Basic Physics III Lecture 24

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Basic Physics III Lecture 24
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Nyquist stability criterion Bahnelement Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach Day Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme Ground station Particle physics Mass Lead Ring (jewellery) Bookbinding
Theory of relativity Prozessleittechnik Physicist Decay chain Neutron Effects unit Light Ladungstrennung Dampfbügeleisen Radioactive decay Uran-238 H-alpha Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Schwimmbadreaktor Year Wire bonding December Metal Atomism Book design Volkswagen Golf Radiation Elektronentheorie Hot working Smart meter Bomb Literary fragment Boat Lead Particle physics Photon Nuclear fission Mask Atom Bahnelement Spare part Musical ensemble June Mass Ejection seat Ground (electricity) Star Paper Sonic boom Force Magnet Measurement Mars Accelerator mass spectrometry Ion Restkern Bookbinding Textile Mechanical fan Photography Hail Particle Bird vocalization Adapter pattern Spieltisch <Möbel> Color charge Atmosphere of Earth Fuel Photographic plate Decay chain Alpha particle Reaction (physics) Electron Galaxy Light Ladungstrennung Source (album) Direct current Cartridge (firearms) Material Near field communication Radioactive decay Paper Funkgerät Cosmic distance ladder Speed of light Measurement Force Summer (George Winston album) Nucleon Wallet Radiation Restkern Density Material Mail (armour) Nuclear power Typesetting Energiesparmodus Cut (gems) Particle Kopfstütze Speise <Technik> Strong interaction Caliber Neutron Miner Firearm Last Ground (electricity)
Prozessleittechnik Kopfstütze Cosmic distance ladder Decay chain Effects unit Day Eisengießerei Amplitude Force Order and disorder (physics) Particle physics Energy level Radiation Orbital period Radioactive decay Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Wire bonding Vertical integration Loudspeaker Kopfstütze Aircraft carrier Marine propulsion Sizing Strong interaction Membrane potential Restkern Radioactive decay Radiation
Theory of relativity Prozessleittechnik Physicist Feldelektronenmikroskop Neutron Unmanned aerial vehicle Corporal (liturgy) Ladungstrennung Watch Continuous track Perturbation theory Cork (material) Quark Radioactive decay Electric current Tool bit H-alpha Voltage Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Selectivity (electronic) Hall effect Visible spectrum December FACTS (newspaper) Noise reduction Metal Wavelength Belt (mechanical) Beta particle Food storage Book design Containment building Noise figure Hot working Bomb Boat Isotope Lepton Suitcase Cruise ship Nanotechnology Mass Antiparticle Mast (sailing) Telephone Angeregter Zustand Regentropfen Ballpoint pen Field strength Kilogram Force Pen Magnetspule Motion capture Magnet Measurement Quark Spin (physics) Fermion Theodolite Ion Color charge Neutrino Natürliche Radioaktivität Atmosphere of Earth Kopfstütze Energiesparmodus Cosmic ray Visible spectrum White Royal Brierley Crystal Particle Bird vocalization Leakage (electronics) Wavelength Roll forming Colorfulness Canadair CL-44 Tire balance Color charge Color code Atmosphere of Earth Quantum Neutrino Fuel Speckle imaging Alpha particle Sensor Electron Tolerance analysis Green politics Hydrogen atom Ladungstrennung Source (album) Pair production Current density Cartridge (firearms) Plating Radioactive decay Sensor Summer (George Winston album) Force Neutrino Potentiometer Caliper Isospin Negation Kardieren Restkern Electron Book design Typesetting Tool Particle Weak interaction Positron Altimeter Sizing Screw cap Schwache Lokalisation Hour Neutron Trade wind Quantum Week Last Axle
Visible spectrum Motion capture Suitcase Cartridge (firearms) Beta particle Nanotechnology Neutron Ion Mass Radioactive decay Neutrino Radioactive decay Dampfbügeleisen
Prozessleittechnik Typesetting Neutron Nuclear reactor Spaceflight Particle Surfboard Bird vocalization Oceanic climate Beta particle Separation process Wavelength Canadair CL-44 Mountain Spieltisch <Möbel> Gun Atmosphere of Earth Quark Radioactive decay Absorption (electromagnetic radiation) Fuel Mechanic Sensor Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Year Photon Visible spectrum Railroad car December Ladungstrennung Rotating radio transient Mask Cartridge (firearms) Particle physics Mint-made errors Book design Noise figure Radioactive decay Barricade Mast (sailing) Linear motor Ruler Funkgerät Ground state Emissionsvermögen Cut (gems) Particle physics Neutrino Dhow Hilt Energy level Dumpy level Restkern Angeregter Zustand Telephone Mast (sailing) Tin can Mechanical fan Nuclear reactor Neutrino Heat exchanger Positron Elektronentheorie Quark Video Photonics RRS Discovery Nuclear power Caliber Baryon Restkern Neutrino Gun
Oncotic pressure Neutron Photography Skelettuhr Multiplexed Analogue Components Ring (jewellery) Watch Assembly line Ship naming and launching Gamma ray Half-life Book cover Tape recorder Atmosphere of Earth Radioactive decay Initiator <Steuerungstechnik> Optischer Halbleiterverstärker Hall effect Year Hydrogen atom Vertical integration Pair production Receiver (radio) Interval (mathematics) Thermodynamic equilibrium Autumn Cartridge (firearms) Atomism Photonic integrated circuit Mint-made errors Gas turbine Material Radioactive decay SEED Year Interval (mathematics) Singing Outline of industrial organization Camcorder Orbital period Relative dating Nanotechnology Restkern Mass Material Typesetting Mail (armour) Kilogram Heat exchanger Ring (jewellery) Plant (control theory) Hour Ion Neutron Relative dating Restkern Atmosphere of Earth Neutronenaktivierung
days ago we talked about radioactivity in
particular followed with a strong for us is responsible for keeping used go about their view of the lead binding energy off the Tokyo bourse a stronger Sharp Records substantially the last of the look it cannot be neglected her right can bear Meredith defying stability criteria for the stability of 1 of the most stable of August the strongest binding energy personal Rahlves that binding energy this to prickly abroad air-raid immunity from now on a graph of binding energy from clearance for the reduced elements so horizontal axis this is the last of war a binding energy Oakley for Ira we can
actually a few cut relations with this disappearance of part of the master of the binding energy so for example can compare be Marcel you don't for outcome the toll of Mosul that's constituted for our pool neutrons PARIS 2 protons and has to Allah and if we go out to the mound was for must units for the year neutron lasts for Proton Master Award from get both contribution to the total out last summer brought up the 4 4 0 Sweetwood 9 8 upon units but the master of for out this actually only 4 . 0 pools 603 for these difference of the boss of the constituents the somewhat the Mosul considered a four-year adapter mouse point both 3 7 6 early parliament last can express the atomic muscular and energy and so what you would reduce 931 . 5 and therefore we get the difference 28 points new between the Mosul the out on the part of some of the masters of constituents on this case would have a from your finding I just read it yet where you're so with ideas fire what's your at Boston sure Watson tried he's wife set the rest areas is indeed a firms are arm has is the strongest bomb heroes cannot navigate mauled by refusing therefore Whoa refusing and stars of stops with its if you want a rare get heavier elements of support explode which requires an object so all the heavier elements come home from this process Super Bowl explode indeed my next example is areas of forward Karim you go through the same exercise With Irish 56 so you're Muharram parity neutrons 26 protons and electrons calculation grows exactly right most of you for a few somber Gopen McGirt 56 . 4 6 we rely upon its and master of the Irish wrapped up only 55 . 9 3 4 upon master sort this case we have roughly half of the we must go difference for the out or 490 tools and and that means there are no clear on behalf of 8 . 7 9 need of finding him 1 last example of both binding energy uh you look at our call We'll throw TV request with a whole a strongly this last on problems of removal colonized told our with 12 of interest the call our strongly that last extra neutron bomb in this case the calculation marched through the because all that by if conditions our problem as exactly 12 atomic blast units and ignore the extra neutron ways this much of the song was easy through compared to me Arab Of these problems 13 member get . 0 0 5 3 1 Arab difference that's a boat fired me for the last clear that aspect of you rather complex no plea of force where it doesn't mind neutrons to go and it doesn't 2 protons is most effective review or even protons and neutrons so it doesn't like trust just have proton solo you to no purists is not possible for your kind of me very very neutrons move Luke Lewis like Our crimes be out of fear that you're already discussed these air Rangel the are much smaller and that's not because of the strong force but because it's basically just a residual force Of these on the line strong for therefore our only over short distances becomes the era smoke your force effective that means that lobster and will clear I actually go over the reins of the 4th um Nokia tend to be unstable ground and that means the Raiders integrated or a case where the rest of it completely break apart and that means that came amid particles or no clearance after some time and they can even undergo physical which means that the Braves Rigobert prior radioactive woes discovered by Ali Becker he found out that if it places some minerals near photographic plates which were not exposed light would dock after boats Domenici unity isolated OVER a woman's waiting for which a radioactive and last Soon after about more radioisotope hopes discover and physicists thought of the categorized radiation emanating from those animals toll-free basic type uh the alpha radiation which has positive charge the Bader review which negative Begala reduced no chance at all and 1 can easily find out what tossed the radiation has by placing it in the medical field the gamma-radiation goes straight to the authorities on way the Bader review events there different ways to Elazig ROI so do the different ranges off we are also revised down also is easy you still the data as well penetrated and gamma-radiation indeed we saw
that can be be shielded by us simple sheet of paper Waller of cost by our clothing are humans did almost everything will shield all but you buy a large distance mail will shoot authorities can penetrate pieces of metal and radiation can only be shielded by a thick walls of fans material for example 6 earned it was eventually found all that's all fast off to for bade us Solectron down of exists discussed a good book your 4th lights there are even proton Arab neutron actually it even lights With the amount of protons isn't even better if efforts of half photograph for or injects Oakley on very few for about fragment this favor because Paris he called protons and neutrons and even for you and that is why it is more strongly bonds have evolved Oakley therefore reject no clue repairs favorable all so it we of course it is I'll follow radiation consists of lowest nuclei it changes the lamented changes the charge of the to and the mastermind more viable for you so for example if radio 426 which has 138 concentrated protons remedy if it also decays who our 422 raid on where repairs neutrons taught protons letters and of course you have the area particles which the 2 drugs to prod on his so our yeah however energy released that process so that's calculated where disintegration energies when you pull on the to decays thorium 428 here during the EIA different masters Of the Of those twice hopes and the bars of the year again 4 . 0 0 6 upon and so we call the disintegration also often referred as a you off we are of the decay super Master from the rival buyer the speed of light square thrower take the the difference Of those twice hopes of tracked off the area you know a ever differences masks and can bear expressed work G remember this a Q well you are the energy that was released in the disintegration of for their part to a process so what we have here is 1 4 1 4 MTV offer our fuel this Q. appeal kinetic energy of the alpha-particle brought us problem which is a story of however are their off theology is not even so we can actually calculated what this time we share kinetic energy of the or far became a big energy the problem the fraud and review was for this conservation of momentum so From the conservation of momentum the momentum of the alpha-particle must be your the momentum of the sort of particle cause you assume that apparent uranium are all so they need to go in opposite directions with equal magnet with him if we multiplier Marcel the alpha-particle kinetic energy of the alpha-particle kinetic energy of the offer particle momentum square divided by times must therefore we're just left with 1 half rental square all 4 because of conservation of momentum this most b 1 half of the elemental square the story which is by the same argument the must of the course times can so we have this equation that boss Of the alpha times kinetic energy ripples my passport the story of times kinetic energy source the arbitration value is equal to the kinetic energy of golf last and he came back expressed these air kinetic energy story result for the kinetic energy of the story on that we get credits the kinetic energy of 3 or 4 times Mosul golf with divided by for reply but this equation here before the the sort on their kinetic energy of the Alco plus the master race at times you or not what's kinetic energy of the All 4 times 1 plus the vastly now we can solve Watson's nor the Kuala console for the kinetic energy the and we find that almost all of the 4 or 5 . 4 1 for communities that we have available in this reaction cost the alpha-particle and almost nothing goes the floor of the reason for that is the story of so much heavier than the awful if limiting case that a story is infinitely every remedy would receive no kinetic energy at all of Canada's and go awful story Miss OK so the kinetic energy of the story was 94 although 4 of 5 . 4 1 4 MB now that we have defied
uh a defiant as a prisoner integration energy off or the Kuala you observe wrote costly QRU has to be they go where they daughter look here's arrest G our plus the emitted radiation otherwise the process doesn't house so if for some reason America to all users smaller Merrin earn orders grief will the also decays Paris by a strong interaction because that's a brief just the object's hobbled by Arab not all of it both all decays happened to earn the reason for America Is that there Mrs. potential barrier if you were remember we talked about that for the Nokia's we have code on propulsion brought protons and if you look at the potential and Jews functional boosted where up to the distance of the Tokyo forces effective they have negative potential energy but act after that hero interaction dies off and left just the propulsion therefore we have is buried the school could on Barrett and typically an too well you is not large enough to be bigger than the peak Over who's this area and that means if you Otto Pierce's sitting at this energy level Kuala Beirut in principle it can't be integrated but because of quantum mechanics it can integrate after all the way it this that was some Arab Delta Force for a period of time and that's enough to get for the barrier and once at the point be there goes the rest for this is 1 example review our uncertainty relations actually giving your physical effects so classically no clues should never doesn't agree with the bond energy is bigger than that of with quantum mechanics gets such as integration and depending on the size of the area vote all the speakers these days integration will happen uh fast or slow because it requires borrowing more this energy off costs and because of that on uncertainty relation decays a cast process not all nuclei declared war on
late that kind of a little out of here we have a whole
bunch of Adams slows little with lots of it and you start letting indicate you final at 1st um many of them decayed remember a sort of slows was gone exponentially and you would have to wait a really long time until the very last 1 gone Rice's Hall our decays will happen in nature Raul has 1st a lot where America case of slowing exponentially but it never quite stopped by the way this phenomenon of going so that potential barrier with having enough energy is called calmly there's actually application tool radioactive decays your probably road from roof and various your typical smoke detector contains a olive 0 . 2 Willie grams of our of americium I suppose this 41 the Form also was dioxide and that its own also so it has to well your 5 . 6 in Haiti and the resulting alpha-particles ionized air molecules the eyes and I want to ionize the air uh becomes possibly conducting solid fuel so wrong that there um with some metal plates and applied voltage revenue get an electric current cause the Airbus and isolated and if you have ever have entering smoke particles in the air volume the smoke particles will tend to absorb the alpha particles that reduces the ionizing property and therefore current this bear the leakage current drops and the smoke detectors it also works very well with little droplets of Oregon particularly what have because I a set of my own small plenty of time to air start of discussion of a different types of the case so let's not talk about beta case beta particles are Alec saw our Tokyo With some all of that summer a strange thing because the smoke clears the containers so I hope comedy bits and because of a Midsummer electrons and childless con so that means they're charter euros actually increase when here because created a negative Charles have show balance by creating a positive also member mast novelist is roughly the same areas electron can't come from the U. S you draw you could say Well maybe I'll tell you all but actually symbolic can't use also bogged every dollar that the clearest is on the order off want my toe but the size of 10 minus 15 acres and that's what upon center the 1 Michael Douglas and we can calculate Tom momentum relations between the wavelength and the EU the momentum of the electron can calculate what kind of a momentum that would have Harry if it's wavelength it is small enough that it fits inside the store hour I used to plant constant as usual with 1 . 2 4 world Michael fight divide that I want to a constant reminder of my micro get roughly 10 of the last 9 now our phone calls per se or momentum and that means that this roughly 1 thousand we all want GUT and that is much much more energy to members of local case ever look you cases on your time and you you can't get an abuse of about 1 g on red also called for beta decays vandal beta decays with images of 1 where out this story is unlike for the also particles were calculated do you can edit energy of the alpha-particles comes or if it was a similar process slam you should be able to calculate you are kinetic energy of the outlook for simply by looking at well you off the process and that doesn't work because the electrons don't come out with just a single energy singled of Dubai there are that their entire spectrum of this just topping off a peculiar go so I mystified many great the physicists is um enemies Ball ready to abandon conservation 11 consequence and finally Ali suggested the vast the new particle 1 that have that nobody's ever seen before Nepali tour was eventually called neutrino he called the father was eventually called neutrino and their strength properties it has no electric charm has over little masts and fired only appeals in this obscure a beta decay eventually Arafat only came up with a either vote all out also require the tracks meaning that if they don't pose common from gettin island which neither electromagnetic strong and resumed action is called the week saw the weak force that is extremely useful in range so remembered is strong for effective tool for about a 3rd of all kinds of minus 15 leaders who we clauses rangers there still free orders of magnitude smaller so it doesn't uh all reach across the the other thing is that week force is not all that week it's actually strong lower electromagnet it's just not as apparent as electromagnetism Yukon select magnet an infinite reached a weak 4th Terrace is hiding on and all types of interactions about for a week for us where we are concerned with here so-called charged crime to their call charged current interactions because they involve changes Charles was particles Barak for soul for example can change about Quark 4
Cork Romayor changes that have child from last week times of a mentally challenged one-third if simultaneously also change on electron neutrino however promised minors the elementary Charlie and the neutrino has no try call for war all over Our toddler brawl in fact from the Arab requirement electric charges was must balance because the use of the neutrino can't try bits of briefly talk of and time on the already on the boat that positrons which also of we all on they have the same masters what but they have opposite Tom we also added hike walks so there's an and top quark but has the same answer summed up walk but it has the opposite charm of opposite color all the this and I Quark that has same masters of your child and the often the Umbria Don quarks banter corks common those with and costs and tolerant of abuse recalled by a column over entire colony also good white trust if you Yukon call as fuel combined red green and blue there's also a neutrino and unmanned hundreds of boats are being costly neutrino are neutral both for the electric charge as well with you have for color of that might mean that it's maybe just want public believe it or not we have found that albeit a treaty and I had in the same pot is still trying to about the figure of a missing or what I do matters that it will involve MOG you can pay up could do was a particle and goods and have go so you can make a yeah you Liu peril or you can make a solid from positron on neutrino antineutrino you can't produce 1 of them but the colonel was of produced here that's enough and because of the weak interaction there's also are not up comparable relationship we the dollar quark they are kind of belong together it's almost as if were as saying quark various Trust of different quantum just like you had quantum hydrogen In this case the corporal was called the weak isospin comes from returns or symbolically writers are often not that's by the way why made put parentheses on cool symbolized the it's like 1 particle remember however can do the same thing for our entire Oaks the same way we can contact the neutrino on the outlook Togo and the resulting things called left and a source of trade neutral left on from Charles River Oaks sustained the entire tree garlic Desormeaux took France form those particles the charge card national League force areas can grow back-and-forth or you will heal here or we can also have could do was not trust up called America up court but can also are pair could do say up and down and walk or we can repair produce From an hour budgetary these sold assets their productions also allow this is how all the early repeated decay actually works still if we have our say proton arrests Arab to up quarks and the bomb neutron 1 up food on books so Arabic Have a transitional call for Gore quark means that most of the time at least revenue Congo's Proton while novelist peace and the neutron terms until proton and at the same time we have to do is a member the trio I have a riddle that balance that total and by the way in principle can also are on this way a proton and neutron this he had to turn the resulting state we are quarks our also exists in nature called the Bhopal last last but are has different spin characteristic from Paris OTTAWA watch masked who actually happened you sought to example for bigger minus decays carbon-14 decaying 14 trust this their production off I work from Treaty the opposite can also happen carry transform 1 hour for improved on for America that proton neutron who could also be moved back Moses go the other way by where the resulting prodigal that DDT belt on minus also has a different spin around you could watch must for this to be possible war no clear prose the resulting process Over driving report Parliament will neutron is called a plate of plaster case for example you can work me on my team turned toward 19 last the air the pair production of a positron with however the trees and the reason why this is called raid on my decaying breed last because of this is the negative bravery on holiday on a visit positive revelry or or positron finally there last week process that can happen there are no clear systems this you can capture Malik is almost all of prawns however can interact with no clear for example you can have of Williams set capsules the anomalous all of all member firms would solve glued a the only thing that's coming out the trees cruises is called overcome counter so let's
go through an example of how much energy is released in the beta decay of Coburn for team members there is a problem for what team goes through a manager for positive as a positive ions and United 40 have are masters of 14 . 0 0 3 0 7 4 became calculate too well youthful beta decays just like you do for all for the case so we take the difference of this I which he calculators are the actor minus 1 so that is the last of the I memory can get the vast difference with Coburn Islamist Collins Islamist iron and a debate or even this coming off and that us this may be a common master moves or bought 150 56 off Our fragmentary about was not just who we brought on Tokyo's but also proven neutrino don't see the neutrino higher depending on how What Cheer between objects you see the entire spectrum of freedom would violate this place
years of interesting place for our for neutrino also detecting neutrinos is very difficult because they don't like to act them much much more penetrating and got minorities but they also don't back it actually took a quarter-century from WorldCom Polly's predicts the existence as of the particle discovery by Orion isn't Cohen and Brian isn't Cohen used it was good case meaning to Harare are a matter neutrino interacting with proton from positron who try to detect Anton on neutrinos coming on nuclear reactor and eventually I became faculty are for this discovery won the price 5 and Hall was named after tho the last of the movie radio are active cases it's got lucky muddy K are the same as a photon saw just like there were energy levels after they also energy levels the book and our Bucaram error excited nucleus to go to a high energy level or our nuclear that is higher energy state air can get rid of that energy by admitting a photon and because the energy is a lunch greater use them out uh those photons I actually Daloris rather than visible for beatific OMG difference barricade these 2 MTV's and therefore you get a good result resulting wavelength of photon much at SSA absorption is also possible Barry primarily look absorbing such for Goto exotic wore and the cause of Alpha Beta decay um these problems might already be excited so for example if I ah borrowing 12 American to can beta decay looked for the ground state of copper or 20 excited state call and if it goes so this excited states where the air resulting to argue for the rate of growth of small and Bennett In exchange to get an additional gummite mission of 4 . 4 8 a often or companies I will have no clear prose Of course for fuel got my dedicate itself TOKYO child doesn't change our us very approximate must because the novel nuclear so we can
now some arise Alpha Beta and Dow masts and Arab you have several conservation laws that happened in the process of all but er or off what rules we roll out just like in mechanics Yukon eminently living on annual rental I like him Elektra by Mavericks we also Kwanzaa Charles and he also played a gun on a case however be Dick Kwanzaa other things as well for example of the so-called Paramount Rivera mumble one-third is assigned to each Quark mind is 1 of to each and that means since over from or Proton consists of a free quarks stripped plus 1 4 he the proton or or neutron and therefore this burial consolation implies that the novel of space it not the no prions about remained in the book total number of our crew Arab appearances they say it also concert was the eye so-called slept on review signed a letter from Mount more plus 1 for all of France and treat also can't on my this 1 for positrons are maritime bear Arab both Alpha Beta Of all figure case will bear Marroquin so will not let phone number 1 last remark about the um DXI taste Dow must 1st of all it can that can take quite a long if the thought Pearsall leader agrees there is my past it can even happened with Oleg emission flew of our car Morris energy is released and some of called internal let not talk about time dependence of about such a case OK the amount Our paranormal clones we have seen version sharply decreases with time costs and the number of decay is that happens every 2nd also decreased time both I exponential case so we
can understand that by observing the launch of the book and off our sometime look behind you have and the longer the time interval Delta TV or 0 them a lot of the number of Delta and the case from other Delta and now will take you from proportional to the amount of no clear that have decayed you have and the tyrant of although they are we looked and saw the ire this constant Lombard PARIS proportionality constant or decay constant for this particular type of nuclei if you look definition of proportionality however this looks like kind derivative of the humble Oakley equals minus lavender times more clear and that this the defining equation for uh an exponential therefore the amount of looking on as functional is the initial amount of vocal style each with a minus land random error if you look at the rate the actress she ethanol would further through the error rate off decaying merit clear I just from looking of this equation this is mind but times the amount Oakley I dont want science interest over the life science we just multiply and clearly growth a a constant caravan say I allowed the times and not the initial rate of Katie on not Chris all called the decay rate productivity the samples look you what it is there's integrations 2nd wore out because of an on off Ali cover finally we can define a half-life of the decay and half-life that time period T half were on Wall clearer remaining half original that also the activity off we have of the sample America time will also be a one-half let's look at an example of told of our carbon-14 has a half-life of 5 thousand 700 years before sample contains tamper with trendy to such a low-key Iowa others to repeal the wrong in all Otis Harris Lambeau times and not Ronald members often called these characteristic time for life time off both of both look I this related as we will see labor behalf life R . 6 9 fleet will tell you what where this number comes from and are therefore be rate for assemblies plant where the creation of the Raiders . 6 9 3 times not divided by 31 half since they're not it's temple the till we get where the the activity 3 . 8 3 times 10 to the 10th have Becker on offer charity for 10 and to 20 to work carbon-14 so why tenuous Coburn 4th seed To or a cool date uh organically produced material the reason why we can't do that because there are costly grace can't tell us we produce new accounts you have to be out of these neutrons they can solve exchange with the hydrogen have watch exchange means is that neutron Eggleston Tokyo's all the proton neutron go there a proton goes out and redirected terms called a nearly constant production rate and therefore liberalness established between Coburn at 12 and carbon-14 rather organisms live they absorb carbon 14 from the air plants your photos the of your food there animals and plants and saw that sober borrowed 1 . 3 times turned my for the air column out of our for for a new Morgan Ford once they go once the dies is no further
problems for what he has added a number of carbon-14 just decays away and we can to that allows last cool have an estimate off the time of death of over where to refine this technique for just 4 small variation of the production rate 1 uses tree rings or our other samples with the ages independently so let's say look at the very end as an example of how this works for let's say we have our place with 1 particular piece of bold terrorists it is a box we aren't you all we investigate this claim by measuring creativity over small sample and by the way if such things have been done for example for these Schraudolph Torre toasts at receiver of what was used to clean this fall that Jesus Christ was born so if they have 30 grams of material where Arabic can calculate how many carbon atoms are using novel goggles mumbled and uh atomic rate of carbon and get that its 1 . 5 times 10 of the 24 hour problem Red means that they have this many carbon-14 because you know that a fraction of 1 . 3 times and my trial was called for a weekend Barrett judge from the activity of the 7 . 2 record our Hall a cop with no clear we are not defined its 1 . 8 8 times and 12 carbon-14 earned that exist now not became then there was the exponential decay law could tell us what fractional half life has elapsed and you find that it is 4 per cent off the half-life which this case for the 5 of them on the 1st 2 years we aren't 40 years and so on this case age off the bone marrow would be consistent with the claim that it comes Thanksgiving feast


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