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LinuxDays 2015: Practice 2

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so how about heat this s to Linux and practice cost to obviate as 15 Linux state of the alternative dot ch this recording was made at Helms' I was not very happy with what I told the course I was flattered confuse due to reasons related my studies and was not able to put Clearpoint's size well as I wanted you so part of this lecture have been replaced by the recording I doing at home right now so we're talking about upward redirection
and piping as you saw in the previous course many commands produce op with that will be displayed consul terminal actually there are 2 kinds of of what we have regular output and error messages by default both are printed into the terminal and there's a terminology regular output is going into something that we call STT up 2 written like that has to be and error messages don't going there but they go into S. T. pair for error and it by default both of them are just displays in the Council's so if you have for example that's documented that year before literally remedies files from for less cost than this goes into city out which will go be going to the Council's
now actually in that you can redirect thinks and for doing that you have to type a larger then sign after the common so say I want to redirect whatever it was just the orbit like this stuff the to file we can just put a large events botched and fat and put it into the phonological comfort now that doesn't exist of fire code contone get so are gonna created with this command the hit enter this time you see there's no up what showing up it's because city out this not the concert anymore but this icon and again I have a look at this from and you can see that our files are printed in here thousand not colors of course have been lost as
this is a text all the files of formatting is different than it was in the Council this term all these items are printed on top of each other whereas for the consul they were at the site of each other now the reason for that
is because every single 1 of these files or folders is considered to be an item which we call a couple and of course in the consul in order to save space so that doesn't scroll so much are they put it on the side of each other if possible however are in a file
of course it doesn't matter where you put things and this is where they are put on top of each other in order to create so a better overview no actually if we say you can you can actually redirect any kind of output for example there's a Command called would echo does is it just me it just shows you what ever you give to it so if you give it to arguments here Hello and World and will just print all this stuff to STD out as you can see here we can't redirect this of course so you can say
but this to our company file and the output is gone is no the company that can have a look at in the and as you see how the world is in the books see that the previous Khot Knuth at which was the Albert Ellis has gone but he did he go this comment again and look at constant again you see that Hello world has got actually this operator overwrites whatever is in the file without even asking for permission so Canada dangers that you could maybe lose some files by overwriting them the watch out where you that no there is also a way to append to a file for example if we say we want to echo Hello world by keeping the actual contents of constant then we can just add a 2nd to larger than having 2 of them meet appended again there's no output in the consul this time have a look at the you see that there are 4 files at this Hello world
Of course continous not part of that since we are looking at a subfolder companies the current fault now look at the look at error messages for example we can have user been on also this is an attempt to delete a file at don't have to write a note asking me do you really want to reboot to buy protected file as yes and tells you permission denied this away for not making or and ask for permission again that is the f option you find that in bad aid to foreign what does it say this time immediately tells you permission I'd without asking me anything effect tried to redirect this you see that it still shows up on the cons that is because we have all the redirect opacity out but not to give our so if we have a look at and is actually nothing there is no standard output has has been produced by our vote to redirect this would have to do is put back to in front of the large events and this means I want to redirect the standard error of that and not the standard output itself and this time with complete silently and the arrest this is written content so let's produce a wall of course there's something you probably guessed if you want to append to it just that another 1 of the larger than science and this time of has not been overwritten but contains both error messages that we produce ones
here and once state so now let's have a comment that
we use both at airesearch and the standard ALP of message actually can say I want to touch and it shows the file and if I and I ran to remove this this Senegalese is a new option which is the the sense of others it means talk to me baby tell the everything that so that's or and he with this B flat and you see that it has successfully removed empty in each pot is telling us about it has to be
flat so he did you it's gonna content against we need it I I can't say I want to reboot forced and purpose news of in nominal as well as empty now you guess if they are to messages being produced by this command 1 is the error message for permission denied for nonyl at the other 1 a standard up about such that they successfully removed empty the rich text and again and redirect both of these so they can say is I want to redirect the standard output true success and the output is to fail I've ever look at as as a seed companies Computer Science there's both up with have been redirected back and look at the successful father contains the success message than verified and there's the error message and so nothing surprising here this is how you redirect standard output
know much more powerful than redirection is piping with piping you can send the output not to a file but actually to another comeback now to illustrate this let me introduce a new command word caps WC told you got any you that have very we'd abbreviations this is 1 of them so if say WC off the errors then you can see I that this house 1 line 6 words and 57 characters the next account that and there's 1 word 2 3 4 5 6 words right there's 5 white spaces of X exFAT about there's 1 line and while
we probably just got trusted for the for demand characters know what it can do also as we can say the echo that say hello there to something which recall count file this is just standard direction other that's but something else in there that saved me out the appended to the so if you have a look at comfort is said to reliance and 3 words so we can do now as we can say of ECE count filed and again we see that this is correct so this over country does indicates the lines words and a much character know what it can do is we can say we want to put a less to say something we call contained but now we want to W. C this is my details as well as 20 lines in it so what I know now is that in my folder which is this 1 . 20 items of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 and this twice a mixed 20 items so I just counted the amount of documents I have
here or folders etc. by 1st redirecting the output of olestra file and counting the light of this fact now that's a little bit of an overhead on it's pretty stupid I've actually to create 5 just to amount that we have in the cord folder we can do is no use of the pipe operator and this is would magic begins in the Ellis gives us some of what know redirect this output whatever Alaska's gives us to W. C you know this will not create a file so-called pipe packed like a Cupid analyst put stuff into it will directly float to double use not what surprising the output is exactly the same as a box well of
course doesn't indicate a 5 anymore but this is for example how you can quickly can't modifiers so you have new occurred falter which is 20 they can redirect pretty much anything also you can redirect redirect itself you can chain pipes as long as you what for example let's have a look at a website hierarchy so he that we go through the to form website which are clear cut to cook the debate and we can see that research folders here and a lot of HTML facts that we would like to open all the HMM files in this folder and all
subfolders proven called get it that's not install bits histology information so the separate in 4 installed so it's a good reminder for you against Norge installer program and of course it has to pull in all the dependencies as well so is installed that have look this is get it is just as the
text editor where you but in some effects well not safe anything himself if it
up at this there's there our it's enough funds we want open them all in cash so what he could do you could say again it's in the isolation male locking dot h melanin basis contones things the trend is there is a lot of more a tumor files it online I don't want to have to pay for it open the wall that had known for just run this with these 3 files FIL will open up with the 3 thousand I am looking for but I'd like to have a command which does this automatically for me for any HTML file within this fall so piping is exactly what I need here actually what I could do there's I can get a list of all the files and folders in this direction including subfolders section are there there's several ways to do that 1 of them is and and die find will just go through this hierarchy adopt means start from here so these are all the files and folders that I have now of course I
cannot open this fall to get it so have to be sure that the older you get HTML files as other Command called direct I would grant because it is it's filters thinks it searches for assault so a prior to the content of fat the find to crack that I want to filter out of only get thinks that stopped with H actually word that contain aged tumor anyway and as you see now that companies has vanished and the dog humorless highlighted here do we get a list of all
HTML files located in the current
folder and also for those 2 grep is much more powerful that you've read it's meant that you could spend
a lot of time and that is a very powerful tool so now we could just word count this quotes would be very helpful we can pipe it to get this is not possible other problems without Istat's get at once these things or arguments and not this input which has hit enter you can
see that it doesn't open anything because what we did is we gave it an input which is in text this as an input and told it well do something with
it and get it doesn't take in inputs what we'd have to instead actually is give it objects so what if this about other prepress like from is actually you can see that the find
command produces data which goes to crack which produces data again and here I will try to get get it funny that doesn't work what we want is we wanted to give his arguments to get to know this a command called X-Park which starts exactly that writing for example or something like that the
technical index of the well and then piped into exophoric so and put it to get it were actually
calls get it to open a file called index html on the reason for that is that
we can actually is a the excerpts takes whatever it gets as input from the pipe it takes an orphan which is the comment 1 and then it once the command with what every recalled as input as arguments so what this is a perfectly good writing get it the index dot HTM hope so again ECHO will produce index of most text this is the only text tickets this will be this text in that's what that age we piped ex-Sox ex-Sox gets scattered as an argument and it puts whatever gets which is index of H melt behind scattered as arguments which is exactly equivalent to this common to so we can use this in order to solve our problem we want to have all these things given as arguments to get it well just type ex-Sox
in from get it and the match it is it opens exactly the files that we want that is very handy is something they use a lot in practice of course there might be more elegant face to do that but this is my favorite hack-proof piping that's cool and that's all we have to we can look again at this slide
find gets me a takes augmented not where attest to that from then it gets us out but all these files which are in that thing grapple will look for this input and only get HTML files or filenames names containing HTML gift this is an output ex-Sox which takes it as an input and takes as argument get it and then ex-Sox of 1 get it with arguments this arguments are green and the output black right by the way you can also chained commands like you can
have several commands the 1 behind each other for example if we take we want accept chromium variant execute Firefox we can separate them Our by this signed not the simmer code so long and it will be run 1 I suggest Fernandez Krugman but the problem
by the soon as because chromium the 2nd command will be executed which is Firefox I should be able to their dopants have this is
1 way of doing it as you see a sort of a close Firefox it terminates as well these are blocking commands 5 to be started after chromium has been closed this is 1 way of doing that and we'll start Firefox when ever chromium has terminated whether it was successful there is also another way which is a double Empress like this that means start chromium and if scrubbier was successful then start Firefox and else don't do it No chromium we usually terminate successfully of course if it would crash then Firefox would not be stopped this is
something that is quite useful when you want to do a lot of things for example update and upgrade and install updates and the power off we can just a them together like this no this is not piping it's not up direction just executing 1 thing after the other alright that's it for output redirection not have a look at environment variables if you know already were
variable is this is going to be easy for you environment variables can bc DOS kind of containers for text so-called string stored in the system each variable has a name and a string which is the Texican dates using the name of the variable it's string can be set and retrieved from the call not pedals like for that which
is this 1 you see this kind of container that that as wearable and has a name which we could call your favorite color and then a constant string the text which is due bruise any kind of tax so we can put here so what about you it is we want to capitalize global variable names the reason for that is that if you've read that somewhere descriptive something immediately see that you're dealing with variable and the comment actually to set the content text of a variable is called it's point of this strike to do this we can say
man export and then we get help for
its export and you see that's the synopsis is as follows you put a variable name and then here well just put it like this treated empty or you can say equal something and then word is saying that it will contain strategy this it can
say of things for favorite color the with you saw in the in the man you saw that there is absolutely no spaces here so we put a meter at equals loop and offer college blue we don't see anything there is no not but now white edges blue Welch's because it's such other that's call this off every color now actually want to retrieve an existing of value we would like to thank FIFA color and see blue appearing that's our goal now note retrieve existing verbals value wreak repent its name with a dollar in any common for example you could use echo now if you say favorite hollow without the dollar were considered this to be a text and just print it but you put a
dollar in France that that means go look for example is that name at paving the content of now if there's verbal just exist it just doesn't show anything Naur for example we could also say something Hi a fruit polymers it's and you see that the string which we have here will be
poorest and it's looking for dollar and every finds 1 if you replace whatever comes next by the company of despair of this was a good thing to capitalize of variables so we can see the wait this is where was a problem with a problem which would do something like that my favorite color is blue which that doesn't work just not printing anything here because that is the interest at this hour of variable name now and there's a very helpful because our verbal there's not FIFA color-rich but favorite color this way to tell batch wary of our beliefs don't just incurred Bregman like this in our favor colors isolated and all this
gets replaced by comfort of every column of skewed this because my favorite color is blue itch so we're quite happy that there already predefined variables in your system for example there's verbal called pack sort of have a look at technical terms let us see a few things here that several streaks several paths actually which or separated by this call and what's interesting about and this is actually where your system goes whenever you type a command for example that have none of the system see if there is no no such thing as right here so the core look for is not only homes on doping obviously there's not so he goes further is the 1 in user local there is not a ghost user been and there to fight refined it so this in Donald and get exactly the same thing isn't it accused
of being part of and the
pathway of will the lecture defined wherever this goes to 0 so be careful not to overwrite path value you do so well then your system that gonna find any more comments I tried it and actually not even a pseudo was gonna work anymore so be careful don't overwrite actually I wanted to take what is already in this variable I want to add something to let's say I want to create a new folder which I call on that's 1st go whole but as you follow the cold my progress exactly so we have my programs folder which and I want to add this to pass the ball now if I wrote something like thanks for the the he calls work said to so from my progress I would overwrite the content of the PATH variable of does this is exactly what I don't want to do so what you can do instead is we can take whatever is aimed have and at that it has delisted that we've echo of the ECHO and say we want what has been passed separated wisely with the brackets nor to be sure that it's not misinterpreted by then the column and holds onto my programs so actually if I select something that is already copy in the clip art and I can't paste it by middle clicking we have presented 1 slash 2 types of you have a look at this that what is give us taller path right which is that and then it acts whatever comes after this to it and this is actually what we would like a dollop have to be right because it's about half what it was before plus this folder so we can write its borders
Safeco the power of the roles that I told you about this dollar sign is can be used for any kind of connects to adjust be substituted by the constant of 2 variables so far on this what it does is it right exactly this to the PATH variable considered in that cold pass in the can you see that it worked now I could but a program this folder that could just type the program's name and it would be needed executed so that's kind of nice no let's overlook it users and groups actually every Linux system is user there is 1 special that you already know which is root root has the right to do anything that is physically possible as its of do everyday operations of group religious usually log into your system using a our privileged account and machine that
is Sandra so it is true I and the answer is sort of and you remember that you can type still and you become wrote ooh and I I am route now they can lock back out with typing exit or I go again about the controlled and controlled evil exit me out of that the disconnect because actually what I did when I pressed but attempts to open up a new session and in this session locked in past to fruit on top of my existing session is this something we gonna do quite of quite a lot and the next minute so 1st 2 with the use of passive they've roots passwords needed on will bring to for example that bond work because of its to password it if you set up the mission yourself it's the same path as you walk but a newborn do it is a randomly generated password and you don't know it so it would do what you have to do is type sued also pseudo means do something with my password then sue and that would mean then becomes route and the other 1 2 course Bokassa's works differently DHS taxes now the 2nd date and new use course we could create and here we just go to users Sarah in a in a configuration that we of course limited to the consul but there's a command called at Hughes and is 1 important option we want to set for end users which is the dashed and option and this will create a new folder which is slash Holmes slash or whatever user name we are going to give but as call use Peter the the of course need to be so sorry commanders of each user and not at user so the user at and Peter this means create a new folder in slash home with the name Peter and to create a new user have a look at home we can see that we have Peter and Sandra this was just freshly created by this comment and we can also become this uses by 3 became route before they're several bathos due that's not my favorite way to do so on openSUSE suitors who Peter so now I'm Peter my I'm Peter and you see also that our command now starts pitcher at user of computer and career still at home Sondral the till the has vanished so since this is not my whole fault of my own fault of CDE this whole beta I can disconnect from Peter with controlled no I'm Sandra and as this was running a separate session that this command is still exactly where it was before I made so those 2 cervical 1 up it'll will show me of
this come and which is so those who Peter
and before DEC comes at us but whatever I did as Peter of course my best doesn't remember since I didn't do it it was Peter did so what now what I can do it as we could also use pseudo that's you Peter nodded to run the command not this fruit about SGD remember that pseudo use red for example runs up command as to root user whereas with you options pseudo will make us have become a different user which we can specify and this case Peter and we could do for example is a batch we want to start a new best section but not as myself but as use of Peter and this time I am ask from PDS password do I know Peter sparsity and the problem is I don't Peter has not at passes and so I have to cancel those sea and I can say I want to set the pattern Peter so we don't use suit all the has told you Peter the WTO said so it as a new present there was no all Patzert so tied password that tells me it's too simple well on course for this course I will be I for his safe assets is an interval start fast and if you say Saluda stupid past this time we know present and now we are Peter and you have opened up a new batch session as the use of Peter as you see this does exactly the same thing
as to those who Peter but we could type anything back did not has doesn't have to be back she could be anything will just be run as Zuse Peter not actually if changing he uses the council is too complicated for you of course you can also lock out from the system but then lock in as user Peter it will show up as a normal use on the system as well you have a completely fresh desktop now and Then system uses belong to croups group containing no 1 or several years and actually user can belong to multiple groups as well but openSUSE every standard user belongs to the group of uses and route begun to the group wrote that ought to see what kind of group Simon neck and head groups and it tells the I've only part of 1 group which is useless as I look it groups in data is part of the users were however route route is part of the group looked so control again for exit Eckart new group of a lot user at the command for this is true but now for sake of the later in the course economy SmartThinQ at and the country at a group which he called co-workers in the and let's imagine this computer is a and I want to add all people that work is me do this co-workers group actually most servers run Linux so right now you are also learning the very basics for becoming 7 administrator in case you want to be that later last so what we're going to do now is I want to create and not new account for a for example at this scholar and and she's my coworker so as against pseudo USA to and I want a home for the for her but this time I want to enter directly to the the existing crew workers and their took about 2 ways of specifying troops induce at this too small tree which means the main group of an is so whatever we can specify I don't want that since I wanted to belong to the user's group in the base but I can't capital G meaning I also wanted to belong to co-workers group by this means adding new use which you will add to the group co-workers for you will create a new hole fault of that color and and we have successfully done it they can become when checking the she now belongs to groups of users and colors alright so I want no tricks to add myself to co-workers and that is different from war did before us already exist so how do we fix so we do we add to an existing users are to actually a group well this a comment use of not and user bought at the user to of dust some modifies users has could use mark the so that like user act but with the difference but that it modifies existing users instead of adding new words so this time what we have to say areas cavity again is and who do we want to modify the Sandra but the problem with this is that if you do it that way you all right all the troops that half by co-workers and I don't want that I want to keep my in groups so you check the man page you find that there is another option which is 8 and a means at pants so that means keep whatever groups you have had before and actually start at at me to this other group as well so she tap groups at a better price we do not belong to the co-workers group that saves when
we at of ever if we go again if you go batch just logging in again in this existing session which remember user as you do Peter batch we can say is just bash as I want to run it for myself looks the same but a new session the well this is not working right now so how about you do some some and it's yet their ego so but as a pseudo so Sandra will add a
new file locking for me I'm locked in twice on the same system right now on top of each other and now our co-workers crucial such as reason for this is that changes made by use of or visible once log out and log in again so now I'm again in in my old shell which I was before and theory doesn't show up anymore since I never locked out of that just close in the Council and open back up doesn't help the reason for this is because the Council of one's on top of this session around me so I want to lock out forget that's lock out and
see at Peter here I have to log in again
not a fairer consul the groups
this theoretical work descriptions of and so now will permanently status so it's just it I was already part of this group but it didn't show up before I locked out now I am at estate in this co-workers so we have all set up a little bit more advanced user configuration of the Council that will be possible the most graphic user configuration interfaces know we can have a look at would refresh to create that in the next chapter of only actually be exploiting this structure that we just created and the next except is good at the file directory of files and directories privileges the body or how to deal with that we 1st have to know how data is stored on your computer before that I have made another slight and this
what this looks a little complicated no you don't need to know most of that may be already know a few things that these source file systems from fast system is so I would ever organize your day done on your disk say for example what date of belongs what found like when he was less store was as modified but also stores what directory of files in this center and it even saves where on the disk your 5 since a disk is a big chunk of data the where the file forward in which is so 1 of the fastest and I will actually remember will point to the location where is fast starts and tell us how large the fans are there many many many different file system out there here or 6 of those you might know 1st of this effect 32 system images really freely simple and fast cannot be larger than 4 gigabytes like this is 1 of the problems of the fat 32 file system of you put on an 8 gigabyte stick are of a six gigabyte file and its form into food into fat 32 it'll tell you there's no more space unless the device even though you have made the extreme right so the advantage of factory to is that pretty much any operating system a devices TVs and so on they support that's why you probably have most of you use the keys forwarded as fact no this is not a free and open fallen that belongs to Microsoft so of NTFS and if this is what most Windows system for honor but already you can see you have a compatibility issue if you try to write to the NTFS from OSX it will not work on sex antiphairesis re read only there's a driver it you can install the fiscal Teixeira but it's very very slow so you have already limitations of NTFS non NTFS you will actually not have limits of 46 factory dues British unassisted is still in use today which has such limitations then at least as may know offense plus system this is what Apple Computer's of 1 the Windows will not even recognize this as a file system like when you plug in an HFS formant device and your Windows system it will not show up at all and then there is Linux Linux has a of large variety of fast systems for example it supports all 3 of these as well but you cannot install a Linux system all these suitable for installing links are for example X for B or offense or XFS openSUSE when you install at Union solid and you probably remember that the choice of choosing the even more systems that Linux can be installed on the side the 3 major what's and none of them are supported by either of the order operating systems so what is interesting between those and that what is that all these support what is called privileges properly Popadich's actually define who is able to do what to what file this concept of other ship for example I had the honor of this file and so I don't want anybody else to be able to write to it of to read from not a fat 30 chooses so stick this is all not possible it supports no privileges so that means that everything belongs to anybody who can do anything with that so let's have a look at these privileges a a little bit close 1st of all you have to know about other shit SCO vector
machine to patch we have a look
out the ls command where the L option it will not only give all the companies are free of the actually it's a list but also it will
show you some weird things to left he the 1st letter indicates that it's a direction at of several writes all these are rights that we can do we can have a look at the answers later this is the outer off the file and that is the group to the facts so every single file on 1 of these while this is I believe this of XFS formal device so every fire here has left and other and group which it belongs to I'm going to talk about this a little bit later by the this is the last
modified date well with the exact time here so if a critic filers through services is a pseudo as route I want to touch FIL file which are called of for example people all and you have to look at
what is it you will see that the law does not belong to Sandra it belongs to root and also the group proved so whenever you create a new file it belongs to through ever created and this is a problem because if I want to write to this file the the the I have no permission do so because the logs to route and this is the reason why we are looking at 5 privileges because many people on a Linux system to actually create things pseudo without even knowing it or wanting it and then if they don't know about 5 privileges have screwed because suddenly they have not permission to modify find their out whole fall which is gonna confusing if you don't know what is happening so this is why we're looking at this in this course so basically we have 3 kinds of people have you which is nice because it really is you if the user fills called the powder but we don't call it because the outer the already stands for others' so you means whoever ounce the file for for a folder builder for example this would be of 4 blobs would be route and we have to do G. stands for group the group is what you can see here
users route whatever and you guessed it we will be dealing with the co-workers groups and there's beings everybody else everybody else people who don't belong were not the honor don't belong to any good to the group the 5 belongs to a finally there's in the letter 80 which is definition for all of
them 8 means user and group and others so this is how we can refer to people also there are 3 letters from rights for example there's on which means reading permission w which means writing permission at X which stands for execute X again so that special analytics on Windows of course you have these adult X of files and you know that the the executables on Linux however for example model has absolutely nothing to it so how do we know we can run user been phenomenal as a program for example if you try if you try to run it something that is not the program as a
home Sandra and and for
example there's my father and you'll see that it's as
permission tonight this is because the executable right is not set on blind cannot write it as a program however vigor user on which the exact same Syntex's is you just type and F. through path
1 down by the reason for that is because
if said Alice l on this file and ask does not only have to to deal with direct it can also do files was displayed for of this
particular file see that you blow it does not have and xt snowed executable
however and the non you see that the
axis it is an executable file this is the executable right to read or write W and X for q that the metals like for that of course on
this was but there's a table it is who hath right do something in a user group or other and then what does this person has to have to have the possibility to read write and execute for example if we have a 5 this configuration we know that the IRA can read and write the group could not read write but they can execute and others you can read and not do anything else that know what this problem and that is what happens if the user wants to execute the program if the user also belongs to the group that part of this fact and the answer is well if you are at the of this you will not be able to execute a fight even if you are part of the group would ever matches 1st starts the 1st tries to match honor there's group others if it's where there is a match you not go any deeper so no matter what rights com below there you will not be able to execute the file the joys the so we can all
have a power loss letter is still
there and the there's a lot that and if
you have a look at this in here see to
the left these we fixed so the 1st letter has here a D. N. it word and nothing the means directory nothing means it's of regular for they're also different like B for block devices of P 4 pipes of but you don't have to know the shit so the 1st 3 that we get are the rights for the honor you just or a and W read and write so Sandra which is under may read and write a file but not executed make sense of loss Lettish probably should be executed that with the group anybody in the user's group press too right to read from this fact everybody in the user's group can read my Laffont including pleaded up and then even worse everybody else you can read from it this way that probably don't want to so is it can do this we can change that well 1st of all I can we demonstrate that we have right to do so the computer the and you see that a lot that we
typed and a flask cause can be read by
Peter who I since we could is as become sounder again now what I want to do by way of if you go is recomputed again you saw that at the people in the group don't have to write true right to it so if you tried to echo something on top of it replacing the coupling of it it has a permission that is that'd be pretty straightforward so far I just exits outstrip becomes 100 but the 1st comment that I will show you there's a ch ch H Mott now ch mauled actually helps of lets us change they have the rights to fight there are 2 ways to change th what 1 is absolute and the other 1 is relative no absolute means no better what rights were there before the real all written by would have you specify the relative means that but in the court of what was there before you add or subtract rights relative to what was that of so we can do 1st time the relative for it so we say ch mocked but now we can specify fruit so it for everybody but that would include could ourselves we don't want that so we want nobody else all not to be able to create a minus means subtract and to redirect the from whatever is lost let and then have a look at
this again we see that love letter he is the last or has disappeared so what we can do now is of course say we want to see tract or to group as well the right to free to and then would be happy we has to be the only ones being to deal with that valuable box now comes the tricky thing we don't want to do that because we want to have a look at the accident rate just a practice of course this would be perfectly fine but that's practice forever look at our slight this year the
put some number on top and these half a signification actually our where was that so the force that's really read true stands for right and ones that were executed that if you sub these together you will always be able to retrieve whatever has been summed together by just looking at resulting some for example if we have 6 so we see the L 6 can only be 4 plus 2 that cannot be a 1 in it so this how we can address rights in a quick way 0 means no rights at all 1 means just execute right 1 plus 2 which is 3 means execute and right for example 6 is 4 plus 2 means read and write and 7 means all rights combatant the but it and it's future lot the and
really do this we have this 1st little representing ourselves we want to be able to read and write but not execute so readers for right it's true it looks at some of the things last then the 2nd number that you will specify is for the group we don't want any rights and then everybody else no rights even but as you see this fiber not adding or subtracting rights but we are just setting with this recording what was there before to that and you see the expected result is working fine we get or W but not X and everybody else gives 0 nothing
so actually the relative way allows you true efficiently make some small modifications of respect what you have befall whereas the absolute Wakens very quickly said all right for all people and what all these 9 fields shown in this light will be said at once with just 3 dunks not important command for dealing with of files and folders up at by the way I what what means read and write for a folder actually have reading a folder is pretty clear you can read the constants from it right until fall to me said You can add files you can keep the fires up and executing a folder means city can see unit in reality is a little bit more sophisticated than that but most important thing for you to remember is that even though if you if you don't have to write to write to the file you can delete it if you have the divides through modify a folder suffered simply the have a look at the following comment less L and this time I added aid a means remember a means so everything including hidden files and more important in doubt
including docks and don't stop here so that means the current directory this gives us information about whatever is the Kurdish which is my home folder seats directory I get right to read write and execute it everybody but people in the group get the white to wean executed everybody else as well now as I have to write to write from this I can still do the each they phi which does not belong to me this 1 belong even though I cannot write it so
if I say at coming out of but I think called permission denied but I can do foreign block you want to remove write-protected regular files yes and it doesn't so this is a warning the finance of others right protected but as I have to rights to really do this since my folder right positions that folder against the remove that is that is something very important I just write protecting your files will not be able to keep people from deleting is f x is impaired fault so that is what read and write means of 4 4 before directories Naur we have a look at that and in part another important command for dealing with files and folders and that is the ch Coulomb comma this edge march member you can change your rights to a file or folder you see it's all we changed our 1st let's create a file which we call the root file belongs to look the we
just check this so rude astounding and belongs to a vote
know we can actually moved this file rename it without so the privileges that something to college play on you working just fine this is again because we have write permissions to the containing fold so as the name suggests I want this file to be and I also wanted to belong to the user's group so there's a ch MOT command completely goes like this so the page bus th sorry and to be pseudo societal fathers and on me and I say I want this I want whatever comes next to belong to the user at separate if a column as say whatever is to group I want to make it belong to and this case as Q system and what do I want to search on I want I called you to be mine solids have a look at this and we see
that I own you know belongs to sample and users just like a specified at you and so it doesn't necessarily have to be both of these informations I can just you change the user or the other without changing the group and the inverse know it's important here is that if you just want to change the order you go without a color and he would face a group if 2 prepender column 2 that is how it can teleport if you're talking about a user or a group so for example I want to give this file back to route so that's a pseudo ch out the room I have a new model it's not I own new anymore but FIL today we see that our you know belongs to route but users has been unchanged and if I want to give this file to another group for example co-workers what I can do ch at this center column to say I want to be belong to the group course of the so and there we are as you can see a ion you belongs to co-workers and fruit so since this is a rather tricky topic list to a concrete example for nor to reuse our 1st of all formally created coworker Harakat and then also to rehearse a little bit of what we have learned in this in these 2 courses so at similar to create sensible directory structure for of freshly sodded companies including Anna and me that Peter is this computer as well but is not part of our company is why he's not part of the co-workers group remember so other traitor direction which we
call basis and Kadeer's come out flat and I want to go in there Of course it is empty as you can see right now there and to create 2 facts curriculum be taller in light of the city of as you see below 5 have been cleared at the full still belongs to me the robot however what I want to do is I want to show to give CV at up to end up because it hurts so I can do so change under that our city and the but if you look at it we
now see that city and I belongs to and the group s fine so far since we use
yours belongs to User group course or we want this entire directory with everything to be part of the co-workers group since I made this crew especially for this direction and so what you can do and so who wrote ch all workers the adult daughter refers to the current direction but if I do that have a look at everything
we see that the current direction no belongs to the group co-workers however the files in this territory have not been and the reason for that is that this is not recursive ch on if you give it here adopted it only changes this particular file which is in this case a fault that the current fall but it will not go look into it and change whatever whatever is below it but there is of course a lot of ways to avoid that ch and has an option which you can give it which is the capital or the catalog means recursive so that means including subfolders and everything so if you do that and we look at it we see that everything belongs to covert stuff except for the period fault for
the paired folder remember that is the hopeful that since I am in Home Sandra business the
parent folder is this 1 and that of course I don't
want to belong to the co-workers groups since that's my personal fold though that's totally fine know
we want to to keep Peter from seeing anything or anybody else because you know this kind of our very very top secret company and of course I don't want anybody else to see our secrets not Peter either so I want to give it to take away their read-write from all the files so we have this folder and also from the fault itself such a Let's keep Peter from doing that using ch not but I just
did a pseudo and run into problems here so is different orders of the files and I can't say of a cabin or just like the ch command 7 for me I want to everything that anybody in the group which is in this case now of course this was to be able to do anything as well that everybody else do nothing and the 2nd 7 here will not affect Peters is Peter is not a corkscrew then again want to I want to add to the to modify well not the current direction so if you look at this I
saw that I missed something a little bit up namely what I did is I made CV and the sample executable on the
reason for that is because I had a 7 in here and there are are many SQL as well know the 2nd was intended to be able to execute the CDE into 2 Kurds folder but since I didn't look carefully enough a great little that a mistake I admit a bit of of purpose and that the mistake here to make the size of the cuticle and of course these are
not executable I'm not happy that so what I can do now is I can say that I want to everybody shall not be able to execute I take away the executable right for everybody for what files well CV and CVC Sondral and remember from last course the a command we had this taller and an asterisk in it in order to see all the files in the current directory this is non Dickerson's it just puts whatever is in it and this does not affect the parent directory so the star can be used here as well and to
what this also leaves the X. forward to directory just so not its current direction but it takes all the X away for CD at answers
Sondral and you see that the of these are white again meaning they're not executable animal so the next thing is that I want to be able to write to my CVA but not to an absent analyst should not be able to override my CV is well over we should be able to look at each other see so what you can do that I can say ch much about that's a pseudo science of and does not belong to me that I want actually to group not to be able to write to anything but of and you
see that it successfully work these 2 W's here went away so now for my file I can't read and write to it
but for an OS found blogs and I can only
freed from their cannot do anything else show the quite happy that gets straight 3rd from which we call lot so log still belongs to Sondral and to use it
since I was 1 creating it and we want to set all the rights what's rule of law came to be known executable for any right I we want ourselves also everybody in the drew to be able to write and read from it and also we don't want anybody else to see anything so we can do is ch MOT at this time I'm not very interested in what are the actual barriers sources I know what it was what I want to be so let's use the absolutely so we're to read and write for myself makes 2 plus 4 6 read write for group that nothing for everybody else to lock and then we also
have where we we can leave it as it is however the group I would like to change so ch co-workers would antecedent lock now belongs to co-workers still to myself but doesn't matter since I set has the same rights as anybody in the CoWorks screwed the cool thing about this is that if I have someone data coming into my company parts of of beta was just what I have to do is I have to enter into the colors group and you will be able to work with me just find immediately I don't have to change any other privileges since everything works with group that is my files also belong to groups right now for this very until let's test our company folded striker pet something to lock this work today and dependents of to to large then samples lot that works less or read this reading to
see works I can edit I can put
something into it the the so because it creates the
sure everybody we have that and then also we can try to become an the and maybe touch her perceiving and that works as well about
sorry after redirection of course and there's nothing in it so it it all right if know it's an attempt all right to my theory
there's a permission do not and also if I try to edit as bigger controlled to become
myself again this try to write something to
her so is a major somewhat harsh as say control to save filename and OK and it does it permission at it won't Seyfert because I don't have to write a Sondral in order to to write to this as the
computer which tries to look at the fault and he cannot do that reason for
this is he doesn't have the rights to do anything the file off folder he belongs to everybody else you see year prof he could
maybe have a look at that this file
nope it tells them it's a new file that is because he has so few rights
that non 0 doesn't even know that define actually exists and he thinks it's a new fast and if you try to say so say something about
it others permission denied that is for 2 reasons 1 is that we can actually not
overwrite the existing file although we cannot write anything in this fall so converts opposite touch so pretty big food a file as gear and Permissions
I can't touch this is not possible we are perfectly safe powerful will exclude people from doing anything that and and and myself raw in the business of all the rest that so quite happy that now we can so they can go back to the recording of the actual costs are where I told a little anecdote about D. D and then also we talked about processes which will be taken from the recording as well and the thing OK
now let's for the last topic of state park book partitions who knows the partition is already quite a few OK so let's not talk about this too much for those who don't know what it is that hard disk candy or assist the URIs whatever can be divided into several volumes which are called petitions she just if your disk is a cake you can slice it into pieces and every piece cisterna article the partition so
petitions have formenting systems if you look at the hard disk as a
whole we draw it might this this is the entire space that we have we can subdivided into our petitions never look at this partition for example it will not all be the data that you have but however what will be is is that we have a part which is called the format and the formatting will contain the indexing of your files so that we can actually find them when we tied Ellis said arrival look for the data which is written in there and then we actually did with the fi itself and not the mated out then you will look in the formant where is this and this will be like a pointer to the destination off this actual of actual file so in here for example there will be in the folder the videos stays a file Colter my favorite video that and the form and then when you want to open it we double click it it will go and have a look it is located at sectors so many billion and million and whatever and this is the ever so it it's side will start it will set your video player to start from this part where it's gonna start reading know what you
can do they assert copy partitions and this this covered laissez gonna tell you today comes with a little anecdote will 6 days ago I was in a very similar state of mind as today meaning and not functional and 2 I use DDE this is why it's called disk disk destroy I don't even know the official name of the D D is used for a block wise copy you can for example tower copy in 1 partition on 1 device to an entire device or to another partition or you can say I want this but I use the key to be completely block by block but it file under the file you can put it somewhere you can send it over the net and then someone else can use DDE again to copy it block wise onto another USB key and that used the key will be the exact same thing as the main you the main key that you have here may you sent over the internet but absolutely nothing changed because the files and if the status system etc. I everything was copied exactly as it is a difference when you see people or or sink or a copy paste whatever the copy of files you sometimes you actually get a change of the outer for example so if I copy my my whole folder which and this computer onto our they affect 32 formatted USB drive it will delete all the meta information which is about power about others the set because factory 2 does not support this however if I put my whole folder over for my whole partition but it with the the AceFile onto that USB key I know that it is exactly as it walls in the initial state is 3 bit by bit on the lowest possible level that we can reach right so that command is called P. D and works like this you have the input file equals something which is for example and you probably remember that from the install this phone events slows down which is all the devices I have from my machine but then S D which is all the connected hard disks and USB drives Sederot which is the main the main disk lord of primary disk that's a partition of a true I want to cut it this from here I want to copy to wear it's up of had filed let's say again there's so S P B Richard for example on my machine be the 1st popped in you is speaking and then here the 1st partition this is so the way you can use it you can also omits the 1 that it will put this partition exactly as it is on to the entered device and everything that was devised the completely substituted or with this kind of of partition and our as a substitute is all written so this is the 2nd favorite way to destroy your system so what he did for flashing USB keys was the following month we had a
CD riches openSUSE on
of the city we copied it up with DTT reset input values the CD-ROM Engelbart files and I and g file and then I had something like I just I just pretending because I don't have it here anymore who don't need the keys Eitel or I'm g whatever you call it will of course so where Dennis do you think I'd input from its Zuse start geez this time it's a file that bird 55 OF he calls death STP which is my USB key and of course 5 USB ports so I launch that then part in sky beaky announced this status at so 1st next help me you gonna destroy your computer I said well knows something to happen because you know result kind of person and this kind of thing never happens to it so we start from B you go on you going you go on to ask you start again and you go on and to when you reach you can of feel like you have completed some thing later count and you can figure out well there is so only for between E and something is gonna be wrong at this very moment with 1 copy progress of completes then Desimone to find out that the speed that in fact which is part of the statistics that will be shown at the end of duty with 300 megabytes a 2nd so I thought that was a kind of a fast USB key and just as a set of an SSD on his computer and the only thing in this computer able of the immigrants it is necessary and look at the command it looks like this so what happened to what happened as the following and he I told to you the they have this is
my desk right the here Windows partition there there it starts and then there have some little partition of this is my backed by big Linux partition which if I lose the very 1st byte of it I will completely lose everything so we're told and s but this is a file on here and just doesn't it but doesn't ask this distrust so what happened is it replaced the 1st 4 comma decimal 7 gigabytes off my hard disk by a whatever was there and everything was just gone in these 4 comma decimal 7 gigabytes and so luckily it was never in DOS which I don't use aren't battery in solid those apps in no way for covering any date of that it was completed this I mean if ever use DDE which you probably will 1 day watch out who were and I think that the world right good many the choice do you want to you do make you give you a little last exercice for the last 5 minutes of would you want to stop talking but processes one's
processes OK everybody wow so we might be a little over time so who am I I
Sandra I think here say so we can do now is agonist show you how to start a job in the background let's just make this jobless senseless but for example the this is great because you can spot it and which is 1 of the background let's do yes and output early yes something about but this traditional which is that's not as kind of the trash spin on a Linux system would ever you redirect to death and all will disappear so this is just generating text and throwing it away me it's not doing anything useful but it's a process that is running for a long time so that's what you want make pours this process but you cancel it if Control see of course remember that I can pause the to pass would be control that exists notice stopped it still active somewhere laughter choice to do with here I put it to foreground sorry operative well to foreground now you see it's working which is fg foreground or of course poset again plea to background and what happens now is that it is running and you can maybe here my computer start to do a lot of noise is running in the background and I can at the same time I can still execute commands but it's still running them I want this I want you to do another 1 but this time or the background it immediately so let's say put it to decimal not to background this process immediately I added ampersand didn't and it is running in the background as his seat it's got a job ID which is to whereas the other 1 got a 1 fall to look at what is 1 incurred a Systemizer jobs as you have 2 of them the first one being this there 1 being that and they have ideas so if I go fg foreground it'll get me the first one of that which is another it's like a stack whatever you pile up becomes back in the reverse order of what you put in I can cancel this it is a fg again and the 2nd 1 will come up again again now you want to look at all the processes that are running on my system not only the ones their background myself what I can do best pop
the top as a command that will show me this use what will tell me s what time it is how many users or they're running another sometimes uses for sound which is the system uses which it intrigued yourself but your disjoint whose it tells you how many jobs whole no process or the 134 out of stem to are running 1 is of course stop and then 130 2 were sleeping and then this this is on the state of his study computer science score will teach with that is our worst well maybe Mr. Havel it's gonna be fun time US-educated static John the center at generator summer generated that study 1 tested it in a moment there is you will see that x August 1 of the commands running and this is just my graphical interface and another 1 in this system D which it of system or here is ecstasy terminal which is determined I'm running on right now so let's start up a Firefox takes well so that's Firefox noisy the Firefox has just
on theories you see that it's taking 33 per cent of CPU features a lot well based on working on were were round the world and then we see that Firefox's government PID which is 1 thousand no that is not it it's something around there's 3 thousand 822 it's piety 3 to to know they can do is I can kill 5 France I had with Q of Corsican credit 2nd seed killed what was that Firefox was 3 2 2 bunch and they maybe minimize this
so that you can see here in the background this of the symbol is Firefox for press Enter vanishes Firefox has been killed no continent to the what this with its name kill will not kill a program it'll gently ask a to and and the program will eventually terminate now the other problem which is frozen which will not respond anymore it's not gonna kill it so there is a there's a shotgun shop gone is a signal which is called sick killed node default kill signal is sick term and while it's legacy again at what's up or by the way H star which I made you all install because I like it so much
it should look like this is like a puppet it says human top highly configurable it's more graphical as you can see and you can sort things by look at these commands on the bottom of the kind of Cezanne's being very nice so now it's 1 all 50 luminal Firefox well I can't for example say sort by name so
with lower where where is it to a prior to 9 and stayed comments that that's
the name so now it should be under X and screwed down to Firefox as if you have a lot of thought processes which is sport I can kill 1 specific 1 of them which lets to read 9 25 and this of say force
it under force areas the 9th that's adoption of this option is really cold 9 this is a shotgun so of 90 yes yes of course you can do that too go work as well or is it can affect kill this can OK well so this is equivalent to the best 9 may be remembered it's better for me as someone I want the same thing as before happened but if the command that we tried before will not work you can be absolutely sure that the kill command work except for Skype Skype can and it then is on the state and you cannot kill a zombie because it's already dead that is what I got when I googled it and it's perfectly correct language so it's let's assume you don't want to deal with fellow if P. D.'s there is another way to kill a process but with a name now we
know that the process name is Firefox and there's kill all while he and all that kind of thing because this is just a threat and when we kill this threat to the main process will be terminated as well taken with all the other thing but they can be several processes independently like you felt that the 2nd we know it might stored in another process depending on the program and that it would just killed that particular prior prior program but kill all what it will do is kill all the comments all the programs which are accessible under certain common which he for example we would have thought to all Firefox it's the same thing as killed without anything this is sick term it's a nice way it asks all the Firefox's to terminate and then of course you can use again and kill all the the kill option or the 9 options OK so this is about the most important things need to know if you want to force greater a task on this sorry the time know that I hope not but strike this not does not so what the stored
also here you'll be substituted by but everything that is in my current directory and it will try to kill this which is up by with my eyes of an idea to use store you would have to read 1st recommendation figure out there know why coarser ones talk about them and then going just write a version machine that some of the some way to go about my favorite better not do it because you will kill your system eventually that yes you can yeah cannot killers on it for a debt to Kenneth on the you can kill its mother again I am cycling of the official website and the model of a process whatever prop whatever started it is H top you can see
tree with a 5 and they see that the mother is here system D which is some kind of innate process is the 1 that starts the and this will start of all the other programs for example Katiyar citrus addresses now the problem is when a program is a zombie often it will be adopted by the highest process so the mother is it crosses itself and that want to kill it well that means 3 beta usually you don't have some as and this is on the permanently the system means someone has to program something bad and except for a Skype but have never run into this situation I actually have never honored with 3 softer Skybus properties half-turn most a doubly get areas of Providence after this is why I finally decided to go and from free after him because it's it's not it's not a
pain in the neck as the as the other couldn't right so now this is all about it for what I show you today there is Kristen who is coming back next week on Tuesday and he's gonna make a Lifehacker session I know you all a hacker is because you have already typed in a
consul and this is already cold hacking their hacking doesn't mean anything particle there many many concepts you know the backing wisecracking which is the legal hacking but hacking can also mean quickly produce code or
handcrafting something as a programmer or typing into a consul so you hackers not good for you anyway so you can come to this course and they're also our stomach
tuition and I've been told reps that will be of be refreshed by tomorrow I think now with the new estates but this is just get together they can be have fun and then now you can also bring your computer problems if you or your questions or if you want to discuss about anything and finally of course to become a member if you want but why would you become a member I have written this down because of yeah titles so I won't lose their mind to all because at the end so the many
reasons why you would become a member of the alternative let me give you 2 of them 1st of all and as the Linux states have gotten bigger and bigger over the years and to this semester we have 150 people involved in this so it's got a big thing know we still have many ways which we could go we have by
for not touch the limit of the infrastructure that we could have so everything that is missing to us at this time and if you want to become part of this if you want to bring more manpower into this you just joined us and then we can go even further we can do it even more things on for example if you like to do talks in front of people and you think you are competent then you can finally replace me and maybe the other this to fuse and he gave you know it in if you have no knowledge are you can still coming to us of course there's so many tasks which do not require any previous notch and you can come to us to learn these things as well of course at the 2nd reason is if you're due or if you're maker you like to realize their dreams and you have a dream in the fields all fall this'll
sustainability and we have all lot of infrastructure that we can provide you so a a lot of contacts we're very well tied to many institutions for example the gives that UC dates UCH universities there we have all project neptune there are sponsors of us as well in the th it's informatic things combi Campeau's multimedia services as STTH etc cetera arousal and then tire
Huge amount of of infrastructure that we have access to mostly for free even and lots of people that we know the great effort so you will have all based on your side if you just come to us and ask us for it to become a member as a memory half 1 thing that you have to do 1 obligation of that is you have to tell us if you want to leave us again so that we don't try to contact you and you have vanished OK that's the only obligation that you have if you want to join us you can do that stunt this you can do this at the end of this course ones we have done cleaning up we go back to our office and you can hypertext if you want of course that that will be 1 thing I would not need your pre name I would need your family name and your e-mail address and that is everything we need for sending you so that that hope you have to have a lot of fun which is the official openSUSE thank you bye-bye
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Parametersystem
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Filter <Stochastik>
Login
Indexberechnung
Web Site
Wort <Informatik>
Mailing-Liste
Zählen
Ein-Ausgabe
Elektronische Publikation
Parametersystem
Schmelze <Betrieb>
Content <Internet>
Indexberechnung
Systemaufruf
Schreiben <Datenverarbeitung>
Web Site
Extrempunkt
Ein-Ausgabe
Elektronische Publikation
Objekt <Kategorie>
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Automatische Indexierung
Login
Datentyp
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Parametersystem
Matching <Graphentheorie>
Indexberechnung
Web Site
Elektronische Publikation
Ein-Ausgabe
Code
Unabhängige Menge
Rechenschieber
Teilmenge
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Login
Funktion <Mathematik>
Fehlermeldung
Elektronische Publikation
Prozess <Informatik>
Indexberechnung
Web Site
Maßerweiterung
Quick-Sort
Richtung
Variable
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Login
Speicherabzug
Druckertreiber
Programmierumgebung
Leistung <Physik>
Funktion <Mathematik>
Schnittstelle
Punkt
Systemprogramm
Homepage
Spezifisches Volumen
Variable
Standardabweichung
Metropolitan area network
Implementierung
Elektronischer Programmführer
Systemaufruf
Web Site
Programmierumgebung
Physikalisches System
Dateiformat
Gerade
Variable
Nabel <Mathematik>
Funktion <Mathematik>
Garbentheorie
Ein-Ausgabe
Strategisches Spiel
Attributierte Grammatik
Wort <Informatik>
Kantenfärbung
Mini-Disc
Programmierumgebung
Zeichenkette
Loop
Lesezeichen <Internet>
Meter
Web Site
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Kantenfärbung
Raum-Zeit
Zeichenkette
Metropolitan area network
Binärdaten
Stellenring
Spieltheorie
Systemaufruf
Web Site
Physikalisches System
Term
Quick-Sort
Variable
Lesezeichen <Internet>
Datentyp
Ablöseblase
Speicherabzug
Kantenfärbung
Programm
Stellenring
Content <Internet>
Spieltheorie
Web Site
Physikalisches System
Poisson-Klammer
Variable
Funktion <Mathematik>
Arithmetische Folge
Rechter Winkel
Datentyp
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Optimierung
Stellenring
Gruppenkeim
Virtuelle Maschine
Variable
Vorzeichen <Mathematik>
Datentyp
Passwort
Passwort
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Optimierung
Konfigurationsraum
Leistung <Physik>
Binärdaten
Programm
Nichtlinearer Operator
Betafunktion
Spieltheorie
Systemaufruf
Web Site
Routing
Physikalisches System
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Arithmetisches Mittel
System F
Funktion <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Ablöseblase
Message-Passing
Suite <Programmpaket>
Hash-Algorithmus
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Mustersprache
Data Dictionary
Garbentheorie
Passwort
Passwort
Schwach besetzte Matrix
Stapelverarbeitung
Summand
Digital Equipment Corporation
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Hash-Algorithmus
Gruppenkeim
Systemverwaltung
Routing
Physikalisches System
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Netzwerktopologie
Arithmetisches Mittel
Blu-Ray-Disc
System F
Gruppenkeim
Flächeninhalt
Gruppentheorie
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Mereologie
Datentyp
Server
Wort <Informatik>
Passwort
Kantenfärbung
Stapelverarbeitung
Schreib-Lese-Kopf
Bit
Hash-Algorithmus
Nabel <Mathematik>
Mathematisierung
Gruppenkeim
Physikalisches System
Elektronische Publikation
Physikalische Theorie
Deskriptive Statistik
Digitalsignal
Gruppenkeim
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Gruppentheorie
Rechter Winkel
Mereologie
Passwort
Datenstruktur
Konfigurationsraum
Verzeichnisdienst
Hilfesystem
Schnittstelle
Stereometrie
Subtraktion
Bit
Raum-Zeit
Systemprogrammierung
Virtuelle Maschine
Bildschirmmaske
Gruppentheorie
Fächer <Mathematik>
Mini-Disc
Netzbetriebssystem
Bildschirmfenster
Dateiverwaltung
Inverser Limes
Speicher <Informatik>
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Auswahlaxiom
Soundverarbeitung
Elektronische Publikation
Physikalisches System
Quellcode
Vektorraum
Elektronische Publikation
Binder <Informatik>
Patch <Software>
Druckertreiber
Rechter Winkel
Topologischer Vektorraum
Faktor <Algebra>
URL
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Verzeichnisdienst
Schlüsselverwaltung
Varietät <Mathematik>
Maschinenschreiben
Hyperbelverfahren
Formale Grammatik
Gruppenkeim
Content <Internet>
Mailing-Liste
Routing
Physikalisches System
Elektronische Publikation
Login
Gesetz <Physik>
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Dienst <Informatik>
Funktion <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Gruppentheorie
Rechter Winkel
Total <Mathematik>
Passwort
Programm
Caching
Stellenring
Kategorie <Mathematik>
Thumbnail
Gruppenkeim
Spieltheorie
Content <Internet>
Routing
Analytische Menge
Elektronische Publikation
Template
Videokonferenz
Schiefe
Last
Funktion <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Bildschirmfenster
Datentyp
Total <Mathematik>
Passwort
Modelltheorie
Optimierung
Stellenring
Gruppenkeim
Schreiben <Datenverarbeitung>
Content <Internet>
Template
Homepage
Schiefe
Pufferspeicher
Verzeichnisdienst
Optimierung
Konfigurationsraum
Programm
Caching
Elektronische Publikation
Matching <Graphentheorie>
Thumbnail
Spieltheorie
Elektronische Publikation
Gerade
Videokonferenz
Funktion <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Rechter Winkel
Mereologie
Hilfesystem
Tabelle <Informatik>
Programm
Caching
Verhandlungstheorie
Einfügungsdämpfung
Stellenring
Programm/Quellcode
Thumbnail
Gruppenkeim
Content <Internet>
Spieltheorie
p-Block
Elektronische Publikation
Template
Videokonferenz
Arithmetisches Mittel
Schiefe
Funktion <Mathematik>
Regulärer Graph
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Total <Mathematik>
Wort <Informatik>
Verzeichnisdienst
Physikalischer Effekt
Programm/Quellcode
Polygonnetz
Gruppenkeim
Content <Internet>
Arithmetisches Mittel
System F
Funktion <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Meter
Total <Mathematik>
COTS
Passwort
Elektronische Publikation
Quader
Gruppenkeim
Schreiben <Datenverarbeitung>
Content <Internet>
Bitrate
Eins
Verzeichnisdienst
Forcing
Funktion <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Vorzeichen <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Total <Mathematik>
Passwort
Resultante
Bit
Gruppenkeim
Content <Internet>
Zahlenbereich
Schreiben <Datenverarbeitung>
Elektronische Publikation
Konstante
Arithmetisches Mittel
Datenfeld
Einheit <Mathematik>
Funktion <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Meter
Total <Mathematik>
Passwort
Urbild <Mathematik>
Fehlermeldung
Ortsoperator
Gruppenkeim
Content <Internet>
p-Block
Elektronische Publikation
Template
Datensichtgerät
Benutzerprofil
Arithmetisches Mittel
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Funktion <Mathematik>
Rechter Winkel
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Mereologie
Zählen
Information
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Verzeichnisdienst
Stereometrie
Bit
Abstimmung <Frequenz>
Gruppenkeim
Content <Internet>
Information
Template
Homepage
Richtung
Total <Mathematik>
Stichprobenumfang
Passwort
Modelltheorie
Datenstruktur
Trennungsaxiom
Verhandlungstheorie
Fehlermeldung
Mailing-Liste
Routing
Physikalisches System
Elektronische Publikation
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Funktion <Mathematik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Mereologie
Bus <Informatik>
Kantenfärbung
Information
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Verzeichnisdienst
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Gruppenkeim
Systemaufruf
Content <Internet>
Information
Roboter
Richtung
Funktion <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Basisvektor
Mereologie
Total <Mathematik>
Bitrate
Ganze Funktion
Verzeichnisdienst
Funktion <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Total <Mathematik>
sinc-Funktion
Vererbungshierarchie
Gruppenkeim
Content <Internet>
Online-Katalog
Ausnahmebehandlung
Elektronische Publikation
Frequenz
Richtung
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Bit
Funktion <Mathematik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Total <Mathematik>
Gruppenkeim
Elektronische Publikation
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Richtung
Rechter Winkel
Total <Mathematik>
Gruppenkeim
Vererbungshierarchie
Elektronische Publikation
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Verzeichnisdienst
Richtung
Gewicht <Mathematik>
Web log
Rechter Winkel
Total <Mathematik>
Gruppenkeim
Schlussregel
Quellcode
Elektronische Publikation
Gesetz <Physik>
Feuchteleitung
Softwaretest
Rechter Winkel
Betafunktion
Total <Mathematik>
Stichprobenumfang
sinc-Funktion
Mereologie
Gruppenkeim
Kantenfärbung
Elektronische Publikation
Lesen <Datenverarbeitung>
Fehlermeldung
Elektronische Publikation
Kontrolltheorie
Total <Mathematik>
Lesen <Datenverarbeitung>
Hilfesystem
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Datensicherung
Dateiformat
Gerade
Physikalische Theorie
Homepage
Maschinenschreiben
Fehlermeldung
Elektronische Publikation
Prozess <Physik>
Elektronische Publikation
Gerade
Homepage
Pufferspeicher
Datensatz
Verzeichnisdienst
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Rechter Winkel
Total <Mathematik>
Lesen <Datenverarbeitung>
Hilfesystem
Physikalisches System
Elektronische Publikation
Partitionsfunktion
Raum-Zeit
Videokonferenz
Festplattenlaufwerk
Bildschirmmaske
Automatische Indexierung
Mini-Disc
Mereologie
Dateiformat
Spezifisches Volumen
Zeiger <Informatik>
Aggregatzustand
Subtraktion
Bit
Gewicht <Mathematik>
Mathematisierung
Gerichteter Graph
Internetworking
Übergang
Metadaten
Festplattenlaufwerk
Virtuelle Maschine
Mini-Disc
Turm <Mathematik>
Substitution
Leistung <Physik>
Einfach zusammenhängender Raum
Ähnlichkeitsgeometrie
p-Block
Physikalisches System
Elektronische Publikation
Ein-Ausgabe
Partitionsfunktion
Ereignishorizont
Arithmetisches Mittel
Differentialgleichung mit nacheilendem Argument
Menge
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Dateiformat
Faktor <Algebra>
Schlüsselverwaltung
Aggregatzustand
Resultante
Statistik
Hash-Algorithmus
Momentenproblem
Computervirus
Information
Zählen
Elektronische Publikation
Ein-Ausgabe
Datenmissbrauch
Arithmetische Folge
Menge
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
ATM
Total <Mathematik>
Mereologie
Passwort
Schlüsselverwaltung
Benutzerführung
CD-ROM
Hilfesystem
Differentialgleichung mit nacheilendem Argument
App <Programm>
Festplattenlaufwerk
Prozess <Physik>
Elektronische Publikation
Partitionsfunktion
Auswahlaxiom
Eins
Hash-Algorithmus
Prozess <Physik>
Momentenproblem
Geräusch
Information
Eins
Hydrostatik
Physikalisches System
Task
Konsistenz <Informatik>
Reverse Engineering
Prozess <Informatik>
Total <Mathematik>
Radikal <Mathematik>
Passwort
Informatik
Auswahlaxiom
Funktion <Mathematik>
Beobachtungsstudie
Nichtlinearer Operator
Kontrolltheorie
Kryptologie
Physikalisches System
Migration <Informatik>
Computervirus
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Puffer <Netzplantechnik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
ATM
Hauptidealring
Benutzerführung
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Aggregatzustand
Mittelwert
Kryptologie
Unrundheit
Symboltabelle
Migration <Informatik>
Term
Physikalische Theorie
Physikalisches System
Knotenmenge
Task
Puffer <Netzplantechnik>
Hauptidealring
Konsistenz <Informatik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Total <Mathematik>
Hauptidealring
Optimierung
Default
Stellenring
Prozess <Physik>
Formale Sprache
Aggregatzustand
Datensichtgerät
Physikalisches System
Konsistenz <Informatik>
Authentifikation
Adressraum
Total <Mathematik>
Minimum
Nuklearer Raum
Kryptologie
Dämon <Informatik>
Ausnahmebehandlung
Migration <Informatik>
Quick-Sort
Maskierung <Informatik>
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Puffer <Netzplantechnik>
Flächeninhalt
Forcing
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Login
Hauptidealring
Client
IEC-Bus
Zentraleinheit
Aggregatzustand
Web Site
Prozess <Physik>
Versionsverwaltung
Term
Eins
Task
Virtuelle Maschine
Physikalisches System
Konsistenz <Informatik>
Total <Mathematik>
Modelltheorie
Speicher <Informatik>
Optimierung
Figurierte Zahl
Prozess <Informatik>
Kryptologie
Physikalisches System
Migration <Informatik>
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Videokonferenz
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Puffer <Netzplantechnik>
Wurzel <Mathematik>
Dreiecksfreier Graph
Hauptidealring
Verzeichnisdienst
Zentraleinheit
Prozess <Physik>
Kategorie <Mathematik>
Puls <Technik>
Adressraum
Dämon <Informatik>
Ausnahmebehandlung
Physikalisches System
Netzwerktopologie
Flächeninhalt
Authentifikation
Rechter Winkel
Optimierung
Hacker
Videokonferenz
Arithmetisches Mittel
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Programmiergerät
Prozess <Informatik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Wiederkehrender Zustand
Partikelsystem
Hacker
Aggregatzustand
Multimedia
Task
Dienst <Informatik>
Datenfeld
Mereologie
Inverser Limes
Projektive Ebene
Grundraum
PASS <Programm>
Videokonferenz
Open Source
Freeware
Multimedia
Festspeicher
Adressraum
Familie <Mathematik>
Dienst <Informatik>
Eins
Office-Paket

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel LinuxDays 2015: Practice 2
Serientitel LinuxDays 2015
Anzahl der Teile 05
Autor Kalbermatter, Sandro
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/36888
Herausgeber Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich
Erscheinungsjahr 2015
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract This talk is part of the LinuxDays of the student association TheAlternative, the digital arm of [project21]. In the digital age, we want to draw attention to a sustainable interaction with knowledge and culture. We want to encourage usage and comprehension of Free and Open Source Software (also known as FOSS) as an alternative to proprietary software, as well as promote similar open alternatives in other areas. Our LinuxDays are a series of events designed to introduce Linux to beginners and help those who already have it enhance their knowledge. They are created mainly for users of other operating systems who want to discover and/or eventually switch to Linux. We start all the way from the bottom and guide you on your way up to a safer and more comfortable digital lifestyle. In our courses, we cover philosophical aspects as well as technical content. Users already familiar to Linux can jump in at any time to learn more about the wonders of Linux and Free Software. During our Install Events, we will personally assist you in installing Linux on your laptop. Don't worry - of course you can keep your existing OS and additionally use Linux if you want to. After visiting our courses, you will not only have an easy-to-use and efficient operating system on your computer, but also know how to get the best out of it and find more information on your own in case you are enticed with Linux. You don't have to worry about the limits and costs of proprietary software anymore. All students of Zürich may attend our events for free. In consideration of international participants, all courses are held in English.

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