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01:19 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Sea surface salinity monthly

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". In the retrograde simulation (right), the Mediterranean Sea freshens strongly and develops an estuarine circulation. Similar effects can be seen in the Arabian Sea. This is due to increased precipitation over northern Africa and Arabia. The North Atlantic current can also be seen in the Sea Surface Salinity. It reverses its direction and flows much more southward. Strong increases in salinity can be observed in Eastern Asia.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
01:19 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Sea ice monthly

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". In the retrograde simulation (right), much more sea ice is formed in the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas. This is related to a shift of the deep water formation into the Pacific and drastically reduced ocean heat transports in the North Atlantic. The west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula sees a drastic increase in sea ice.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
01:39 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Current speed 3d monthly

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". In the retrograde simulation, the fastest currents can be observed at the American West Coast and in the Indian sector of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The North Atlantic Current has vanished, and only a weak boundary current at the African West coast moves water northward in the Atlantic. In the tropics, strong wave-features can be observed.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
00:39 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Nstar 3d monthly

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". N*=NO3-16PO4 is a measure for denitrification resulting when bacteria use nitrate instead of oxygen to degrade organic matter. Negative values of N* indicate lack of nitrate and abundance of phosphate. This process of denitrification occurs only in oxygen minimum zones. It reveals its implication on biological productivity of most marine plants when water with low N* values reaches the surface and limits plant growth. In the retrograde simulation (right) very low values of N* are found in the Indian Ocean.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
00:39 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Dissolved oxygen content 3d monthly

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". In upwelling zones, nutrients are brought from the deep to the surface, leading to high biological activity, and the production of large amounts of organic matter. This organic matter is remineralized while sinking to greater water depths. Remineralization requires oxygen, so in regions with high organic matter fluxes oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) develop. In the retrograde experiment (right), a massive OMZ forms in the Indian ocean.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
01:30 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Surface temperature 2h

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". The surface temperature of Earth strongly depends on the annual and diurnal cycle of the sun. Further, the atmospheric and oceanic circulation determine local temperature patterns. This simulation of 2-hourly surface temperatures emphasizes the reversal of the diurnal cycle, best evident in the tropics over South America and Africa.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
01:30 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Precipitation 2h

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". 2-hourly precipitation data shows strong convective systems pulsate on a daily basis in the tropics. The annual cycle shifts them to the north in summer, and to the south in winter. In the retrograde simulation (right), they reach into the Sahara Desert in summer and turn it into a forest. In the mid-latitudes, the cyclone systems follow the main flow of the atmosphere, moving eastward in the control simulation and westward in the retrograde simulation.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
00:47 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Precipitation monthly

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". Monthly averaged precipitation indicates how the tropical rain belt of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is moving through the seasons. The general movement is similar in the two simulations, while a reorganization of the tropical ITCZ is evident. Differences are most pronounced over the tropical Atlantic, central Pacific and the Middle East. Note, that the Sahara suddenly becomes very wet!
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
01:30 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Wind 2h

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". The zonal wind patterns are reversed in the retrograde simulation (right), resulting in easterly jets and westerly trade winds. Therefore, continents in the subtropics and mid-latitudes become colder on their western and warmer on their eastern margins. The storm track in the South Pacific is more pronounced, which is related to the changes in ocean circulation, specifically the subtropical gyre in the South Pacific.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
00:47 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Surface temperature monthly

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". Monthly surface temperatures show the differences in the seasonal cycle. The most prominent differences are evident over South America and the Sahara during the Northern Hemispheric summer and western Europe and the North Atlantic during winter. The simulations also show that east-west temperature gradients over continents are reversed in the retrograde simulation (right) and are pronounced over North America and South Africa.
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
00:14 Copernicus Publications Silent film 2018

Leaf area index monthly

Results from simulations with the coarse-resolution version of MPI-ESM performed by the RETRO team at DKRZ. The left side shows a normal (prograde) rotating earth. The right side shows a backwards (retrograde) rotating earth. The simulations are forced with pre-industrial boundary conditions. For the full description see the Earth System Dynamics manuscript "The climate of a retrograde rotating earth". The simulation shows the seasonal cycle of the leaf area index and the transition from northern hemispheric winter to summer. Significant greening occurs over Europe and North America in both experiments during this transition. While the Sahara is a desert in the control simulation (left), it shows a strong seasonal cycle in the retrograde simulation (right).
  • Published: 2018
  • Publisher: Copernicus Publications
  • Language: Silent film
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