Successes and Failures in Search for Antibiotics

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Successes and Failures in Search for Antibiotics
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it is so. the old lady children. in the head be the year this morning and to tell you something about this and six new development them knowing that the antibiotics it is really coming the less likely the case is nothing. billy manoel in the history of medical science and medical application as the gruelling the of chemotherapy many be proven could only for the wood as out on occasion the company communication sage i prefer the unfortunately many.
of my colleagues prefer to call it and a biopic aid because of knowing he would previously in the history of the human race have been such a blessing as conferred upon mankind as ewing the less sleep the caves the war began by.
about nineteen thirty nine nine king for the when almost simultaneously that on ounce it the you'll substances isolated from bacteria one official was discussed a few minutes ago. by a pennant colleague under the name down the sideline as actually it was known as style krystal of which one of the components of genocide in a second one was penicillin which i'll go named and discovered a ten year.
just be for all was actually proven to be affected and nineteen thirty nine nineteen for the at oxford university and finally act and of my seen isolated from the school of economics c.d.c. and my lab was sorry.
it was learned the full of that delays groups of microorganisms as capable of producing substances and i want you to remember that the world and biotic as belted used only in ninety four he won also are nearly three decades ago it was. in early and of our idea of new homes mostly as microbial coxon this actually as far back as eighty nine to hire a precursor are substance a raft of penicillin was light selected from a very little known most other observers think.
brewing process i got see an album as a pilot of planning that ability of certain on giant support use chemical substances which had at work and in between or even at the structure of a fat upon billions of microorganisms including lost.
at the genetic girls. bacteria products have also been isolated prior to tie up prices. professor on this plane sime were working not popular demonstrated that certain bacteria specially split filming a all that bacteria are the city with my curly the site not very far distant from the simple premise how capable of producing.
thing substances that have been hitting effect upon various last year and the next to my seat he's not sure i'm capable of hitting the growth of very bacteria but again will i be given this period only nineteen thirty nine nineteen for the. because we might call it the beginning of the antibiotic idea because of costly discoveries purification actually the substances of purified and the fact last tested in animals and humans and found to be extremely impulse now.
so my only as the german so ably presented and i began work as a surrogate michael biologists as you know microbes concerned with the causation of disease microbes used in industry.
i'm a really affected m.p. who culture and the soil however up as well as an suv on com compose of murals they are living in mixed populations another his eye millions upon millions of different kinds of microbes living side by side. side and these natural substrates it was only logical to ask the question how would not only with these microbes grew in the soil not only how they affect plant growth and soil transformations bus especially how they affect you.
one another. and in my own case to my greatest or twice i found that some of them had a sleek least they are making a fat up and other microbes while others average weekly usual is a fax upon other microbes so much so that the nineteen.
actually in january nineteenth will be said i published the company has a live view which i curled associated an antagonistic into the leash and shapes and long microbes and it is very simple to prove that as purpose of fleming said time and again if he had worked in a clean record. perhaps he would never have observed and merrill contaminating up early and producing a substance which he called penicillin and white room keys as many serve microbiology is to dilute the s.l. sample to a high dilution want to a million dollar by.
selected colleagues at the on the plate. but occasionally it i made a mistake or the assistant from i asked the karada than our system made a mistake and instead of using a million by lucian of so i'll be used at thousand and ten cars and the louche and to migrate supplies while the plate for scrabbled that not risk.
my lease some colonies existed there berry shot with the early to start the fact that another earth and debating effect rather upon others and therefore the question was first of all how would they do it right to the do they do it and let you.
this can we make of this particular observation. and for the and weather phenomenon was be and precise year since my daily west console microbes and nineteen fifteen i concentrated primarily upon one group that is known as the actor niceties these are all the so-called a very fine job. the my car just the first of them as fungi that the n.e.a. indicates a bacteriologist school them higher bacteria a little too clear at that point the present time they have classified among the back here but as a very special group of high of bacteria.
and while it was known that their current large number of send the soil the elderly growing generic name acting on my sees actually the earliest known names to this group are forever isn't so good right here in germany the f.s.f. urban on kong had been asked why.
university called eliminating seventy two strip that six and professor hartson violin called and eight the seventy nine acting on my seeds and the store names are very interesting from the point of view of vick. the naming of the numbing culture of these antibiotics and it is the effort is quite understandable why i should have concentrated on the antibiotics of this goal proper organisms and it was fortunately that i did so because while the bacteria have contributed.
i watch number out a plant that biotics only two or three of them and i found practical application i need only mention the higher price any abbess a twenty seven in politics an all or not rather us that i used occasionally the fungi well.
finally made it such a tremendous impression because of the sky what i have the ability to buy use penicillin a also contributed to affect practical use the only four or five compounds as such as a result fully such a set a lot spring and one after water us. but it is back to my seat is that have contributed the greatest number of antibiotics and built this number up with a huge a amount practical application while at the beginning of the period time speaking off the ball hardly any antibiotics you.
these pop back or purposes and being a person financially in crime the with a one legged what we call now antibiotics seriously ill brother were would not have amounted to more than a few hundred dollars while at the present time he can actually cause collated in terms of billions.
dollars as a production a year while the world and among these antibiotics dec time i see this probably less than eight thousand compounds operation said an isolated since nineteen thirty nine from the slope of organisms and practically the between. tasty and maybe the pending upon the particular use our use of practical conquer all of infectious diseases.
of land animals and plants are some of them have found all the applications which i will not develop ponders loaning such as preservation of food stuffs such as a feeling of certain animals and so on the important thing. it is to remember that first after all that is antibiotics. are now all word used in such a scale that never read nobody with the end of i just want to remind you that are again it was in this country that really believe isolated side was sat.
not very longer as history grows that the style was that chemotherapy wrong kind of go and kill himself prophesied that it will not be clearly wrong before chemical compounds will be found that twelve.
for bacterial infections but seibel sounded for syphilis but it took a credit of a century the for brain mark again in this country demonstrated a capacity of the source for dogs to include bacterial growth not only and the test you.
paulson that living animal again exceed the only chemical industry built. contributed these life saving drugs but the dignitas the contrast honest meant find every other chemical or fashion qaeda and the biopics and the stories for all that trend and i hope you will probably give me i do not have any practical. inclination to only a fraction upon any particular group but the story must be to hear that when that well as several jobs and the african corn often and north africa filed among the dead americans are of course packages of penicillin and labor of cold.
that these chemical substances on ice road isolated from near and cultural says he said this is another american been off but fortunately this graph turned out agreed saying of the human race.
as i said i began earlier observations since my early west and act in i.c.t. its beginning in nineteen fifteen but it also ninety eight thirty nine that i began to concentrate upon the actual i solution obese chemical compounds from various call. much of a second of my cities and the first culture that the isolated and nineteen for the and and a pure increase talents to read the curb the economic scene and the substance our own is worth a good school early and their extensive discussion for which i have no.
but i later by duo i will make it again. but act and i seem to have to be so extremely toxic that it would kill the animals which have to leave the united as quickly as a to kill the bacteria that one fact and animal and will fail after a certain amount of experimentation.
we cling to the conclusion that for my conduct the mother lap you to a point of view it was not promise whatsoever and we put aside. they now remember the acronym i see as they arrived from hearts as first read the economic crises that the attached to this global ferguson's than two years local between nineteen forty in for the to penicillin became reality it's important to remember this.
sergei buildings and therefore eyesore that important substances that the after arriving twice the rate should have an activity that should not be assessed by penicillin and since penicillin was primarily active against grandpa's the bacterium certain them.
i get it how quite the concentrated and my about are you up and isolation of substances that would be active against than negative bacteria. and the two wheels of the isolated step to christen not for as the name you'll recognize was derived from further along crowns first name statistics and it was logical that we should use for our second antibiotic the second knowing the lead to a member of the group.
of these organisms that status recent and i can muster assure you that strapped its recent was the requests also threatened by seen it had not been for the isolation six months later lost that from my seat step towards recent with the building at up to take drugs at the present time. its practices and had ever the desirable properties off at the top you think agent at also read a sizeable it was an active it was he's very well it was an act in an hour by the range of bacteria but the moment and positive and i'm and negative back year.
the club so he will use experimental animals infected a variety of pathogenic bacteria but unfortunately the animals that he saved by the use of step with recent began to die you have a week of two later another was a process that has thrown a.
paksas a p s akamai seen but the process that the lead texas city which certainly had to be pretty into any a consideration. and it felt that the us in spite of foods glee desirability. being you know have already had that kind that the does not represent and i said that type of compound but the only second of mice he said the capacity to paul use or of cups of compounds summer and some of them which might be better construct a threesome.
rob nettles redeveloped in the study abstract the prison. within six months the isolated stop them i see which all burp assess the very same left on top of the suspects recent scale it had much less toxicity constructed prison and out for detainees not all this while and nearly at to the strike.
thank you for a minute. you never heard the expression of the world screening programmes the only two approaches and the study of these antibiotics and to learn and because of the observational similar left with a runoff planning and razzi i got us where.
observed a collection of a maryland or bacterium that had a destructive effect upon all wouldn't be thing effect upon all about michael organisms and the other hand that was hand this was the system the eiffel tower and perhaps even helped to develop this systematic search. which brought chemical substances used by different michael organisms that have the capacity often hitting the growth of whether as if you called and biopics and now all this screening programme mainly because things happen laws are going in.
since systematically of course because he did not have to actually isolate and the develop techniques that day was in a preliminary fashion with the organisms how desirable in the firms are not desirable. but this system was immediately followed and causes of robert always while the world and not particularly persistence to invest a lot about those the child mentioned and then you might say that on a jury in the bees the ragin the and.
the interstate be is screaming performance the first substance that that body usually isolated elderly slog but there is no matter whether walls and the united states on great britain on the soviet union was acting on my scene and the second rounder status and and the third round my.
have been strapped on myself how might have been something else. as a matter of fact acting on my scene at the present kind perhaps a word about that kind of my seen as i said because it has a tremendous importance at the present time. second i seen which has a tremendous activity upon last back year but it also processes are very high taxes city but to be observed because i didn't want to be assessed them he found many antibiotics active a pound actually.
immediately the ideal could how about why was this and we started to a private screening able to wear assess and the failed miserably as i will explain in a few minutes later right but the only type of compound that the pond had some better.
sector with the was the film effect on my scene. recall that phone i walked into my seat next to my seen a billion five or six years and industry luckily in our own state of new jersey hop marrakesh isolated another for more fecund myself with recall be but again he was the excitement the business world.
i was nothing to fall until six years later while i feel really well in germany our old friend remark only miss yet the belly of the or i had a great pleasure of being good at this meeting six e.u. segro the american his colleagues isolated. did you from effect on my secrets be called act on my seen see held upon superficial i'm sorry to say study they have clean but they believe that the process a second later effectiveness upon a second film of can sell known as which comes disease.
and he published quite a group of people's that acclamation see his acting upon such cunts disease. and i do see those paper was only nineteen fifty three at a tiny of them microbiological congo's and room and i happy to be the chairman of a session on economic seems unlikely presidential address i said that is the story of these and by.
success not come to an end the document was potentially olive trees and doctors that back to business upon can sell and i illustrated that with the worst of the dome about global and on my drinking was first shown that was the only person in the audience were on.
the astute only one third of what i said and that was canceled and says i received the nobel prize a year earlier while we came out that the large announcement on the phone pages of holding this purpose of the world now about prize winner announces accu for cancer and i can. assure you that i had helped to pay. i would have received thousands i can just site to your phone run of the kings of africa it was said the split be at the calm but as the order will suffer from heart disease that i should be all and i can have that really arab curse that has ever on.
at the pap practical use and s dollars of that nature but the most interesting fein was when i came to an internet day i received a telephone call from the about the american and the restless and he said reading was here that you who discovered a cure for what comes disease.
i said or that's a lot of thousands first of all i discovered that i broke the relevant my accent dictate that crane had that that fact and dirtier wanted grown contact with and one and now he said i want you whether you say about it i say you don't have to starve in florida. and he said you need any money to her own raju activities i said i could use town.
c n n about prices were now does not have all the money at his disposal for research and he said and i'm actually quite a substantial sum on his side were all next week usually get the checks and i got the next street and immediately initiated the robbery this search for a bible. i knew that down rumors for also effect on my see them at all fact one of the most brilliant canvas in this country office about known at getting in actually separated these aconite say into dozens and dozens of different from those for which you use that we let the offer but.
and every an umbrella but the arab and the romanovs. when we initiated that program razzi well looking for is far from an effect on my seeing that might be less toxic a knowledge on with her own a and secondly particularly because abruptness difficulties in separating back under my skin which is a myth show of the phone to.
in the current identities. a single for and the than a year we succeeded in isolating such a compound and logically be called that act on my seeing the and by she'll stock a frock it was found that the second my seen be actually was in effect upon certain forms of cancer.
but unfortunately not a very common ones such as well as can sell or kidney cancer and children such as a certain form of credit can sell known as opposite common but not sure and persistent and that act and i seen an especially with you for all. just as the common reason you just one of the latest by chemical tools that had been introduced into their law but only in recent years as it actually if i may say so and spite of many any molecular circle biologists and maybe in this are ruled that a helpful.
somehow the rental the genetic world of the d.n.a. on a transformation and it is being used at the present time and most likeable toys and such studies now as i said to come back to stop them myself.
structurally shield was not necessarily an ideal drug as the challenge said it has eliminated less infectious diseases like to chile other infectious diseases afflicting be human race. and speaking of them factions disease i incidentally exclusive of the biases the website will come in a minute. can be controlled and that the i.r.s. definite fashion and notably the west are also as a threat to my scene played such an important role such stop perhaps us only after we feel might be in place when i dedicated the first weapon.
my sing planned build and india outside upon by i had the fortune of good fortune of of the singing along to curb his side by side but this can never at that time the same year that a premier of india mr nevo said to me why do you bring no such qualms.
we have too many people you bring those drugs to say you many upon was that the content to keep our population under control. i said to enlist an error that is you problem my problem is to help save lives that are already under soil and of course he had nothing further to add and i'm sure will the table solid sociological late father often prevent the.
progress of medicine now trapped lysine had certain limitations and the one hand it assessed as assistant limited access city and hearing that capacity and on the. russian revolution can curb iowa system our other eight new will affect and second limitation was that since in the case of tuberculosis particularly it had to be youthful really kind and the other to control the disease it gave everyone a park.
unity to the bacterium to the bacteria and tuberculosis mycobacterium tuberculosis to develop resistance to and many people felt so unhappy about the stow phenomenon that they thought that the probe will learn the but can also sell come back again.
to where it was before the first genetically and i said that time and again strapped to my son was the first drug that were shown to be effective against the best ursus not only didn't the organism in the test you but also against infection and animal and and humans and sex.
when he could not be to ask around and it certainly could not be the best around. and play at first in a play before well you longer a professor of money from credible and so he demonstrated establishments that a certain chemicals and patrick compound than a muscle cell excess and eighty by not flatter myself had to be injected. i'm not the hat and destructive effect upon tuberculosis and by combining start the mice in the p.a.'s found in a subset of test not only were you able to lead use the back the tax system to have stuck to my scene about model that those required but.
by distributing the else at last a frequency you will be able to reduce the weekly that accept that fact and affectionate and here comes another story. nineteen fifty two sunny day in two weeks perhaps some weeks after i see the nobel prize in sweden i had of thirty and nadal engagement which was around the world hundred aside and that wasn't turkey or silent of cook six months well to the.
of a series of important addresses in that country and nobel prize our money is finished and that kind of said the centre as you well remember well and under thirty of them december i had to the amount might gentle address and on the first thing i had a plane that because directly to work you know.
and it took fifty two riots and grown playing. let us they have to fulfil our early and asian and i was invited by the end people of japan to con and i am a visit he was very gracious the esky a series of questions and one of the question simply important historical he said.
and nineteen lender were caught we had in japan every year around three hundred deaths from tuberculosis annually three hundred that some to weight loss nineteen for the people he won last year which was nineteen fifty two per night was speaking to him at the end of june. when you're a fifty two or an independent december fifty two all in january because early in january fifty three he's made in japan about a month and he said last year which was fifty one fifty goal that does come to us as fair to ninety out of three hundred.
but you still had to call and the like to ascribe debt reduction to do you use are strapped to my scene but the question he said i want to rescue will think do these nine the air today he had any other possible by being and i said when you lost.
three men don't that's fair pricing was the first drug and as i said a minute to all you can hardly think that occur be the only route to sell for college might even though he probably said. and secondly make combined with it and as i was thinking when i send my is he the third the great important and back to back or worse as ron was being discovered the united states and elsewhere.
and i was very happy to read another ten years later though that it lost the ability in japan from tuberculosis ran down to earth last and could lead a year so good at the present time at the chairman said tuberculosis s. practically on the complete control. i need not go into this subject further but before i leave i want to discuss because i nest very frequently hard about why was this season's how about cancer diseases do can antibiotics are going to antibiotics.
and you look for the of control. you must remember that we are dealing in the case of these two groups of diseases and that totally different fashion from not infectious diseases called by microbial systems and decrease affair for the sake i for it or you know you know.
the afterbirth causes the real become microbes that was that income rises that let the price in the case of viruses they do not grow our agreement metabolized that do not want to apply passat and i mean multiplying the right and other well. is that watson but chemical agents that stimulate the seller to play use substances lie down and bell for any and i held at the time does not permit me to discuss the lot of action will use antibiotics.
because that is extremely important to remember how to act upon these sensitive bacteria son and fact the current rather sad fact their metabolism still also affect their multiplication grown from on other in our cells that was his aisle.
we've not had the spot of peace then the arctic's automatically not act upon viruses and i can assure you that as soon as we recognise the importance of strapped to my seen as soon as he received the first found the un route upon our work he built especially building. put the study of biases of which i know a little but we are a pain that have popped rather just another experts in the field and immediately attack the problem and i can assure you that on my part that was the greatest a waste of time and money because he accomplished practically nothing.
and the same this grant for by also research i mean for anti-viral the surf front by by legions while the world are brought the present time dollar loan compounds that may affect while this is a lean tissue culture and detest you but not in the human.
the animal body now fortunately for all cancer phenomenon all your plastic diseases this situation is not his bat because in the case of me a plastic diseases that we had so as to sell us get out of control and begin to let the pipe. in the end of the control of the human or animal body he can affect their eight a growth of these cells and i'll fall substances i've been around and at the present moment quite a few of them as i said beginning with tact an amazing and ending with the number of campania.
those that have been isolated by melling japan soccer my scene and. i suppose role of fuel was clean slate read or heard about this compound the waters a call from the sea of the derivative offer for my seen a typical antibiotics that there might be circling chemical pollutants.
of salonika biopics and incidentally i hardly mentioned the fact that and kentucky suffer antibiotics number was a handset been made to learn to fight them chemical he possibly in the hope to change their activity as you know no doubt that penicillin has made tremendous progress.
august in this direction only in billion recent years they have found the so-called said my cent patrick venezuelans to penicillin now the natural penicillin that means the penicillin point used by the microbe can be spread by an enzyme and then rebuilt by. heading for the chemical compounds and the semis and katich penicillin but rather than watching the weekly the effectiveness of the penicillin loop of compounds unfortunately case of structure myself that proved to be impossible or bill o'reilly generally a compound called by high dose.
it's up to my scene was prepared for him to step on my since and practically that compound growth who had no more desirable properties and stop them icing this out. and the other hand on numerous other antibiotics that have been isolated after struck the mice in notably to clone family called quest of all and then but that costs cyclists and then new more sadness as i've mentioned before my seen its own which lend themselves to can.
michael modifications job doesn't subscribe after that of the. but that aside teams that are present time with in the laboratory and and practical use and in the case of longfellow quell the had their active and inactive for all so much so that that was practically the only antibiotic now that is quite use in technically so why did the still and.
biotics because i will generally it was isolated from a culture of a microbe at the present time it is largely what do sympathetically well for our hope is great and the first found out that will cause to potentially oddities of some of these microbial products ninety.
called the biotics perhaps now mange will be different. and plans to be effective against viruses are against me a presence will feel go up and up from endlessly now i've been asked crime and again with antibiotics and at the present moment. if i had time to examine to you the progress of these compounds and practical use i would love us chalk with several leveling off periods and unfortunately one of the leveling off periods came from a compound isolated again this country and that one.
most telling me that this discovery of to live in need and its use and not have cars everywhere especially in the united states the end of that that if it will do it for the search for new antibiotics i did not develop on that the detail i'm sure will.
that most of you often million with that. and at the present time in the united states particularly because of the cock sick attacks of sept nine biopics especially close family called like an assistant or the us does the government or the food that the administration of the health service and the united states. race has become extremely demanding upon chemical industry or antibiotics industry for want of practical evaluation before introducing them out lying there in production and to practical use just one illustration for example then strapped to my see.
it was discovered and then it's potentially oddities against any negative bacteria was demonstrated the logical question was in the case of mixed infections why not use penicillin and proper my scene and as a result of that that the introduced a new mosque on the nation's.
it's only the first of its i think was called caused by a thick to come by objects that means a combination of antibiotics and it has been used say is that probably for the first forty five until to see you but now that the need is only the combination is being questioned by the. government agencies because they say the best euros of this combination is in the case of certain extent factions of the bat and neil tracked the and the id and the other ideas particularly but in the case offend the car babies you have to use the.
jade was certainly said rogers of penicillin and if you use can buy arctic you are going to buy unocal using a large quantity of struck them icing which is nothing less a site and which actually may prove to be and talks to the by and therefore beilock use individual antibiotics and then combine them and if.
one concentrations as they are required but unfortunately the doctor that practitioner does not have a very extensive about the way at his disposal that could answer this question see i had a cultural you find out from the homage penicillin how much for pricing how much other words i've got to use.
who's sometimes he asked to act immediately and their forty's combination of antibiotics rice aid including nine sure they save many lives and well for the question is what is going to happen now and the result is that until recently it was only building few you into buying. six and up on the question have you reached the end of antibiotic development or had been isolated and off compounds to take care of all our needs while only time will tell thank you so.