Font design and features for African languages

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Video in TIB AV-Portal: Font design and features for African languages

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Font design and features for African languages
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This presentation will discuss the requirements of orthographies for African languages in Latin scripts and shows how to implement them with modern fonts technologies. Good practices, mistakes and evaluation of fonts for African languages with high requirements will be discussed. The presentation will also showcase various font projects that are benefitting from the input, feedback and work of the Open Source community.
Keywords Libre Graphics Meeting (LGM)
Programming language Presentation of a group Computer animation
Programming language Addition Standard deviation Physical law Set (mathematics) Rule of inference Inference Medical imaging Computer animation Universe (mathematics) Self-organization Quicksort Family Local ring Physical system
Scripting language Area Programming language Default (computer science) Open source Information Latin square Bit Computer font Event horizon Usability Natural number Authorization output Reading (process)
Programming language Focus (optics) Greatest element Hoax Open source State of matter 1 (number) Open set Shape (magazine) Mereology Computer font Regular graph Food energy Mathematical morphology
Scripting language Programming language Hoax Hooking Latin square Code Different (Kate Ryan album) Limit of a function
Programming language Addition Group action Code Different (Kate Ryan album) Execution unit Shape (magazine) Quicksort
Shape (magazine) Neuroinformatik
Dot product Position operator
Programming language Group action Length Multiplication sign Set (mathematics) Bounded variation
Website Local ring
live according to man damage occurred on my presentation is about think it's about fun designing features for African languages in its so on and the 1st
question is why 1 and why we will use our inference for African languages and and then I'm going to talk about what the actual needs of African languages regarding performance and then I'm going to talk about some forms of ongoing work with some so the situation right now in Africa and
is about 2 thousand languages so it's quite a lot considering it's additions count about a thousand for the whole world and spend about 25 languages are spoken by half of Africa so dealing with African languages is something that's quite feasible if you just want to cover half Africa and most of has his mistake here should be prime % do have looked up orthography so actually 80 % don't have enough but most African languages on the same language families and so most of them share the same features and so they're often with 1 language has a already in orthography or spelling or some published texts of their neighbors that language can properly we use the same set of orthographic rules and things like that and characters and so the thing with African languages because Africa most countries in Africa have only been independent for because half of a century but more the colonial languages are very important most of them are actually using cooling languages for anything official for the law most of the news this is written in foreign language the image that people have to learn that at school or at university and and the the the native languages are mostly spoken either at home or with friends or only in a spoken made use of television and radio and there's very little use of the the local languages in written that made and the thing is a radio and days slowly developing as it should be and and so there's interest rising and companies doing business in Africa and doing business in the local languages so people can use a cell phone in their own language instead of language they that to plan it's called and and this very few orthographies standardized system but I mean that there is either an organization or government that has set up a lot of the people can the following sort of arguing whether they should use when the at the other just follow what's standardized the so the the purpose of working
with defaults for African languages is to encourage people to use their language into publishing to trade and to do more things in their own language because it's more accessible to them so it's easier to to get organizing work together and a lot of things in Africa and so that's much better for our kids to learn about the basic stuff or is an event that stuff in their own language so that's somewhere that I think need to be easier to for people to publish educational material it's better for the press to use of local languages so people can get information properly and not just have the notion of what's happening in but instead know exactly what's happening because that is actually should have years ago in the Congo there was an election for that had to vote to where they want to accept the Constitution but some people had no idea where the constitutional actually was they thought it was presidential candidate so I have to make defaults 1st you need to meet the basic needs so I like to research or the basic needs of most African languages there are documented and on and then what happened is the needs of the fonts can be made and published so people can start using them and publish with them and also to sponsor with an open source license this so that they can encourage people to reuse them in a modified and the creative so on this actually several and scripts so that people don't just write with the Latin characters are Arabic characters in scripts in in Africa the most languages use of Latin script because it was what was used by the colonial authorities and Northern Africa and Western Africa love languages but also Eastern Africa languages use an Arabic script in Japan the usability should be credited to finalize used in the north of western Africa encodes a language that the the script there was devised a bit more of a century ago and it's so you do not some communities quite a lot but it's it's a was not vise also in that area and this there's a lot of other and scripts that have been developed by the local people who wanted to have their own as script instead of just using script that was imported from somewhere else and so on so but actually luckily
Latin script already supports of some major African languages like Swahili solution on and more but many African languages are widely spoken need and extended Latin with special characters they're not provided by most of typefaces and for example in this house uh spoken in did of western Africa that's 40 million people and they only have like a handful of forms that can be used to publish a text or read text there also full of inputs winning the war was never least yet was half of your by nature of the 2nd and the other is more and more and more so all those people languages uh and depending on which
country in which States was there and some of them have have standardized orthography is on some of them have only standardized them once they became independent and some of them even though other than that for a while we started looking at the local languages in the nineties or even more recently and so and so the focus of the work of is mostly on the the ones that have been standardized or the 1 that have some of 1 morphology manuals published by NGOs doing work on the ground and so the
the the performance actually there's a a couple of your w fonts there are used actually the current problem 1 is not render properly here but on this some and there's a couple of other energy open fonts and all of them have also been work on the draw and liberation forms that's been recently published and so the the the needs for all of the characters and most of the knees are pretty simple because beside the variants of the and characters there already exist or its characters of where the shapes are borrowed from the Greeks or sometimes couple lectures to and a lot of them in the bottom here are just a regular character with extra parts like hoax strokes end of
course there's plenty of characters they're just with an accent sort of critics on top of below and because of the way you unique could works on not all although accented characters are available sometimes you actually need to combine at an accident with the base character to but produce destined character some of the design is quite
simple if you just want to those letters you just take the original letter just flip it over and then you can just
borrow the letter from other scripts and so here you can see that epsilon is just quite easy to have the and open the competence sometimes you might want to have a different designs on to match better with script with Latin script and sometimes also and you might actually have conflict because of here so and that I will is quite similar to that of the end I telic so you might want to have a different design to come on avoided they they did and did in that language on those languages which is on the also with a
hoax sometimes an intelligence an issue for example here it says that the have with with a hook actually there is an issue in the nematic and regular because in code that characters also used for the flora and fauna primacy of the working once and so here you what you want to have a design that's which includes see the difference between the left and the left for the whole they also some
languages where the traditional shape of a character is different from the 1 that's all mostly used in published so itself right the ending character so In the there's a this is then the real shape or it's a capital and that's the most common 1 in European false but for African languages they actually people used and prefer the shape that looks like the the lord takes and and so
the once you've dealt with although different character shapes and this of course the diacritics so that's the 1 that the actions that need to be and the added to all the characters to have pre-composed form so we're sort the facts detectors 1 unit code character and this is because the data you have sometimes you have to have 2 characters meaning and you have the the base layer and the exodus to different characters and so to do that in addition to do and to use of features in open to position and properly and sometimes so all you need to
define is where are all of that accent is going to enter and where the anchor that accent is and so on your computer should take care of and combining the 2 as a specifies and sometimes you also
want to replace the the shape of the previously
on was simply positioning the accident of the character
but here we actually have the aligned with the dots and so you want to replace it with talk with a 9 without a doubt so you can then position the accent on top of it without having conflict with of the then of course you can also have their actions below and
of you can also have stacked exons because some languages use 1 accent throughput represents the length of the vowel and then use another accent to indicate the tone have for the time being poor pricing from something else and some other languages
also use this deal to 1 indicate variation of transition of of battle so that's also something that's needed for African languages and the set of those
all the work is published on the Web site African localization it has