Basic Physics III Lecture 25

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Basic Physics III Lecture 25
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Regentropfen Order and disorder (physics) Night Hour Finger protocol Half-life Tool Measurement Radioactive decay Ship breaking Device driver Ruler Ground station Minute Power (physics) Vertical integration December Interval (mathematics) Belt (mechanical) Weight Cartridge (firearms) Atomism Mint-made errors Electronic media Gas turbine Measurement October: Ten Days That Shook the World Ruler Reamer Transmission line Day Year Basis (linear algebra) Atom Rake (tool) Dumpy level Orbital period Videotape Restkern Leistungsanpassung Mot (Semitic god) Kilogram Short circuit Hilt Suitcase LC circuit Ion Radioactive decay Miner Restkern Neutronenaktivierung Ground (electricity)
Regentropfen Neutron Absolute dating Absorbance White Magnet Kette <Zugmittel> Roll forming Hour Half-life Rail profile Atmosphere of Earth Measurement Radioactive decay Hyperbelnavigation Uran-238 Mat Decay chain Truck Initiator <Steuerungstechnik> Duty cycle FACTS (newspaper) Pair production Direct current Thermodynamic equilibrium Cartridge (firearms) Mint-made errors Material Hot working Bomb Day Year Cash register Weather front Basis (linear algebra) Mask Faltenbildung Chain Dekangestirn Spare part Musical ensemble Literary fragment Restkern Mass Electric charge Mot (Semitic god) Crystal twinning Ramjet Ballpoint pen Cash register Kilogram Cardinal direction Ring (jewellery) Finger protocol Metre Ship Caliber Radioactive decay Neutron Wire Runic calendar Restkern Week Atmosphere of Earth Neutronenaktivierung Last
Regentropfen Formation flying Avalanche Photography Gas Rutherford scattering Particle Group delay and phase delay Bird vocalization Sundial Half-life Photocathode Screen printing Atmosphere of Earth Electricity Radioactive decay Decay chain Photomultiplier Sensor Voltage Duty cycle Anode Electronics Senderöhre Metal Excited state Wasserwiderstand Papierformat Cartridge (firearms) Ionisationsdichte Radiation Sensor Photoelectric effect Bottle Counter (furniture) Transmission line Day Single (music) Year Photoelectric effect Chain Dekangestirn Automobile Kiln Radiation Spare part Negation Electron Voltage Day Wire Counter (furniture) Gate (airport) Photoelectric effect Photonics Plant (control theory) Caliber Avalanche Radioactive decay Wire Geiger counter Neutronenaktivierung
Prozessleittechnik Charbonnages de France Diode Effects unit Neutron Photomultiplier Time projection chamber Gas Light Scintillator Photographic emulsion Continuous track Quark Transport Summer (George Winston album) FACTS (newspaper) Biasing Turning Belt (mechanical) Rotating radio transient Signal (electrical engineering) Beta particle Gas turbine High voltage Atomic nucleus Linear motor Continental drift Year Photon Particle physics Mask Rotor (electric) Ion Mass Electric charge Bubble chamber Kilogram Force Visibility SEED Hawker Aircraft Measurement Photonics Nuclear transmutation Electric current Flugbahn Radioactive decay Wire Restkern Neutrino Electromagnetic spectrum Bookbinding Quark Particle Leakage (electronics) Nyquist stability criterion Transformer Elementary particle Color code Electricity Radioactive decay Linear motor Alpha particle Sky Sensor Semiconductor Power (physics) Light Florett Crystallization Direct current Formation flying Electric charge Coulomb barrier Semiconductor detector Sensor Measurement Printing press Force SEED Crystal structure Thor Nuclear physics Heterojunction Nucleon Loom Radiation Electron Restkern Wind farm Material Nuclear power Continental drift Wire Counter (furniture) Particle Short circuit Gas Two-way radio Lead Liquid Positron Limiter Proportionalkammer Strong interaction Continuous track Scintillation counter Baryon Neutron Counter Geiger counter Workshop
Sensor Sound Effects unit Time projection chamber Continental drift Bubble chamber Multiplizität Senderöhre Scintillator Photographic emulsion Half-life Radiation Solar energy Restkern Leistungsanpassung Radioactive decay Sensor Bubble chamber Counter (furniture) Semiconductor Photography Radioactive decay Book design Geiger counter Cloud Counter Conductivity (electrolytic) Semiconductor detector Neutronenaktivierung
Chemical substance Photoelectric effect Effects unit Neutron Short circuit Single (music) Crystal structure Photoelectric effect Particle Assault rifle Cell (biology) Atom Roll forming Tissue paper Canadair CL-44 Nucleon Radiation Tool Astronaut Rad (unit) Gamma ray Grey Ion Compton scattering Material Force Pen Particle Effects unit Crystal structure Polrad Rail transport operations Cartridge (firearms) X-ray Cell (biology) Plant (control theory) Mint-made errors Caliber Neutron Ionisationsdichte Material Ionization Radiation
Theory of relativity Neutron Effects unit Thin film Source (album) Bill of materials Assault rifle Rad (unit) Uran-238 Duty cycle FACTS (newspaper) Cosmic microwave background radiation Cross section (physics) Bügeleisen Density Particle physics Beta particle Electronic media Dose (biochemistry) Book design Noise figure Radiation Orbital period Field-effect transistor Hot working Short circuit Year Foot (unit) Particle physics Dhow Singing Be star Control rod Dosimeter Orbital period Ion Mass Intensity (physics) Sonic boom Day Kilogram Chandrasekhar limit Measurement Metre Absorption (acoustics) Flugbahn Atmosphere of Earth Cosmic ray Quality (business) Piping File (tool) Monitorüberwachung Particle Bird vocalization Roll forming Colorfulness Limiter Half-life Dose (biochemistry) Electronic media Tape recorder Atmosphere of Earth Radioactive decay Pickup truck Water vapor Speckle imaging Alpha particle Power (physics) Vertical integration Source (album) Year Exosphere Cartridge (firearms) Frequenzumrichter Material Gradient Radon Day Sunlight Measurement Gemstone Field-effect transistor Radiation Video Kardieren Videotape Electron Material Typesetting Car seat Quality (business) Short circuit Lead Map Q factor Fulling X-ray Hour Neutron Ground (electricity)
Meeting/Interview Cartridge (firearms) Beta particle Cocktail party effect Lead Amplitude-shift keying Neutronenaktivierung Last
but 0 welcome back abroad Thanksgiving are just before
the Thanksgiving break everywhere talking about time dependence of clear case and your observed that look the number of decaying nuclei it's In a given time period belt to use proportional Tour Vera milky either the available for exams and proportional to a time belt sees the proportionality constant recalled advocate columns for a change in the number of nuclei that's arrived with miners Lambert remember itself times t walk time derivative number proportional to the number of solved Webber's a defining equation exponential function they no pariahs of functional team is the bag number look tired of the euro times of exponential function with the pick a constant the Rand arrange activity all the decay rate is the time derivative of the function which is just my time the function and if you discount the minus sign where are we just skip around times and not turn of he recalled his lung but I'm not there ought not be a activity of time equals you wouldn't for October 2 years for a 2nd there's integrations 2nd for Becker we define a half-life half as that time where the amount of no clear III left at that time 1 half the or regional and by that because we are activity proportional to the amount of time that means the activity the uh be original activity divided by bears also amount of time we can define and life time back to relates to agree half-life time he was not sure if it take me a or road basis a off end of one-half rival by knocked down by definition with just one-half this as match natural on all one-half about half the B B match along road more Ito to the miners longevity one-half their each with power natural rubber canceled so we know that a lobby or one-half has to be my Lambert had and that means 51 office error Meyers the moral or 1 half way around all plus tool around and natural robbery more tourists 0 . 6 9 3 so from now on we will be using 0 . 6 9 4 T half of 0 . 6 9 3 over the mean life however was just 1 or what that means that you one-half your . 6 times we need if fish Barak half-life sure what that means that have to adhere more higher and therefore more dangerous there are very wrong line however on the other hand the short half-life means that if you could usually waited or reduce the costs of so are the rule of thumb you should wait for about 10 half life for to become safe but that's just some because of cause it depends on regional trip computer with a view Unix financial off that this rule of thumb and after 10 half-life media activities for the of minors 10 of regional and better through our roughly 0 . 1 % as an example let's look at carbon-14 which has a half-life of 5 thousand 700 years was halter waited out there if a sample contained stemmed the time tool called 14 Oklahoma orders turbidity tho so this is easy for me take care of their creativity as we pick a constant time uh your original novel Moakley Iowa original novel right by his life and the things we are half-life . 6 9 off at times the life that means that we are to retain its . 6 9 me and not divided by the half life you have given and not spend too and we just have to to express behalf seconds was far from over 30 years time the number of days in an amount of EUR time Ala I Bay PARIS seconds off driver bureaus activity of 3 . 8 3 times 10 to the Tampa Becker fairly large of so let's assume that a laboratory has 1 . 4 9 micrograms off to what nite of some 13 and that has a half-life of 10 minutes or 600 circuit so the question is how many nuclei are present initially what these initial of dignity what activity after 1 hour and after approximately how long will be attributed to drop to less than 1 bit so we knew about atomic weight off about germs team just retain units Arum the that means that 13 grams of and can therefore calculate the amount or more from grounds so it's 1 . 4 9 times and among the 6 grams divided by 15 grams more that means we have 1 only 1 5 times 10 to minus 7 times more for expressive amount of harbor we multiplied with our guard was No. 4 or 5 times 6 Arab times template 20 further that gives us 6 . 9 times 10 of the 16 nuclei wherever we have initially now we can calculate the English look to it just like we do with Coburn 14 13 . 6 9 3 times now would do I by the half-life which in this case 600 seconds and that gives
us 7 . 9 7 times and fatigue her so at some later time t area know that activity Air Force of exponential are so it's are marked time minus and Lamberth there 0 . 6 9 Freedom derided by one-half to comply with the for the initial activity bomb not riches 7 . 9 7 times and decor times each of wrist . 6 lire me this factors for the amount more the where the activity after 1 also was 2nd among all the Islamist behalf half-life if you are amount was to get 1 . 2 5 times 10 to the 12th World and finally have for the last question how long will it take to get from 1 Berkeley you have the requirement that directivity of time he should be 1 beckel so that means that this exponential factor asked me 1 over initial activities Council of initially what take them our world With creation of a council the exponential and of racial and the basis minus coupons with 6 and if I sold for time I get 27 seconds suburb on the part of all that's how long it takes to reach 2 duties on last last week briefly discuss the radiocarbon dating solo we can imitate organic material out because all removal of absorb carbon 14 yeah carbon 14 this would do with the steady-state neutrons that are made our cost Grace charge exchanging imagine he charge-exchange means that from differ absorb the heroes of the proton objective of so while we already lives they absorb review of buyer of photosynthesis plans or are cool and anything else so that have evolved about 1 . 3 times 10 to the minus 12 of these carbon nuclei organisms actually called would team so that means that at the time of death the organism that has yet to see which as initial Sims but further carbon-14 has added a few exponential decay and you can never be too activities from mosques to all we construction FOR a refinement of the technique 1 kid just small variations in problem production using samples movie age as determined by other means for you really let's say a found Burma are very archaeological site a animal bold for and if the uh Mosul the column and the ball from this 400 grams and the sample registers of activity of 60 Becker of what this age so our 1st air we determine the number of problems are forbidden to use problems the masks the average armed masked carbon this case just more uh we're Malaysia called have a total amount of carbon nuclei off about 10 20 floor remove rumbles sore back means that at a time of death you have 1 . 3 times 10 of the problem 14 constantly ship gnarly you was me exponential decay law but all present time a number of nuclei it is she activity divided by the decay constant or the captivity a life by the fire . 6 9 3 for the activities 16 and services behalf while Somalia just bit seconds and that means that now we have a point to it turns 10 of the 12 problems what you know clear for initially ahead 1 . 3 pants and the variety of roles only 4 . 2 pounds 12 wire and can now take the ratio of those twin take long where this will give us the fact of the exponential function which is . 6 9 3 times higher divided by the half-life and that if it calculators alarm wrote of this ratio of 4 . 2 0 about all where is this 1 is 1 . 1 4 and Paris folding for that kind of 9 thousand 400 you approximate age this form for 1 that doesn't have to trucks will use carbon-14 408 iteratively reading area in fact you can only go back to about 60 thousand liters of called for team because eventually all of that will have catered we could so if you want to bait rocks for example I have hire from that has alarmed half-life from 5 to 4 Ramble uranium youthful with a half-life of 4 . 5 times 10 mind you and refusing to rein in what could be a front all the rock from Earth Arab tour have a what fought constant mind you the we are actually error case chains call for a delay new member of Florida for example meaning that you start with the 1st away him twice and at offered case going toe on the floor of a Bader the case here be case Back in the 80 member while for the case of the chaos the chaos that case them you know while decays case this is the year the nuclear charged the former Marseille vary from proceed to off on the case until you finally get a stable so there several such a character decay families so that's look at
example in the decay of uranium 238 4 successive no clear with lives of work for of 50 thousand years of 5 thousand meters 16 hundred years and 4 days fluids fact
boasts find this all 4 big decay chain of Islamic a long long bit short of Islamic only 16 hundred years this 1 is what bait a request areas given that we have those allowed
leader different half-life which activities there is the highest of All-Star from purely random wander through the gate billion years ago them naively 1 would expect that activity it is proportional to the half-life inverse half-life that that the 1 with the 4 days as the highest duties however it turns out that all walked over to draw fire of both state and bribery can distinguish charity or each long by looking at different energies of the old part of the reason is that the decay of the town acts as as the bottle so we don't have a simple exponential decays anymore but rarely can approximate in this case from became times before by so much so we can say for example of that life 6 200 air there is so much longer behalf would days Gold Palin this could do was aired already decays but of course it can't before it's made therefore we could reduce determined by the list of war with the war formats moved through our detection of radiation so method of detection for example Barber for time was defined a student and make a lot of phosphorescent squeeze in total darkness after eyes what about Doc well afford Brown Bag dining of was fed up with that and so he developed a Geiger counter electric off recording her activities and Geiger column but ears high-voltage do so we have Fulham richest connected to negative member of Irbil on fire of a wire assembled positive and if the death of ionizing particle passing fool between the wife and the or at negative casing man-made island eyes are aghast that left with and very where are the ionization Alec plants which them and the negative and if the voltage is large enough room reacquire enough energy to mark called about what might be ionized even further to get an avalanche of this avalanche of Allah plants will reach the central wire causes the voltage briefly dropped 1 America ELECTRONIC you watch for such a world of for 1 column or 1 particle passed through a tunnel to leave 1 wants to detect photons with a similar line where you have a photo calf the youth photoelectric or you have incoming the photocathode it releases of photoelectron man anti-Arab this success successive bank notes called from metal plates that's which our success higher voltage for the photoelectron rifts before final vote and when each of the group however quite bit energy to buy around while upon all over the place so arrogant reach the 2nd dine on which higher voltage and each each 1 of those secondary or on the should go on and so you get even more and you got a call from an auto dial each time multiplying the electrons and finally going to add a new have evolved Powell and all electrons which registered voltage from paragraphs called a photomultiplier tube member firms where individual for a vote and both a Geiger counters and photomultiplier tubes are still in use today so
I can use therefore the multiplier In Con junction the material are for example scintillation crystal which the only requirement for material is that it emits light shop follicle passes food so that can be of followed by the press but there's also liquid paraffin related or 110 a gas knowledge base in addition to have all high-voltage devices year you conduct of detect and both are basically diodes operate there are grossly and varied leakage current that goes through a priority in the wrong direction is actually going to be bigger once you have ionizing particles pass ran off cause the oldest technique of where affecting rated parity earnings photographic emulsion nobody even with called the track of hot so that brings us
to tracking detectors they also us so-called Bob Olympic gold chambers and the way they look this like contrary played if you power about often charge comical leaves in its wake on because I'm ionizing radiation and goes are acting as seeds from Groll our foreground bobble of rock with which can be made visible canceled as much saying there's an airplane are fleeing from the sky they're making jolts behind also on another possibility to make a rare very complex Geiger counters and those are called the dog time projection chamber using many many many different wires for example the drift chamber so-called CDF detector when the boss for many years removed Arab on was not just the fact that as signal and on which wife of signal by 1 the time it takes me if I am the theology drift food that wire whoever we can't tracks freedom remember 1 can use the semiconductor detectors a fracas also by having complex structure that some no clue of physics and nuclear physics studies atomic nuclei and those Nokia are made although Moakley on which interim made out of quarks and protons charge of the elementary charge of neutrons have no choice of a nuclide X is characterized by the number protons and the charge number Z which is the number of protons as well as a number of no peons or the vast number and so 1 symbolically rights X it a Z X FOIA is usually not just exactly the number of our of but given a unified upon masks you want new list 1 gram of all or 9 of 31 . 5 million people cease all 1 . 6 6 times this is over Tokyo's held together by Arab I will clear force switches a residual effect of the quark College Of the strong and the Mosul less the sum of constituent masters the difference is that a total binding energy and the binding energy and will clear on this roughly 8 and we value for the smoke clears it is measure of the stability of With no clear of course has short range of a few centimeters only the nuclear radios is proportional to the vast amount of the wants power the unstable Moakley undergo radioactive decay they change improbable clear and amid particles in the process all 4 decayed emits uh human milk Lewis and it is mediated by the strong interaction and those of alpha-particles they tunnel food cuomo there to be peculiarities of quantum mechanics a beta decays deal of positrons olive farms and Trina and high neutrino and they are they problems by a so-called weak and Agha muddy cave in got Maurais photons would be excited I'm excited nuclear the nucleus itself was not changed and it's gone by electromagnetic the transformational parents Dobbin accuses called transportation decays concert of energy linear and angular momentum electric child barium number and left on and a number of decaying nuclei Delta and entire delta T uh is proportional to M belt tea with leads of exponential decay law a B rate is defined as the the time derivative of IS function of time that also has the exponential to 5
half-life it is time that's required for half of the book sound of decayed or for the dignity of Hokkaido one-half of all regional activities have a half life is related to the new life by a factor . 6 9 3 or the match or to a radioactive decay decays used for dating so our for example was problem for or really want food aid and of multiple detectors for radiation Geiger counters photomultiplier 2 scintillation condos semiconductor detectors and photographic emulsion somewhat those are able to track for example cloud the bubble chambers photographic emulsion adrift in time projection chamber as conduct so
I let's move on whoever application 4 out of radiation so effects and uh induces off of radiation solar
radiation as it turns out extensive medical with lets us talk about radiation damage from radiation Arab revenue talking of Alpha Beta and gamma x-rays In addition there have also protons neutrons pile on all of those are ionizing forms of radiation meaning they have enough energy tool not all our plants from Apple and leave ever charged particle Our directed you to electric for and neutral particles and ionizing indirectly error for example can Yukon effect scum Oregon or the photoelectric effect or repair production or Oakley member actions or something else to do go energies all for more than 30 amending be means that it can ionize and many many many have of requires only about 10 from vaults who are twice straw I once you have all those
ireland's this down there can be damaged the material higher but in particularly damages in court in the case of a biological tissue so a biological tissue ionization cells produced the radicals which are chemically very active in the field with the regular course the radiation for example can destroy chemical bonds by knocking off goes all the fonts and alter the more molecule structure now the loss of a single protege and typically not I'm not really serious because outcome of was more of the court put but if told many Alabama Trento short of tying them they may not get reproduced in time and the use of the God also if there was damage to DNA itself that means that all future proteins will inherit that damage that can be fatal to self or it can induce assault become councils the multicellular organisms to measure uh
radiation we've already in column Bekaa ellipsis No. 2 case a 2nd fire in the U.S. that some other white which is called 1 security and the curious 3 . 7 times temper penned by votes both are the same thing for a leader radiation damage there's more youthful just looking atomic particles a study all what ever please positive tho 1 gray means 1 usually get positive about a kilogram also an older you wanted 1 ride which is 0 . 0 1 grade or 1 that I'm going which has 1 . 6 times the trial I am Paris program of Troy and 1 them that means 0 . 8 7 8 times 10 to the minus 2 g per kilogram air out of 0 . 8 7 8 rod for the absorbed dose depends both on the radioactive intensity of all of the material was subjected for example the density of the material for our biological damage he will have this additionally which looks at the energy poverty is not enough who really judged damaged for example alpha-particles doesn't want them and have a novel radiation heavy-ion prepares of produce closer together there for a Obama urged parents to multiply so defines a quality factor you from experience there are much a biological damage Croats this quality factors also called a relative biological effectiveness and so 1 defines an effective those which is those times this quality and a newly formatted seat of the 1 the quality fact cards 1 great and over your 1 where there's the the quality factor behind on and Iran's stands for and cruel and so these are quality factors for radiation types are X-rays now moral called 1 Bader raised her book called the approximately on fast protons also slow neutrons support free fast neutrons up who I call affect my hand and I'll from heavy irons and her quality when there's also also natural background radiative that followed Iife we only see the year off 300 around and legally allowed as an additional doors off on 1 the and that is our duty to for example a medical X-rays and public for radiation vocalist uh legal limit is somewhat higher so are up to 50 Milicevic allowable program however that height of bills should not be sustained over several years so the average of 5 years should be less the 20 was and these radiation exposure of radiation workers as monitor devices such as radiation film badge which is a piece of film about the light tied material and chaotically that film is developed drive and a total exposure was measure or more modern devices thermoluminescent those all those devices that don't protect against radiation may just monitor how much radiation crowed and by the way the um uh a 50 per cent lethal stalls for all our human beings see wrapped in a short period of time earned a tendency work through much means your going to die if you look at a map this uh little
simulation here that's assimilated what what happens to expose assault to various natural predicted for example with the school foot contains yeah potassium 40 richest radioactive or he'll be um various um uranium salts could do was agnise yellow Carlos and their sometimes added 2 blasts told correct nice color what it called the riffraff fly in from behind means that you will you flying over cost me to Sharl switch about high energy cosmic ray particles would of many many secondary particles and the maximum that exposure is just the altitude of the planes in past so if you fly lot you have a lot of radiation export it Kufa for said the world more reactive than that a free and it depends on altitude but on manner quality off the soil then add in some areas where radon gas accumulates in particular in your raised turned their back before a radioactive and that have finally I just the the soil itself before the sun exposure at Saugatuck different example um walked a whole body doses is received by a 70 Pilgrim laboratory worker exposed 48 Umberleigh purity call but and be assumed that the body has a 1 . 5 square meter cross-sectional area and normally about 4 meters away from a source walls every day call by 60 amid swamp 3 3 Amelia 1 . 1 7 community gum us and critics of succession and about 50 per cent off the guy was in black the body and deposit all the image so we solve this problem by imagining the figure a wrong cold water with wages for growth and bare feel the surface area and if we want all the probability of all 4 Dow Maurais striking the person me there take the ratio Our persons cross-sectional area I approve total surface area of the field for this formerly the CEO and if however surface area of full pipe Times Square with the 401 Iife Graham and that means that since the cross-sectional area of 1 . 5 meters and only 1 half all of these dumb interact with Bobby a the probability to are however are Donald absorbed the Barrios one-half times 1 . 5 divided by want water or 0 . 3 7 % and that is also a fractional we got minor injuries a positive so we can calculate how we have rarely heard before the fact of calculate form from a 14 0 lead with the 0 . 0 for Tibet quarrels with the 3 points are funds the kind of a sucker for Rice's theater video integration 2nd where if she saw little Dalai monkeys I want free and 1 . 1 7 gives 2 . 5 there may be corn wrote there electron volts and withdrawals With a 1 . 6 times and minus 19 drool turned them finally every hour of Arab you have these flawless wartime free 600 seconds times Arab we calculated this power over 5 . 9 2 times 10 to the minus 4 rules per so we get 8 . 5 jewels forbade flawless exposure so since the absorbed all however the power the entire as the media army barracks 0 . 3 7 cent of that and then set it in relation to the 70 kilograms of the close weight and that gives us a dosage of 4 . 5 times and full grade and for graver quality for for gamma-radiation quality factors want so we get about 0 . 4 5 off effect dogs which was fairly large Bulls sold every person should probably try and reduce the amount of work that most of the sort let's calculator example with the radon gas a real gas actually this is the 2nd leading cause of lung cancer after smoke so it's probably the best exceeds that from drunk driving somewhat serious with us if there's more than enough for pickup truck Uri Party the EPA recommends taking action to reduce and in some areas 50 per cent of the houses I actually above the limit and let's estimated the total muscle for rate Antoine 22 that is responsible for 4 people so for pickup curious 4 times 10 of the largest Rolfe and Curie and this is the corn into Becker also have fought constantly minus 12 times on 7 counts 10 4 or 0 . 1 4 8 record and we can have a good relation to with the the amount of no clear I wasn't a factor . 6 9 3 and a half life rich 3 . 8 2 free to move about a day and that leaves us with about 7 thousand 500 Look we can calculate harmony dividing out all goggles No. 4 with 1 . 1 7 times 10 to the minus 9 more and since been all that they don't want to our programs from all can I talked with him on the grounds and only 2 . 6 times 10 the minus 19 around by earlier beta
activity can be reduced by using plastics which delayed the passage of the way on ask tho for long that it takes the lead on the case a motorcade last like any but have beta amid the of the beta radiation itself was not so harmful only when you breathe and the rate on that side of life Of course it's called well I thank you for your attention


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