments revealed that the positive charge Adams is concentrated in a small book the atoms which is surrounded by a cloud of electrons and some of those model and some model of the atom that From orbiting around the nucleus like a miniature solar system standing ELECTRONIC on on those all bits of the body assumption of the wavelength explained why only certain energies and angular momentum went on a possible and we quantization of energy can be summarized by the formula but this is ionization energy I this is Chantal of the clears and this is a positive integer and this model explains the atomic lines we then moved on to nuclear physics and radioactivity and nuclear physics studies the atomic nucleus those nuclei made out of no prions which in turn are made of Out smaller things called quarks protons have the charge last year elementary chondrin neutrons and no chart the nuclide X is characterized by the number of protons and we must No. 8 from rights symbolically air a Z E X and a is give these unified atomic blast units 1 you is 1 gram from all this equivalent of the energy but the energy 931 . 5 NTV overseas until Iran's its 1 . 6 6 times 10 to the minus 27 kilograms Nokia's is held together but by the nuclear force and that is residual effect of these attraction between quarks and ever attraction by new who charge of new the strong interaction and chart charges referred to as color the mast of Nokia's is less than the sum of the constituent masters and the differences it is a made up by binding energy and the binding energy Pinocchio honest about his approximately 8 and and it it can be be used as a measure of the stability of the the Nokia force has a short range only a few FM the leaders 10 minus 15 meters and they had no clear radius is proportional told the vast number 1 power which means that can have picture and no clear answer as hot spheres that do not penetrate nuclei can be unstable and undergo radioactive decay and they change and other local time sometimes in it particles and process the alpha decayed emits a forward to where no formal clearance together and it is governed by the strong interaction and those alpha-particles tunnel fool who Hungarian in violation of classical physics quantum mechanical fled rededicate positrons electrons France and and the neutrino it is governed by week In a God photons about minorities 4 over short wavelength had to be Eddie excites the purest meaning they could lose some of its extra energy and it's got by the electromagnetic interaction with no clear itself was not changed it just changes from he sided with the state would grant the transformation of apparently daughter nucleus is called transportation and all these decays that conserve energy and linear and angular momentum electric charge so-called their number which you can think of a number of nuclear arms and let phone number which is the number of of neutrinos I a tight behavior off the Nokia decayed 1 can understand our proportionality of the number of a decaying nuclei Delta and on and that exist in the time interval Delta teas was proportional to pose and the total number of existing times we have time period and that leads to an exponential decay law and 1 can then defined activity on the rate time derivative and that's activity also base exponential 1 defines the half-life the time required for half the clear the sound of the chaos for the activities of diet to I 1 half its original level and he ate this half-life T half as a S correlated to the decay constant the need for lifetime by this factor 0 . 6 9 3 which is a natural rubber with to radioactive decay is is useful for dating materials for example using carbon-14 all year reign indicate chain we are detectors detect radiation for example Geiger counters photomultiplier tubes scintillation condos semiconductor detectors and the first one ever used photographic emulsion and some of those are able to track charged particles for example the clout that bubble chamber and the photographic emulsion drifted time projection chamber we conduct and then of course last serious but just more said at the beginning that radiation can cause both damage as well as being useful in medical signs with this thing this classes
case finished and she


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