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Automatisierte Medienanalyse

Erkannte Entitäten
It's no news that we all use maps to do our jobs. There are often
problems using them in the traditional paper form, particularly when we can't seem to get the right information in the
right format when we need it. There should be a better way. GRASS is a
Geographic Information System or GIS. It's a better way to manage, store and use your mapped information. GRASS is simply
a computerized system which stores, analyzes and displays different types of mapped information. GRASS supports
installation managers in carrying out their mission with higher reliability in a cost-effective manner. GISes
reduce costs, improve result and
conclusions, produce more defendable data and are more acceptable to
the public. GRASS is currently
established at Forts McClellan, Hood
and Lewis, and the Yakima Firing Center as well as
National Guard Bureau Head Quarters. It will be established soon
at several additional army locations as well as other governmental agencies. So don't keep your
information about soils, vegetation, roads
or archaeological sites rolled up
in map tubes or stuffed into drawers. Keep it in
a computer. GRASS can consist
of any number of different layers, with each layer representing
a different theme. These layers are related or registered the same map base. So they
can be overlayed onto each other automatically, without ever having
to adjust scales or match coordinates first. GRASS eliminates many
of the problems which occur with paper maps. GRASS can
also let you use the information on your installation in
ways which would be difficult or impossible with more traditional
techniques. Let's see how.
Finding the map of a particular feature is not a problem with GRASS. All the map
layers are kept in a computer. You have immediate access to any layers such as elevation, streams or to any combination of layers. To relate
maps of different scales on paper can be difficult and tedious. With Grass, all of
your layers are registered to the same base. So you can combine maps of different scales automatically. Don't be limited in the types of map combinations and overlays you can cope with manually. You can combine any number of layers to produce new maps. You can see where certain specified combinations of features occur. Updating
a paper map is a bother. Changes can mean the entire map has to be redrawn by hand. Unless you happen to have a full time artist on your staff, producing to Automaps by hand is not possible.
data in GRASS are in Because the data in GRASS are in a computer system, keeping installation
information up to date is
straightforward and systematic. You can
also keep track of changes over time and get an
updated paper copy right away when you need it. GRASS
lets you display your information quickly at a tremendous variety of formats, sizes, scales and colors. In addition, a user can overlay layers to find where certain unique combinations of features exist, much as Ian McHarg proposed in his book Design with Nature. You can create entirely new layers for your installation by combining existing maps in various ways. These new layers can be added to GRASS. On your installation,
GRASS can be used to help answer questions about installation
resources; answers like critical habitat
zones for endangered species such as red-cockaded woodpeckers; or legally
required noise contour zones which impacts civilian areas. These can be generated for public presentation or for inclusion in environmental impact assessments or statements. Other
questions may deal with finding the amount of highly erodible
soil present on a new multipurpose range complex or potential
hazardous waste landfill sites or the location of areas which
will be within a proposed firing rain safety fan. GRASS
can also be used to monitor changes or trends in installation resources. It can compute areas, lengths, distances or do profiles of topographic elevations automatically.
How can these capabilities be
applied to your installation? Suppose
you need to know where undiscovered archaeological sites are most likely to occur. If locations
of known archaeological sites can
be correlated with combinations of environmental features such as vegetation
types, soil types, elevations or
nearness to water. GRASS can be used to display other areas at the installation where
these same combinations of features occur. You have thereby created
a map of potential archaeological site locations. This same approach
can be used to find potential recreation areas like game hunting zones by using specified
combinations of features - terrain,
vegetation or restricted zones. Suppose you have to locate a
new landfill. One of the factors in landfill siting is the access to paved roads within a limited distance of the cantonment area. GRASS can
be used to find all locations meeting these requirements. The
results of any of these analyses can be displayed in virtually any format tailored to
meet your particular needs including
placing them directly into required documents like environmental impact statements. We have gotten some idea
for the potential uses of GRASS for your installation. Now,
let's look at a specific example of how GRASS is
being used at an army installation. At Fort Hood, one
weapon system requires a five kilometre line of clear sight
for training. Using conventional survey techniques, only a few appropriate training areas could be found.
And because of that those areas were being heavily used by this one particular tank. We determined in a hurry that these areas were being used too much and that the soil was being terribly disturbed at the grass land for being degraded a very, very rapid rate. And if we continued, as we were, we would going to end up with a virtual desert.
Emmet Grey, Head of Fort Hood Environmental Office, approached the trainers with a plan to locate and develop more training areas using GRASS. They liked
the idea since it met their training scenarios. In such a system, we would spread the hurt - so to speak. We would have the same amount of training going on but in a greater area. This suited my needs
as a land manager tremendously.
It suited their needs as a training exercise actually better
since they had more land
to deal with. Higher-level authorities are also taking an interest in GRASS like Colonel Kelsey at the Army's Environmental Office.
The National Environmental Policy Act and the President's Council on Environmental Quality required the consequences of proposed actions be fully considered and integrated into the planning and decision making process. For years the army has searched for tools and methodologies to develop and present high quality environmental analyses to decision makers and the public. The Construction Engineer Research Laboratory has developed the best currently available tool to assure this commitment to excellent analysis. The three greatest benefits of GRASS from the NEPA perspective are, first, that the environmentalist now has the ability to get involved with projects and project planning in an early phase and assist the proponent in designing in desired mitigations. Secondly, I think the advancement in quality of environmental documentation will be significant, both from an analysis and graphic presentation perspective. And finally, and this too is related to excellence and analysis, is the objectivity of our analyses and the associated credibility gained through the process. This is accomplished while reducing the cost and time normally associated with environmental analysis. What do
you need to implement GRASS at your location? A GIS has four components: the analysis
software, the installation specific data,
the computer hardware, and the
operating staff. USA Searl has
developed the GRASS software component of the last several years.
It is publically available software
for governmental agencies with land management or environmental planning requirements.
The extensive family of options are designed to be accessed
through user friendly menus. Only
minimal training is required to begin to make GRASS responsive to your needs.
The second component is the installation’s specific data layers. The layers most commonly included are vegetation or land cover, topography, installation boundaries,
training areas, roads and trails. Additional layers can also be added later. Remember, you may not have to collect and
enter as many layers as you first think because some
can be created or derived from others. For example, slope and aspect layers can be
derived automatically from elevation data.
On the other hand, the more specific the questions you want to ask, the more detailed the map layers must be and usually the higher the cost to collect and enter the necessary data. Besides
the data you already have
at your installation, other types are available. Remote sensing can
include traditional techniques such as
aerial photography as well as
the use of data collected by sensors and satellites or
aircraft. Aerial photography usually has to be interpreted and then transferred into the installation base map before it can be entered into GRASS. Data collected
by satellite, on the other hand, comes in computer-ready form
on digital tapes. The new Landsat Thematic Mapper Data have
resolution down to thirty meters on an edge suitable for many installation applications. Though it
must be scanned to get into computer form, high altitude,
false color images are inexpensive and relieve and resolve individual trees and cars. Topographic data
for your installation can be also acquired in computer-ready digital form. Data which are not
already in digital form need to be digitized. The GRASS software also includes utilities to
construct this kind of computer data. Of course, your system
is more than just software and data. It also includes the third component: The computer
equipment or hardware. GRASS has been established on the Masscomp
and Sun Mini computers. It is possible to run it
on any computer which uses the Unix operating system. The Unix operating environment ensures that
GRASS code can be ported to new computers such as the AT&T 3B2 or other microcomputers.
Besides, the computer itself, a monitor and color display terminal, a printer and plotter
are usually necessary. Hardware costs are currently in the range
of fifty thousand Dollars for the entire configuration. In time, this will drop as computer
costs go down and as GRASS is ported from the
mini to micro computer level. The fourth and very important
component is the operating staff. Do you and your staff have to be computer specialists? No. GRASS is very user-friendly
and interactive. A professional with minimal previous computer exposure will
be able to obtain useful GRASS analyses after some initial
training. However, maintenance requires a
trained technical assistant on your staff knowledgeable in regular computer systems support and largely dedicated to GRASS support. GRASS can
help you whenever you need to access information on your installation quickly; to determine aerial planimetric amounts; to combine, overlay
or analyze the information to answer specific questions; to compare alternatives; or to predict the
effect of certain events. If you're not satisfied with hand-drawn
out of date maps, using GRASS can help improve your effectiveness as an installation manager
and make better use of limited manpower and smaller budgets. GRASS can help you take
better care of the resources for which you are responsible.
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Streaming <Kommunikationstechnik>
Befehl <Informatik>
Profil <Aerodynamik>
GRASS <Programm>
Zellularer Automat
Automatische Handlungsplanung
Dienst <Informatik>
Open Source
Spannweite <Stochastik>
Weg <Topologie>
Inklusion <Mathematik>
Komponente <Software>
Prozess <Physik>
Natürliche Zahl
Snake <Bildverarbeitung>
Familie <Mathematik>
Kartesische Koordinaten
Computerunterstütztes Verfahren
Komplex <Algebra>
Regulärer Graph
Prozess <Informatik>
Stützpunkt <Mathematik>
Zentrische Streckung
Nichtlinearer Operator
Vorzeichen <Mathematik>
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Twitter <Softwareplattform>
Projektive Ebene
Varietät <Mathematik>
Web Site
Interaktives Fernsehen
Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
Physikalisches System
Inverser Limes
Zusammenhängender Graph
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Matching <Graphentheorie>
Physikalisches System
Mapping <Computergraphik>
Objekt <Kategorie>
GRASS <Programm>


Formale Metadaten

Untertitel Geographic Resource Analysis Support System
Autor Inman, Roger J.
Mitwirkende Shatner, William (Speaker)
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung - keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt in unveränderter Form zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/12963
Herausgeber Moving Pictures, US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
Erscheinungsjahr 1987
Sprache Englisch
Produzent Inman, Roger J.
Produktionsjahr 1987
Produktionsort Champaign, Illinois, USA

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Video presentation explaining the features and capabilities of this computer-based mapping system.
Schlagwörter GIS

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