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Behind the Screen

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Automatisierte Medienanalyse

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home DNA only a s and
be but so when I began this
research in 2010 and the way I started out with that was a by reading over coffee 1 day reading a really small article in the New York Times that was actually more of a in an afterthought piece the technology section and it talked about a
group of workers in rural Iowa in the United States in the midwest in an area that had been traditionally a family farm
area and these workers were transitioning from family farms which were no longer economically viable that part of the country and moving into working into center like environments for a firm called Polaris and you can see the website here this is a screenshot from a from a few years ago the
workers were performing a number of call center like task to answering phones in doing this kind of thing but in addition to that they were performing the the new form of labor that was going under a number different names screening content moderation of for some moderation social media and management and so 1 the workers in Iowa were working for a just above minimum wage they were hourly workers they were working without benefits which in the US is a significant factor because that meant they were without health care and as the New York Times reported these workers were beginning to suffer some psychological issues based on the work they were doing as content moderators what they were doing was screening of various social media sites as well as other kinds of commercial websites and seen uploaded content user-generated content day after day
image after image video after video and screening at for appropriateness for a site as you can imagine a lot of what they were seeing was in
fact inappropriate was inappropriate on the grounds of being potentially obscene pornographic but also content that was extremely violent violence towards children violence toward the animals adults the gage engaged in violence of war zone footage and other kinds materials such as this and the workers were reporting some difficulty in managing and their ability to look at this content constantly especially at such a low wage without without any type of benefits so I was intrigued by the story I I turned to my colleagues who were all digital media experts and academics who dedicated their life or to studying the internet and digital media I myself have been online since 1983 when our social media platform was literally in a guys closet on a server a guy named just anyway but so in my sense of moderation was really more around volunteering kinds of activities and when I asked my peers in my my a my professors have they'd ever heard of this type of work 2 things happen the 1st thing is that they said no they had the 2nd thing they said which is probably what you're thinking is looking at computers do that and in fact the answer to that is no and I'll talk a bit more about that in any time I visited Clarice's web page and I was stunned to discover their own tag line which is you can read up here was outsourced to I not
India with this bucolic form scene and that really reflects the reality that's no longer even an existence in Iowa tall factory farms and in Agra business there so just to
give you more of a sense definitionally of white commercial content moderated moderation we looks like and it's a globalized
around the clock set of practices in which workers such as the clearest workers and others viewing adjudicate massive amounts of
user-generated content UGC in industry lingo destined for the world's social media platforms and interactive Web sites that will the workers status simulation vary widely depending on site and circumstance in the world but there are some features that this work tends to share specifically cesium workers typically unglamorous repetitive and often exposes workers to content that is disturbing violent or psychologically damaging all the condition of the work that they deal this screenshot is from you tubes
of flagging system a few years ago which you as a user can go to if you come across content that you find on
disturbing or otherwise inappropriate based on site guidelines and you can report it for you to that triggers other content moderation process to begin so we as users participate in the process of CCM by our own reactions the content we see so CCM
workers in the course of their work render content visible or invisible while simultaneously remaining invisible themselves in the world of CC on the sign of a good job is to leave no sign at all and yet the mediation work done by cesium workers goes directly to shaping the landscape of social media and the UGC dominated Internet that we all participate and
were platforms exist simply as empty vessels for users to fill up with whatever they will enforce these young workers to act in effect is a gatekeeper between the users and platforms providing brand protection on behalf of the companies and the platform
owners of which they are demand companies that tend to utilize the CM services whether they are other third-party companies that often employ the workers or the of major platforms themselves avoid talking about their moderation practices in fact will often treated as a trade secret and they subject their workers to non-disclosure agreements for NDA is that preclude the workers from speaking about the nature and conditions of their work yet despite the hidden nature of CC on it is in fact essential
component of the production and circulation of social media on the screen here is is uh the leaks document from a number of years ago through the third-party firm Odesta microtask website that they had this reporting guide from Facebook and again following the circuit you can see the type of material that is that it is is often found in the CCM process and then therefore get an idea of what those workers are exposed you even though they're unable to discuss that are freely because of their NDA and this is a screenshot
from you Community guidelines again but if you wanna know what kind of material workers see go to your favorite platform and look at Community guidelines and other kinds of rules and regulations that
govern the UGC that can be included and you'll see it there so making decisions about what UGC is acceptable and what is not is actually a highly complex process as I indicated that I'm at this at this point it's well beyond the capabilities of of software algorithms alone but some firms do employ some level of batch processing and some some measure of algorithmic moderation but typically but this work falls to human agents and uh just to give you a sense of the the kind of content stream where the volume that we're talking about a u-tube itself really it receives over 100 hours of uploaded video per minute so that the enormity of the UGC that is created for each platform is just exponential if you think about that that amount of content per minute so some of this will go through machine automation but the material that's flagged usually by people like you and me will be typically rerouted through a circuit like the 1 you just for a few minutes ago but to a human agent on in some place in the world and whether or not the screening happens before the content is uploaded which is the case for some platforms but typically after it has been posted in most of human content moderators are called upon to employ an array of a very high level cognitive functions and cultural competencies to make decisions about the appropriateness of such content 1st lighter platform so in order to do this they must be experts in matters of the taste of the site presumed audience have cultural knowledge about the
location of origin of the platform and of the audience and both of which may be very far removed geographically and culturally from where the screening is actually taking place have linguistic competency in the language of the UGC and that may be a word a 2nd language for the content moderator him herself to be steeped in the relevant laws governing the site's location of origin and the experts in the user guide lines and other platform-level specifics concerning what is and what is not allowed all the while being exposed constantly to the very material that mainstream sites disallow and just to give you an idea of the volume of processing we're talking about thousands of images a day that these workers are asked view
or thousands of videos so the work has to be very quick but all of that having been said uh CCM isn't an industry unto itself per say in fact it's it's a labor process a set of processes that
take place across a number of industries and as such is stratified in the way that I have listed here so some firms have the capability both technologically and financially to have workers right on site with them so this is the case for many of the major Silicon Valley of social media firms they will have an in-house team although I should point out that those workers are often contract laborers so they will lack the full-timers badge and some workers joke with me this means they can access the a climbing wall in the lobby of the building
they can't get the free sushi and come Bouchaud that's on a on availability for the full-time workers but at the same time it also means they didn't have health that the health benefits that full-time workers access to we think about the psychological needs of these workers that is an important issue so they're boutique firms social media agencies much like at firms that 1 that provided a cesium like practices and they will also even go so far as to Seed content that is more favorable so they'll take down the bad stuff for a brand image and put in content but that is is positive of course as I mentioned we have call centers we have customers all over the world and I'll talk about where those are located and finally we have micro labor website Amazon's Mechanical Turk up work informally known as oDesk and other sites like this where workers come together in a digital piecework manner are doing 1 piece of of digital labor for 1 contract meeting and separating a lot of cesium work goes on in this kind of environment up for as little as 1 cent per image viewed and then there's absolutely no relation between the firm and in employee after that 1 uh screening takes place so I'll
talk to you that know about the case of a firm Michael attack this is a Silicon
Valley-based firm I am not able to share with you the name of the firm it's real name because of the ethics of guidelines that I'm under as a researcher but it's 1 that all of you know and have used in a probably using now I may have many major global brands and platforms and it's 1 of the firms that from an economic and technological perspective can support a team of cesium workers on site all of their
workers although they were contractors coming in from a 3rd party were required to be college graduates university graduates with four-year degrees and they were coming to make attack with a we backgrounds from places like the University of California at Berkeley for example or in the University of Southern California and other of four-year liberal arts colleges however they were coming not from a science technology and engineering backgrounds of but actually the lesser disciplines of the humanities and the social sciences right so things that the silicon valley was putting as much value 1 and that that's where they were coming into the CCM process from their four-year university degrees for those that I
interviewed and spoke with a all of whom were in their early twenties just a
couple of years out of the university but the the notion that they could get a job in the northern California silicon valley environment was a war to them and it was loaded with promise they went into this work with the hope that they might do CCM for a year or 2 and then transition that make attack into 1 of the more lucrative and 1 of the more well respected and valued jobs but unfortunately in no case to that actually happened the workers would come in on a
year-long contract they would do CCM as a full-time job for a year they would not be made to take a three-month break at during which time their employment and financial issues where there's to solve and then they could come back for 1 more contract after which time they were terminated off from doing CCM work from Megatech at all so that leads you to question why it is that the firm itself once people who can only work for 2 years and and then our cycled out nevertheless for the young people who were doing cesium work for Megatech but it seemed to be at least in the beginning of a better option for them than working in the service sector jobs that they thought were going to be available to them upon graduation and this was right after in in the wake of the 2008 economic downturn in the West so they were looking at taking the Berkeley degrees to be baristas and pizza servers in restaurants in in the bay area and California and working in the offices of Megatek seemed to give them stature and a chance at a better economic future and perhaps a chance to work in in a social media career beyond that next green was
24 when I spoke with him he was a
graduate of a four-year liberal arts college and graduated of course would be the debt that that many American university students graduate with and this was the case for all the employees at Megatek they had these elite degrees but they were saddled with tens of thousands of dollars in debt and that was something that they were very concerned about next was living in the Bay area with about 4 roommates he was making 40 thousand dollars a year with benefits at the end of the day of working hourly for that wage and I max was a
particularly insightful person about the work that he was doing with CCM but he he indicated to me that although it he he was trained so to speak to leave the material that he saw on the job and sort of tapped out psychologically mentally when he left it was really difficult for him to do that in fact he found himself yeah going home in ruminating about the things that he had seen it work images of child abuse images videos of
people on the giving hate speech on diatribes the racist content misogynistic content violence words women violence for the animals that 1 of the things
that max indicated to me that the most difficult content for him to see was footage coming out of the syrian crisis and Mousterian war zone that was coming from people on the ground there who were sending the material to Megatek ostensively for for advocacy purposes they wanted to use the platform to get a wider on audience to share with the world what was going on but Max was particularly insightful about his platforms relationship but to things like the syrian crisis because if we were to go back and look at some of the kinds of community guidelines that up a platform like facebook or youtube or any other mainstream platform has which a Megatek is certainly the kind of footage that he was receiving from serial would contravene all of those rules it was violence against children it was gratuitous it was gory and it was unrelenting but but nevertheless the group about him that made policy and make attack indicated to him that in fact the series material would stand and standard make and be allowed to be perpetuated max himself started thinking about this because at the same time he was receiving numerous videos from but the Mexican state of forests where as a serious drug war and drug by violence has been going on for a long time but next pointed out to me that the case serial was interesting because there certainly US foreign policy dimension there Megatek being a US company but seem to be aligning itself with the US viewpoint on the Syrian crisis at the same time he noted that the US also had extreme involvement in a relationship to the drug wars in for us and that material was not allowed to stand under any circumstances even know was coming in ostensively under the same advocacy rubric as a series footage and he started to feel a some frustration against these kinds of and in the incan grown episodes in his work but Josh Santos was another worker he graduated from berkeley and had been working at make attack for almost 2 years it was ready to cycle out he referred to his work at Megatek as being a immersed in a whole of filth and he would do that would be immersed in
a whole filtered hours a day 40 hours a week both Max and Josh began to have trouble in their private lives with the material that they were seeing because of the non-disclosure agreements they were precluded from talking to friends and talking to others about the content that they were seeing at work in the kind of work they were doing and therefore the effect it was having on them but all of the Megatek workers indicated to me that in fact they didn't want to tell other people about what they were seeing because they felt that it would be a burden upon them but they all had a sense of altruism they had a sense that they were making the Internet even possible for us to use up some of the other workers I spoke to told me that without CCM work most of us wouldn't be able to stomach the internet for long those of you however I had the misfortune to make an error click on a video that you had unexpectedly stumbled across that was something like a beheading or something like that know what I mean so these workers were engaged every day looking at the content and then taking it down so that other people then have to see it but in spite of this the the workers under the NGA's who were cheering this information with partners with loved ones were having real effects in the personal life max indicated to me that he had started drinking a lot more for example another story I heard was of 1 of the workers at when he would find himself in an intimate situation with his partner but he would be embracing her they would be getting into an intimate situation and suddenly an image of a video he had seen in taken down at work with flash before his eyes and he would pushes partner away in which she has turned explanation he couldn't even find the words to share so that not only were they precluded
a in a contractual away from discussing the content that they saw it was an emotional barrier and was emotional vary that was beginning to cause rifts between them and the people in their lights isolating them even even further in the system work they were doing all this leads me to the point
to to ask about you know it is it is is is basically the internet we were promised assist the digital labor environment that we were promised and also where the flying cars right
but as many of you may know us since the early 19 seventies particularly in an American context of there's been a shift in labor from the manufacturing sector moving into so-called knowledge work work that I would focus on technical work specialized of scientific and other types of knowledge the various down our degrees that I was discussing earlier and an increased importance and and predominant technological innovation all of this of course we were told what we do
this right so more leisure time but easier working conditions and to be to be fair cesium work doesn't put workers in any kind of direct physical harm it's not the heavy manufacturing that might be cause someone to lose a little more or or an appendage it doesn't physically harm them but certainly there are these other outcomes that are actually insidious and we can't see them and that's what makes them so frightening I I can tell you that back in the error of of manufacturing in the United States my grandfather worked in the same factory for 45 years but he never had a checking e-mail off hours he was never called to be in a 24 by 7 response cycle as many of these workers now are along side with this transformation into the knowledge society we've seen some other changes to that you're all familiar with the privatization of state resources the deregulation of industry if your worker protections cheapening of labor of globalization processes all of which are part and parcel of the way CCN operates today
in fact a great geospatial economic and political reconfigurations taken place to facilitate the obfuscation of the material and immaterial labor such as cesium that underpins the very knowledge economy that we're talking about often via these practices like outsourcing and other types of migratory practices in the case of the Philippines which you can
see here this is Makati City of 1 of the major financial economics centers no this often takes the form of special economic zones a special industrial zones were firms can relocate and I get special dispensation such as no taxes are for
really good tax breaks so they can build infrastructure only for themselves and then provided only for those businesses while
the next order areas that have a brownouts rate so cesium workers increasingly migrating to places like the Philippines and the Philippines that just one-tenth the population size of India has now surpassed India's the call center capital of the world and micro micro sourcing is just 1 firm that so successful for Western RCC and needs you can see here that advertisers
as having a whole a bevy of workers who have excellent English skills and familiarity with colloquial slang American flying someone they don't really go into why that that is all try all try that out in a moment they also offer a virtual captive service for those who might be interested in now the rather unfortunately need
service but this is a place in the
Philippines called eastward city it's the 1st IT
cyber park there and so a lot of times what we've seen there is a case of extremely uneven development where we have the cyber parks and other IT sectors looking something like this while right next door
we have this and this is what I call the paperless office the right
so so all of this is is giving us a pretty significant on bifurcation and and an exercise in extremes and I wanna say it's not just the Philippines where we see this we see this in Silicon Valley difference
between places like Mountain View where Google is headquartered next stories Palo Alto 1 of the most impoverished places in that region but just a few words about about the
Philippines New you're much more about that in a moment of from from my the 2nd presenter but I
wanna give you some context but not terminal itself is comprised of 17 individual cities each governed independently makes its own rules of what by lot by large rules that are quite favorable to the businesses like Cesium then at the population of 12 million people as of 2014 plus all the people who flow in and out
every day to do work in what they call BPOs or call centers as we know them on the call-center sector over the past few decades decade has become increasingly important and it's the mean as sector beyond that the the government sector in the Philippines now what we're
seeing there and what we see elsewhere not just the Philippines but in this particular case especially as a series of intertwined and biotic relationships among different systems so we're seeing state governmental policy regimes that are favorable for businesses that are doing cesium and other types of low level if you will digital labor on to locate in places like the Philippines were seeing land and physical infrastructure development to support this kind of work and and to make these great centers of this kind of work and finally received from a labor perspective on availability preparation and also the processes that all go toward enhancing as 1 of the things that the Philippine at governmental agency in charge was soliciting companies to come to the Philippines does say tell you that there are very few strikes in these economic sounds great for business I don't know if that's a great for workers
the so if we look at this 1923 map we can see interestingly this is a the trade routes of the Orient will see that these trade routes are actually Europe in the way data is flowing in and out of the Philippines today and you can see there's a direct route right there the sentences going there continues to this day I went to the Philippines last May and I talk to Ceci workers there we met at a TGI fridays at
7 A. M. which was happy hour for the workers there they were meeting in drinking after the CCM shift and a they reported to me a number of themes again they were very similar their American counterparts but they were a young people with university degrees looking for a good paying job and this is what was on offer to them and they took it they took it willingly but it had the same kinds of implications and ramifications for them again no access to psychological services and also what is really mean if you access Psychological Services when your job is to be able to stomach this very content that is disturbing you right so I'm mean a close just with the with
the few uh pieces of food for thought as we go into the next talk what is at stake when we talk about the sea well certainly were talking about some little known and yet mission-critical digital labor activities that code under underpin undergird the social media platforms that we all know when used were talking about some problematic labor forms from from a worker perspective of work that can put workers into a precarious position often with very little job security but and finally we're talking about a practice that actually troubles the notion that the increasingly problematic notion of the internet as a free speech sound and as a site of democratic intervention in fact there was a whole P of a whole army of people across the world making decisions about content that people put into social media platforms and whether it should stay or go in there making those decisions largely largely on the basis of what will be favorable to the platform itself but there are
all these intermediaries and there we know that cesium workers are there now who else is there then a say we know they're they're surveillance is taking place so who else is in the next this is something we need to really think about what if we're going to have honest conversations about the utility of the internet as a site of democratic intervention going forward and I'll
leave you with this last slide it's a slide of
uh in in each Eastwood city itself that I took pictures of many people thought I was thinking it was a fine hierarchies and they wanted to let me know it was and was actually just junkie corporate art but in fact I found it fascinating you can see these are workers with headset on the monument to the Eastwood cities BPO call-center workers many of whom were cesium workers and the plaque on the bottom is dedicated to Eastwood cities modern heroes and I'll leave that there they give
factor in
MIDI <Musikelektronik>
Garbentheorie
Systemaufruf
Microsoft dot net
Neue Medien
Computeranimation
Neumann-Problem
Metropolitan area network
Web Site
Flächeninhalt
Mereologie
Gruppenkeim
Familie <Mathematik>
Datenfluss
Extrempunkt
Programmierumgebung
Computeranimation
Addition
Subtraktion
Web Site
Call Center
Content <Internet>
Digital Rights Management
Zahlenbereich
Teilbarkeit
Computeranimation
Videokonferenz
Neue Medien
Task
Metropolitan area network
Bildschirmmaske
Arbeit <Physik>
Webforum
MIDI <Musikelektronik>
User Generated Content
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Bit
Digital Rights Management
Computerunterstütztes Verfahren
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Demoszene <Programmierung>
Metropolitan area network
Bildschirmmaske
Computerspiel
Bit
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Gerade
Gammafunktion
Expertensystem
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Content <Internet>
Peer-to-Peer-Netz
Zeitzone
Systemaufruf
Neue Medien
Server
Faktor <Algebra>
Web Site
Explosion <Stochastik>
Röhrenfläche
Content <Internet>
Interaktives Fernsehen
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Systemplattform
Computeranimation
Videokonferenz
Neue Medien
Metropolitan area network
Webforum
Menge
Chatten <Kommunikation>
Konditionszahl
Phasenumwandlung
Simulation
User Generated Content
Normalvektor
Gammafunktion
Software Development Kit
Metropolitan area network
Explosion <Stochastik>
Web Site
Prozess <Physik>
Webforum
Content <Internet>
Phasenumwandlung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Physikalisches System
Computeranimation
Soundverarbeitung
Neue Medien
Metropolitan area network
Elektronischer Programmführer
Content <Internet>
Prozess <Informatik>
Vorzeichen <Mathematik>
Volumenvisualisierung
Systemplattform
Personal Area Network
Computeranimation
Internetworking
Facebook
Web Site
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Elektronischer Programmführer
Natürliche Zahl
Zahlenbereich
Biprodukt
Systemplattform
Computeranimation
Neue Medien
Leck
Zirkulation <Strömungsmechanik>
Web Services
Webforum
Konditionszahl
Datentyp
Digitaltechnik
Zusammenhängender Graph
Elektronischer Programmführer
Verkehrsinformation
Touchscreen
Web Site
Prozess <Physik>
Punkt
Extrempunkt
Systemplattform
Computeranimation
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Videokonferenz
Virtuelle Maschine
Streaming <Kommunikationstechnik>
Metropolitan area network
Algorithmus
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Webforum
Software
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Regulator <Mathematik>
Einflussgröße
Expertensystem
Content <Internet>
Schlussregel
Entscheidungstheorie
Videokonferenz
Informationsverarbeitung
Digitaltechnik
Stapelverarbeitung
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Umwandlungsenthalpie
Expertensystem
Web Site
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Computeranimation
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Metropolitan area network
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Menge
Webforum
Typentheorie
Benutzerhandbuch
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Spezifisches Volumen
URL
Gerade
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Gammafunktion
Web Services
Web Site
Call Center
Datentyp
Freeware
Content <Internet>
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Relativitätstheorie
Zahlenbereich
Web Site
Computeranimation
Design by Contract
Portscanner
Neue Medien
Call Center
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Task
Verbandstheorie
Typentheorie
Digitalisierer
Programmierumgebung
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Web Site
Perspektive
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Systemplattform
Minimalgrad
Prozess <Physik>
Open Source
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Grundraum
Green-Funktion
Gruppenoperation
BAYES
Computeranimation
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Design by Contract
Office-Paket
Neue Medien
Web Services
Minimalgrad
Flächeninhalt
Prozess <Informatik>
Server
Grundraum
Programmierumgebung
Minimalgrad
Zehn
Flächeninhalt
Open Source
t-Test
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Extrempunkt
Grundraum
Computeranimation
Metropolitan area network
Content <Internet>
Prozess <Informatik>
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Sprachsynthese
Wort <Informatik>
Quick-Sort
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Computeranimation
Videokonferenz
Facebook
Extrempunkt
Hausdorff-Dimension
Gruppenkeim
Systemplattform
Computeranimation
Videokonferenz
Internetworking
Eins
Flash-Speicher
Computerspiel
Geometrische Frustration
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Soundverarbeitung
Wald <Graphentheorie>
Content <Internet>
Reihe
Schlussregel
Zeitzone
Dreiecksfreier Graph
Serielle Schnittstelle
Wort <Informatik>
Reelle Zahl
Information
YouTube
Aggregatzustand
Fehlermeldung
Arbeit <Physik>
Punkt
Content <Internet>
Digitalisierer
Physikalisches System
Programmierumgebung
Computeranimation
Internetworking
Feuchteleitung
Physikalischer Effekt
Physikalismus
Mathematisierung
Transformation <Mathematik>
Kontextbezogenes System
Computeranimation
Richtung
Arbeit <Physik>
Minimalgrad
Rechter Winkel
Konditionszahl
Datentyp
Dreiecksfreier Graph
Endogene Variable
Mereologie
Faktor <Algebra>
E-Mail
Fehlermeldung
Verschiebungsoperator
Aggregatzustand
Bildschirmmaske
Arbeit <Physik>
Migration <Informatik>
Datentyp
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Zeitzone
Call Center
Flächeninhalt
Güte der Anpassung
Kontrollstruktur
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Bitrate
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Web Services
Metropolitan area network
Web Services
Momentenproblem
ATM
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Extrempunkt
Computeranimation
Subtraktion
Rechter Winkel
Cybersex
Besprechung/Interview
Papierloses Büro
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Extreme programming
Softwareentwickler
Besprechung/Interview
Gotcha <Informatik>
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Schlussregel
Kontextbezogenes System
Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
Systemaufruf
Managementinformationssystem
Softwareentwickler
Call Center
Subtraktion
Prozess <Physik>
Physikalismus
Besprechung/Interview
Reihe
Aggregatzustand
Physikalisches System
Systemaufruf
Übergang
Arithmetisches Mittel
Systemprogrammierung
Arbeit <Physik>
Perspektive
Datentyp
Gotcha <Informatik>
Softwareentwickler
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Orientierung <Mathematik>
Zahlenbereich
Routing
Technische Zeichnung
Computeranimation
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Metropolitan area network
Dedekind-Schnitt
Web Services
Minimalgrad
Prozess <Informatik>
Digital Rights Management
Verzweigungspunkt
Grundraum
Stochastische Abhängigkeit
Verschiebungsoperator
Internetworking
Umsetzung <Informatik>
Web Site
Ortsoperator
Freeware
Content <Internet>
Computersicherheit
Softwarewerkzeug
Sprachsynthese
Systemplattform
Computeranimation
Entscheidungstheorie
Internetworking
Wurm <Informatik>
Neue Medien
Arbeit <Physik>
Bildschirmmaske
Prozess <Informatik>
Perspektive
Digitalisierer
Basisvektor
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Zeitzone
Rechenschieber
Minimum
Besprechung/Interview
Hierarchische Struktur
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Ext-Funktor
Vorlesung/Konferenz

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Behind the Screen
Serientitel re:publica 2016
Teil 79
Anzahl der Teile 188
Autor Roberts, Sarah T.
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/20692
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2016
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Commercial content moderators are unseen, unknown internet gatekeepers, responsible for ridding social media of violent, extreme and shocking material, on behalf of major firms who require their services.

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