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00:37 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Marine Lebensgemeinschaften - Plankton

Marine organisms are diversified in various aspects, so in their biology. In the pelagic realm there are planktonic and nektonic life forms. Plankton (Greek: drifting) commonly comprises small organisms, which are dominated by the hydrodynamic forces of the ocean, such as currents and waves. Nekton can compensate those forces by own locomotory capabilities. Benthos comprises all organisms that either live on or within the sea bottom. Planktonic organisms are mentioned already by Plato (429 B.C.), who described medusae in his reports. Aristotle (389 B.C.) also mentioned planktonic life forms by implication when he described fish fry. The term plankton, however, was established only in 1887 by the marine physiologist Viktor Hensen from the marine science institute in Kiel. Although most representatives of the plankton are microscopic, there are exceptions represented by larger organisms with poor locomotory abilities such as medusae. Due to their high content of water, they are almost neutrally buoyant and are passively moved by hydrodynamic forces. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:30 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Planktonfang

The vertical and horizontal distribution of plankton in the sea depends on several parameters resulting in a certain degree of patchiness. The local composition also varies according to the time of the day. Some species emerge only during the day, others only at night. Most of the plankton organisms are very sensitive to changes of temperature and oxygen. Therefore, live organisms have to be studied immediately after sampling. There is a non-homogeneous distribution of plankton ('patchiness') due to water movements, distribution of nutrients, oxygen, temperature gradients and the migration of plankton. Tropical seas are also called 'blue deserts' due to the low density of particulate organic matter and plankton organisms. With the aid of special nets made of fine-meshed gauze and towed at a speed of 1-2 knots, plankton is concentrated during sampling. The size class of organisms captured is determined by the mesh-size used. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:57 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Nachtfang

The vertical and horizontal distribution of plankton in the sea depends on several parameters resulting in a certain degree of patchiness. The local composition also varies according to the time of the day. Some species emerge only during the day, others only at night. Most of the plankton organisms are very sensitive to changes of temperature and oxygen. Therefore, live organisms have to be studied immediately after sampling. The plankton composition at a certain water depth during day- and nighttime varies due to diurnal vertical migration. In the dark many plankton organisms are attracted by light and can easily be collected by a small net. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
24:51 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2005
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Meeresplankton

Marine plankton is made up of a large number of organisms that are small in size and represent a huge variety of animal and plant groups. A principal feature shared among these organisms is their inability to actively move against the influence of waves and currents. Besides species that spend their entire life cycle in the pelagic realm, larvae of many benthic animals also reside in the plankton for some time before settling to the bottom, this way also dispersing the species. The plankton provides the basis of marine food chains through the photosynthetic primary production of single-celled algae and zooplanktonic animals foraging on them. This DVD presents some examples of typical microbial, plant and animal members of the marine plankton and provides insights to their biology and ecology.
  • Published: 2005
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:04 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Labor

The vertical and horizontal distribution of plankton in the sea depends on several parameters resulting in a certain degree of patchiness. The local composition also varies according to the time of the day. Some species emerge only during the day, others only at night. Most of the plankton organisms are very sensitive to changes of temperature and oxygen. Therefore, live organisms have to be studied immediately after sampling. Studies of live plankton should take place immediately after sampling since changes in temperature, oxygen deficiency and increased light intensity cause a rapid mortality of sensitive plankton organisms. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:27 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Wimpern

Planktonic organisms have by definition only limited capabilities for locomotion. Due to the vast diversity of planktonic taxa belonging to all biotic kingdoms, very diverse ways of locomotion have evolved as well as a variety of morphological, and physiological adaptations for buoyancy regulation. Many small plankton organisms, particularly invertebrate larvae, use cilia for their locomotion, which are often arranged in fields or bands. The body of the so-called Müller's larva of the turbellarians is completely covered by cilia. Besides locomotion, bands of cilia also serve other functions, as in the collection of food particles and the subsequent transport to the mouth. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:56 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Chordata (Chordatiere)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). The chordates are comprised of appendicularians, ascidians, thaliaceans and vertebrates. The last mentioned are only present in the plankton in the form of eggs and fish larvae. Appendicularians and salps are completely transparent as an adaptation to pelagic life. They feed on small plankton, that is accumulated by highly efficient mechanisms of suspension feeding. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:29 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Wanderungen, Verbreitung

Planktonic organisms have by definition only limited capabilities for locomotion. Due to the vast diversity of planktonic taxa belonging to all biotic kingdoms, very diverse ways of locomotion have evolved as well as a variety of morphological, and physiological adaptations for buoyancy regulation. Some planktonic organisms are able to migrate within restricted areas, often forming swarms. At the onset of dusk many zooplankton organisms migrate from deeper water layers, where they remain during the day, to the surface, moving back again to deeper layers before dawn (diurnal migration). Distances that are covered during these migration periods can be several hundred meters. Vertical patterns of distribution varies not only among species but alsowith season, sex, developmental stage or age. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
03:18 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Algen (Pflanzliche Organismen)

Unicellular plankton organisms comprise bacteria, heterotrophic protists, and algae. Here, diatoms and dinoflagellates represent the bulk of photosynthetic primary producers. Protists are represented by radiolarians, foraminiferans and ciliates. Photoautotrophic unicellular plankton is dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates. They occur in all seas and provide the bulk of the photosynthetic primary production. In some groups there are photoautotrophic besides heterotrophic forms, as well as mixotrophic transient forms. Mass development of dinoflagellates can produce harmful algal blooms (HABs, also called red tides). Some diatom species produce toxins leading to severe intoxications by accumulation in the food web. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:20 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Pilze (Fungi)

Unicellular plankton organisms comprise bacteria, heterotrophic protists, and algae. Here, diatoms and dinoflagellates represent the bulk of photosynthetic primary producers. Protists are represented by radiolarians, foraminiferans and ciliates. Besides, bacteria, animals, and plants, there are also fungi in the plankton. They develop tubiform hyphae and thrive on decaying organic material (detritus), or live as parasites on or inside the bodies of their hosts. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:38 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Bakterien (Ultramikroplankton)

Unicellular plankton organisms comprise bacteria, heterotrophic protists, and algae. Here, diatoms and dinoflagellates represent the bulk of photosynthetic primary producers. Protists are represented by radiolarians, foraminiferans and ciliates. The smallest and most abundant organisms in the plankton are bacteria. Due to their minute size they belong to the ultramicroplankton (< 2 µm). They thrive in the pelagic but also on detrital particles or other plankton organisms. Bacteria are not characterized by a high diversity of forms but by their enormous metabolic potential. This enables them to make use of a broad spectrum of nutrients. They contribute enormously to the decomposition and recycling of organic material. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:32 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Rotatoria (Rädertiere)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). Whereas rotifers are very abundant and diverse in freshwater plankton, there are only a few species in the marine plankton. Most of the rotifers are very small (<1 mm) and consist of about 1000 cells (eutely). The body is surrounded by a proteinaceous shell (lorica) made of keratin that shows spiniform emarginations. A charasteristic feature is the corona at the anterior part of the body. The beat of its cilia serve for locomotion and feeding. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:20 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Extremitäten

Planktonic organisms have by definition only limited capabilities for locomotion. Due to the vast diversity of planktonic taxa belonging to all biotic kingdoms, very diverse ways of locomotion have evolved as well as a variety of morphological, and physiological adaptations for buoyancy regulation. Many planktonic organisms swim with the aid of appendages, e.g. crustacean nauplii or copepods. For this purpose the appendages are often flattened or otherwise modified. Similarly, the foot of holoplanktonic molluscs (Gastropoda: Heteropoda and Thecosomata) is modified into fin-like structures. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:27 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Rückstoß

Planktonic organisms have by definition only limited capabilities for locomotion. Due to the vast diversity of planktonic taxa belonging to all biotic kingdoms, very diverse ways of locomotion have evolved as well as a variety of morphological, and physiological adaptations for buoyancy regulation. An effective way of swimming is provided by jet propulsion, which is not only utilized by cephalopods, but also by medusae and other planktonic organisms. Medusae force water out of their subumbrellar cavity by rhythmically contracting the umbrella. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:10 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Polychaeta (Borstenwürmer)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). Polychaetes are among the dominant invertebrate groups of the marine benthos. Some representatives of this group have adapted to a life in the pelagic realm - a minority representing roughly 140 of about 10.000 known species. Besides these holoplanktonic species, the larvae of many benthic polychaetes develop in the plankton. They show a trochophore as a primary larva and depending on the taxa involved, rather morphologically derived secondary larvae. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:18 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Gastropoda (Schnecken)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). Only a few of the about 70.000 marine gastropods known to date show a holoplanktonic life style. Typical representatives of the latter are heteropods and pteropods. Besides these holoplanktonic forms the veliger larvae of benthic adults are found in the plankton. The name of this larva is derived from its swimming organ, the velum, a paired, lateral emargination of the head. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:18 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Cnidaria (Nesseltiere)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). Cnidaria occur in the plankton as larvae but also as medusae or colonies of siphonophores. Scyphomedusae are among the largest planktonic forms of life. They are commonly called jellyfish due to their gelatinous umbrella. Their medusae develop from ephyrae that are detached from sessile polyps in a process called strobilation. All these forms move primarily by jet propulsion. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:39 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006

Meeresplankton - Turbellaria (Strudelwürmer)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). Among the turbellarians only some representatives of the Polycladida develop a planktonic larvae that is called Müller's larva. It develops from a trochophore-like stage by the formation of 8 ciliated lobes. This larva can be caught using fine-meshed plankton nets. Thos larval phase lasts only a few days. The metamorphosis delivers a young turbellarian worm which can still be found in plankton samples before it settles to perform a benthic life. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:34 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Enteropneusta (Eichelwürmer)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). The tornaria larva of enteropneusts resembles the bipinnaria or auricularia larva of echinoderms at first glance. Its ciliated bands, however, are even more elaborate and develop complicated folds and saddles, particularly in later stages. These bands function primarily in the capture of food particles while locomotion is primarily achieved by the characteristic circumanal band of cilia (Telotroch). The tornaria of some species can reach several millimeters in length and stay in the plankton for extended periods of time. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:17 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Tentaculata

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). The actinotrocha larva of the Phoronida represents one of the most peculiar invertebrate larva in the marine plankton. A cephalic epi- and a caudal hyposphere are distinguished by a horseshoe-shaped ring of ciliated tentacles. The metamorphosis is very fast and can be completed in about 15 minutes. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:47 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Auftriebshilfen

Planktonic organisms have by definition only limited capabilities for locomotion. Due to the vast diversity of planktonic taxa belonging to all biotic kingdoms, very diverse ways of locomotion have evolved as well as a variety of morphological, and physiological adaptations for buoyancy regulation. To compensate for the fact that their specific weigth is higher than water, weight reduction, formation of floating appendages, and the incorporation of oil and gas are common adjustments to slow down sinking rates and thus save energy for swimming. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:33 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Wimperplatten

Planktonic organisms have by definition only limited capabilities for locomotion. Due to the vast diversity of planktonic taxa belonging to all biotic kingdoms, very diverse ways of locomotion have evolved as well as a variety of morphological, and physiological adaptations for buoyancy regulation. In Ctenophores the body is divided by cilia fused to combs arranged in 8 longitudinal rows. They beat synchronously from the mouth to the apical pole of the body, pushing ctenophores through the water with their mouth opening in front. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
03:05 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006

Meeresplankton - Crustacea (Krebse)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). Crustacea are present in almost every plankton sample and represent the bulk of its biomass. Besides abundant holoplanktonic representatives of various systematic groups, namely from the Branchiopoda, Copepoda, Mysidacea, and Euphausiacea, crustaceans produce a vast variety of larval forms with many of them bearing specific names. The zoëa larva for example represents the typical hatching form of many marine decapod crustaceans. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:08 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Echinodermata (Stachelhäuter)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). The pentaradiate and mostly benthic echinoderms develop very characteristic larvae that are bilaterally symmetrical and swim by the beat of cilia bands. A primary larva of all echinoderms is the dipleurula larva. Larvae of asteroids and ophiurans are characterized by long projections, that are stabilized by skeletal elements made of calcium carbonate. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:39 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Zooplankton

Marine food webs depend on the photosynthetic production of minute, mostly unicellular algae (phytoplankton) which are autotroph and represent the bulk of primary producers in the sea. Heterotrophic zooplankton feeds - as primary and secondary consumers - on the phytoplankton directly or indirectly. They themselves provide food for larger animals. The exudates, feces and carcasses of zooplankton together with other particulate organic matter form 'marine snow' that serves as food for other organisms. As in all coenoses parasitism also occurs among planktonic organisms. Heterotrophic zooplankton comprises a much more diverse group than the phytoplankton. Often, single groups are dominant, such as the Crustacea and here the Copepoda that can constitute more than 70% of the zooplankton share of a sample. Animals from almost all phyla can be found in the plankton during some or all phases of their life cycle and are therefore called Mero- or Holoplankton, respectively. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
10:43 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1961

Mittelmeerplankton - Protozoen

Plankton of the Mediterranean Sea, Protozoa of the Mediterranean plankton, mostly dinoflagellates, radiolarians, foraminiferans and ciliates.
  • Published: 1961
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:30 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006

Meeresplankton - Sipuncula (Spritzwürmer)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). During the indirect ontogeny of sipunculans a secondary larva, the pelagosphaera, succeeds a trochophore larva. Its body consists of a frontal cephalic region, a middle region with a ciliary band and the trunk. The head and the middle region can be retracted into the trunk. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:21 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006

Meeresplankton - Chaetognatha (Pfeilwürmer)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). Chaetognaths feed primarily on planktonic copepods, that are captured by the spines and teeth located laterally in the head region. Their elongated body is almost completely transparent and resembles an arrow with its lateral fins. Arrow-worms can accelerate very fast by dorsoventral oscillations of their musculature. Since they share many peculiar characters their systematic position within the animal kingdom is still not clear. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:21 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006

Meeresplankton - Nemertini (Schnurwürmer)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). The nemerteans represent a phylum with different developmental modes and therefore a diverse array of larvae. Best known is the pilidium larva of many heteronemerteans, that feeds on smaller planktonic organisms. The larva is helmet-shaped with laterally prolonged lobes and an apical tuft of cilia. Along the margin runs a band of cilia, whose beat provides the larva with a rotating forward propulsion. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:09 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006

Meeresplankton - Ctenophora (Rippenquallen)

Heterotrophic zooplankton is commonly much more diverse than phytoplankton. Representatives of most animal phyla either belong to the plankton throughout their life or have certain developmental phases in the plankton - hence they are called holo- or meroplankton, respectively. Meroplanktonic larvae do not resemble their parents, but transform into the adult form by metamorphosis (indirect development). Ctenophores resemble medusae in their gelatinous consistency and transparency. However, contrary to the cnidaria, they show a biradial body symmetry. On the surface there are eight rows of comb cilia running from the apical pole to the mouth providing locomotion. Ctenophores are predators and develop via a so-called cydippe stage. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:22 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Parasitismus

Marine food webs depend on the photosynthetic production of minute, mostly unicellular algae (phytoplankton) which are autotroph and represent the bulk of primary producers in the sea. Heterotrophic zooplankton feeds - as primary and secondary consumers - on the phytoplankton directly or indirectly. They themselves provide food for larger animals. The exudates, feces and carcasses of zooplankton together with other particulate organic matter form 'marine snow' that serves as food for other organisms. As in all coenoses parasitism also occurs among planktonic organisms. The Microoniscium larval stage of certain isopods (e.g. of the Bopyridae = Epicaridea) attaches as an ectoparasite to copepods and feeds on the hemolymph of its host. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:32 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Fäces

Marine food webs depend on the photosynthetic production of minute, mostly unicellular algae (phytoplankton) which are autotroph and represent the bulk of primary producers in the sea. Heterotrophic zooplankton feeds - as primary and secondary consumers - on the phytoplankton directly or indirectly. They themselves provide food for larger animals. The exudates, feces and carcasses of zooplankton together with other particulate organic matter form 'marine snow' that serves as food for other organisms. As in all coenoses parasitism also occurs among planktonic organisms. Exudates, feces and carcasses of planktonic organisms provide other planktonic representatives with food, e.g. the nauplius larva of the benthic copepod Paramphiascella sp. that feeds on fecal pellets. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:23 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Seston

Marine food webs depend on the photosynthetic production of minute, mostly unicellular algae (phytoplankton) which are autotroph and represent the bulk of primary producers in the sea. Heterotrophic zooplankton feeds - as primary and secondary consumers - on the phytoplankton directly or indirectly. They themselves provide food for larger animals. The exudates, feces and carcasses of zooplankton together with other particulate organic matter form 'marine snow' that serves as food for other organisms. As in all coenoses parasitism also occurs among planktonic organisms. Aggregates of particulate organic matter (POM) form so-called marine snow, that sinks comparatively fast to deeper strata and can reach the sea bottom within a few days. Through this rain of particles organic substances descend to deeper zones and are eliminated from the euphotic zone for extended periods of time. This mechanism is also called 'biological carbon pump' or 'carbon sink'. It plays a specific role in the regulation of the global CO2-equilibrium. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:20 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006

Meeresplankton - Radiolarien (Strahlentierchen)

Unicellular plankton organisms comprise bacteria, heterotrophic protists, and algae. Here, diatoms and dinoflagellates represent the bulk of photosynthetic primary producers. Protists are represented by radiolarians, foraminiferans and ciliates. Radiolaria are exclusively marine and planktonic protists. The majority of species occurs down to 350 m depth. The basic shape of the cell is spherical, with a central capsule, that is covered by ectoplasm which forms pseudopodia and needles or skeletal elements made of silica. Often there are symbiotic zooxanthellae and oil droplets incorporated. The latter also enhance buoyancy. Skeletons of radiolaria dominate sediments in various marine regions. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
04:07 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1961

Mittelmeerplankton - Salpen

Plankton of the Mediterranean Sea-Salpes. The Thaliacea (salpes) belonging to the tumicates are pelagic animals with an alternation of generations. The film shows representatives of the Desmomyaria (Salpa syn. Thalia) and Cyclomyaria (Doliolum), gonozoids and blastozoids, and also an embryo of Thalia with placenta and elaeoblast. The alternating heartbeat is to be seen.
  • Published: 1961
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
00:19 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 2006
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Meeresplankton - Phytoplankton

Marine food webs depend on the photosynthetic production of minute, mostly unicellular algae (phytoplankton) which are autotroph and represent the bulk of primary producers in the sea. Heterotrophic zooplankton feeds - as primary and secondary consumers - on the phytoplankton directly or indirectly. They themselves provide food for larger animals. The exudates, feces and carcasses of zooplankton together with other particulate organic matter form 'marine snow' that serves as food for other organisms. As in all coenoses parasitism also occurs among planktonic organisms. The bulk of phytoplankton taxa comprise diatoms, dinoflagellates and coccolithophorides. Under suitable environmental conditions they can multiply very fast by cell fission (phytoplankton bloom). Due to the fact that algae depend on sunlight for their photosynthethic production, they are limited to the upper water layers, i.e. the euphotic zone. From the DVD: DAHMS, HANS-UWE (Hongkong); FIEGE, DIETER (Frankfurt a. M.). Marine Plankton. (C 12863)
  • Published: 2006
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
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AV-Portal 3.7.0 (943df4b4639bec127ddc6b93adb0c7d8d995f77c)