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57:48 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

The BSD ISP

Running an ISP can be a tedious task of putting different pieces of boxed hardware together to make the network work, but can also be a fun and entertaining work of research on the right solution to accommodate your customer's needs. The market is full of vendors, big and small, ready to sell you a pre-packaged solution for your (supposed) needs, but what if you'd like to use BSD to serve your customers ? This talk will show how we are running a full ISP on solutions brought out using facilities and software easily built on top of BSD systems, and will delve into the challenges we have faced in the set up of the distributed architecture, with POPs in different european countries. Along with this, we are carrying out an analysis and comparison of costs and features between commercial and open source solutions, characterizing the decisions we made and the results we carried out. As an ISP, we not only offer access service, but we also deliver streaming services through a distributed CDN, also built on top of BSD. This will be a chance to delve into the different pieces of software used for encoding, distributing and streaming videos over the BSDs, and the technologies we used to interact with the underlying network. While being a non highly technical talk, the goal is to show the audience that using BSD in an ISP and content distributor environment is perfectly possible and will deliver the same quality of service of the packaged solutions, yet keeping your costs under control and allowing you a high degree of customization. This will be carried on showing - as already stated - a real world example of our project running solely with the power of BSD.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
55:17 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Subclassing in Newbus

A brief tutorial for the subclassing part of the FreeBSD configuration system (known for years as newbus). The author will present work bringing this power to legacy portions of the system, as well as suggestions for future work in this fruitful area. This lecture will present a background of the FreeBSD driver system. The subclassing part of this system is radically under-documented. A companion document for this lecture will amplify the current documentation and provide additional examples to illustrate the power of the subclassing system. The lecture will then shift to reviewing the work the author has done to use these techniques to help map items in the kernel device tree to device nodes in the devfs tree.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
1:00:41 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

FreeBSD based Japanese Enterprise System and Tukubai Method

Unicage software development method "Tukubai" is a comprehensive development framework for the enterprise systems (sales accounting system, payroll accounting system, corporate system, CRM system, merchandising system, enterprise system self-manufacture etc) including from development philosophy to development method, tools, coding, documentation and its business model. In 2012, rapidly growing company Universal Shell Programming Laboratory, the founder of "Tukubai" method, found that FreeBSD is better choice for them. I have been working for them as a FreeBSD consultant. In light of my own experience, I'll cover: o FreeBSD situation of the corporate activity o What's the Unicage software development method "Tukubai" o How many/Which companies uses Tukubai method o What's the FreeBSD specialized feature ush and BubunFS o How to scale the FreeBSD based Tukubai system o How to build the FreeBSD based Big data processing appliance In the middle of 2012, I developed a FreeBSD based Big data processing appliance, I'll cover that story, too.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
51:31 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Modern package management

State of the different way of managing binaries packages for FreeBSD from building to installing/upgrading your servers/jails This talk will provide an overview of how to do modern package management with FreeBSD. From building farms, QA Validation, hosting and deployemnt, new features of pkg(8) 1.1. New way of deploying FreeBSD: packaged base bootstrapped via pkg(8). New way of deploying/managing FreeBSD jails: packaged world, bootstrapped/installed via pkg(8)
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
59:03 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Call your NetBSD

After focusing on improving NetBSD support for tablet hardware, NetBSD enthusiast and DeforaOS developer Pierre Pronchery (khorben@) is working on running NetBSD on smartphone hardware, with the OMAP-based Nokia N900 as the main target. After a quick summary of the different steps taken, he will introduce the user interface, installation procedure and underlying specificities to this setup. If all goes well, he will even be able to give a call! NetBSD is a very portable Operating System, which supports a plethora of hardware devices based on an ARM CPU and SoC (System on a Chip). Among them is the OMAP family from Texas Instruments; popularized by the BeagleBoard demonstration board, it is well supported by a number of Open Source systems. As it happens, there is at least one smartphone built around the same platform, namely the N900 from Nokia. Being well supported by Linux already, it is an ideal candidate for introducing modern telephony support to NetBSD. The user interface used as part of this effort originates from the DeforaOS project. Its graphical environment is based on the Gtk+ visual toolkit, and has already been declined for several embedded designs, including a phone: the Openmoko Freerunner. Introduced within pkgsrc as of the 2012Q4 release, it will hopefully provide a functional telephony environment on a NetBSD-based phone by the time of the presentation.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
1:04:03 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

A NetBSD-based Radar in a Rocket Launching Center

Busy http servers, storage appliances and toasters are some notorious success deployments of NetBSD. Unfortunately not everybody is aware of some other gaps that NetBSD has filled. Once upon a time, there was a brave small team of programmers who did dare to choose NetBSD as a platform for their R&D software engineering department inside an aerospace and defense company. This resulted in some unusual use cases for NetBSD. This talk will present (1) a NetBSD-OS based tracking radar; (2) how NetBSD-OS served as a platform for supporting the software engineering department to design and implement software systems for rocket tracking radars; (3) how NetBSD Project served as a knowledge base for modelling that department's engineering processes. Furthermore, this talk will show how the unique features of NetBSD made it the most suitable OS for building rocket launching tracking radars deployed up to 3000 Km from the software engineering R&D lab, and how it helped to address challenges such as: Real-time data acquisition and processing Advanced visualization of radar data Radar systems simulation Air defense systems simulation Radar systems tests and quality assurance We'll also show how the choice for NetBSD made by an young software engineer, became a fundamental resource to deal with several aspects of bootstrapping an R&D software engineering department from ground up. Beyond an open-source OS, the NetBSD Project has an inherent open-governance and open-engineering nature, which made it a "body of knowledge" repository we used to find references for several software engineering related subjects.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
1:01:03 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Mozilla on OpenBSD

Maintaining the port of Firefox to OpenBSD is an interesting challenge, since the web & its related technologies are evolving faster and faster, and third-party OS are struggling more and more to keep up the pace with a fast-moving target such as Mozilla. I'll explain how i got caught into this by accident in the beginning of 2010, what are the key things to know about Mozilla development when coming from another big OSS project, how to properly cooperate with upstream, and how i managed to wrap up a workflow that eases the port updates at each new Mozilla release. Firefox (and thunderbird !) have been ported to OpenBSD around 2004, and since then there's been a constant work to keep them working fine, and up-to-date. Especially since the switch to a fast release schedule, you need to track very closely what happens upstream to ensure nothing breaks on third party operating systems at each new release, since Mozilla only considers Windows, Linux and MacOSX as tier-1 platforms. More and more code (often depending on os-specific code) is dumped into mozilla's source tree, and you also need to make sure that code also work on your os, or then has to be made optional. You also need to take special care to push back your fixes upstream for two reasons : making maintainance a breeze over time, and letting upstream know that you exist and that there are quite some users on other platforms. The developments in the next web APIs are making it crucial to have a fully functional browser on your favorite OS, so we'll also see what's needed for that.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
53:27 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

An Overview of Security in the FreeBSD Kernel

The FreeBSD security model has been developed over thirty years of evolving consumer needs. Many of the key developments have come from the contributions of an active security research community. This talk describes the underlying model and its practical implementation, from its origins in the UNIX process model and file permissions, to more recent additions: the Capsicum capability model, lightweight Jail virtualization, Mandatory Access Control, and security event auditing. These elements combine to meet the requirements of diverse systems ranging across hand-held computing devices, network devices, storage appliances, and Internet service-provider's large-scale hosting environments.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
47:14 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Lightning fast networking in your virtual machine

High speed network communication is challenging on bare metal, and even more so in virtual machines. There we have to deal with expensive I/O instruction emulation, format manipulation, and handing off data through multiple threads, device drivers and virtual switches. Common solutions to the problem rely on hardware support (such as PCI passthrough) to make portions of the NIC directly accessible to the guest operating system, or specialized drivers (virtio-net, vmxnet, xenfront) built around a device model that is easier to emulate. These solutions can reach 10 Gbit/s and higher speeds (with suitably large frames), one order of magnitude faster than emulated conventional NICs (e.g. Intel e1000). Despite popular belief, NIC emulation is not inherently slow. In this paper we will show how we achieved VM-to-VM throughputs of 4 Mpps and latencies as low as 100us with only minimal modifications to an e1000 device driver and frontend running on KVM. Our work relies on four main components, which can be applied independently: 1) proper emulation of certain NIC features, such as interrupt mitigation, which greatly contribute to reduce the emulation overhead; 2) modified device drivers that reduce the number of I/O instructions, much more expensive on virtual machines than on real hardware; 3) a small extension of the device model, which permits shared-memory communication with the hypervisor without requiring a completely new device driver 4) a fast network backend (VALE), based on the netmap framework, which can sustain multiple millions of packets per second; With the combination of these techniques, our VM-to-VM throughput (two FreeBSD guests running on top of QEMU-KVM) went from 80 Kpps to almost 1 Mpps using socket based applications, and 4 Mpps with netmap clients running on the guest. Similarly, latency was reduced by more than 5 times, reaching values of less than 100 us. It is important that these techniques can be applied independently depending on the circumstances. In particular, #1 and #4 modify the hypervisor but do not require any change in the guest operating system. #2 introduces a minuscule change in the guest device driver, but does not touch the hypervisor. #4 relies on device driver and hypervisor changes, but these are limited to a few hundreds of lines of code, compared to the 3-5 Klines that are necessary to implement a new device driver and its corresponding frontend on the hypervisor.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
1:00:09 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Introduction to pkgsrc

Introduction to the Pkgsrc third-party software packaging framework. This lecture will introduce the significant differences and interesting features offered by Pkgsrc. This is the portable package system maintained by NetBSD and used also for DragonFly, SmartOS, MINIX, and various other operating systems.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
1:24:27 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

The FreeBSD.org cluster refit

A way to do project infrastructure, and a way not to; or the FreeBSD.org cluster before and now. The FreeBSD project is rather old and as such has had the infrastructure for running the project, such as CVS, Mail, and web servers, for a long time. The basic setup had been the same for more or less 10 years with the result that it was very complicated, had many inter-dependencies and of course no documentation on how it was set up. Security wise the old setup was out of date with current practices. In 2012 we had to move from one datacenter to another, and in the process it was decided to redo the setup more or less from scratch with the goals of making the setup simpler, more robust, segregated, secure and basically something which didn't cause the administration team to lose sleep over. The presentation will, for historic reference, present the old setup as an example of how not to have a cluster set up in 2012, and how we decided to set up the new one to meet our goals. The design of the new setup with heavy partitioning of network and hosts, using of FreeBSD for everything where possible including routers running FreeBSD 10-CURRENT. The impact of the 2012 November FreeBSD.org compromise on the infrastructure will also be discussed and what was learned from that.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
1:02:07 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Managing FreeBSD at scale

Detailed discussion of ScaleEngine's production implementation of puppet on FreeBSD to manage many heterogeneous servers across the globe, with 70+ servers at 26 data centres in 10 countries deployed in a number of different roles (Web Hosting Cluster, HTTP Accelerator, HTTP CDN, Live Video, On-Demand Video, GSLB DNS) our needs cover a large swath of the capabilities of any management system. It is common for sysadmins to jump straight to cloud providers if immediate scale is required. This unnecessarily reduces autonomy and choice, ceding control over many important components to large corporate providers, such as Amazon or Rackspace. While "the cloud" remains an option, sysadmins should strive to maintain full openness on their systems, avoid vendor lock-in, and regain control of infrastructure deployment. This talk presents a "full control" look at managing multiple simultaneous FreeBSD deployments around the globe, independently sourced, yet centrally managed. Unlike many common deployments, most of our nodes are physical, rather than virtual, and many are on rented machines where we have little control over the selection of hardware and components. This talk will also cover a number of tools and tricks that were used, obstacles that were overcome, as well as share insights and lessons learned in the process of deploying puppet. Also covers our system for deploying templated jails around the world as part of our CDN and managing them with our Global Server Load Balancer (as discussed at EuroBSDCon 2012). Highlights: * What is puppet? * Deploying puppetmaster for scale (using nginx, not passing large files through ruby) * Managing config files * Managing packages (with portupgrade) * Advanced configuration files with templates * Creating and using custom facts (freebsd specific facts) * Deploying jails with puppet (with ezjail) * Lessons Learned - Delivering large files requires some form of offloading - Templates are where the power is - Puppet is not like scripted deployment, manifests are different (and better) * Where to go from here: - FreeBSD patches for facter, some of our custom facts should be standard - stored configs or puppetdb (needs porting), letting hosts know about each other - using puppet to automatically configure nagios
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
46:34 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Tales from the North

Over five years ago I joined a Northern Internet Service Provider (ISP) in Yellowknife, NWT, Canada providing high-speed internet, email, website hosting, and other specialized network services to approximately 50 communities located within the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Our satellite headend was located in Ottawa. Originally, each site systems (known as earth stations) ran FreeBSD 5.2.1, but, we could not run the same version of FreeBSD on newer hardware. Thus, we started using FreeBSD 6.2. Different sites running different versions of the FreeBSD operating system created many headaches when debugging software issues for a given service and while migrating services within a community from one server to another. Also, due to a lack of foresight, a central repository was not implemented and thus with the use of the newer version of FreeBSD the diverse software stack versions were not the same. To solve the software stack issue we implemented FreeBSD 5.2.1 instances within the FreeBSD jail framework before jailutils and the Warden application from PC-BSD. Custom scripts were created to launch and terminate various jail instances. However, this still caused issues because the system tools used in diagnostics on the host system were inconsistent across the various sites. It was my job to develop a strategy to update the base operating systems on all of our systems located across the entire network. To do this I relied heavily on my past experience of administering and updating Diskless Gentoo Linux instances at MUN and reading the FreeBSD Handbook. I took this task one step further and created a custom FreeBSD ISO based off of FreeBSD RELEASE coupled with SYSLINUX's PXELINUX framework. I was able to install the custom OS from a known stable state. I would like to present this material to the BSDCan attendees in order to share my experience with others and to show that you can accomplish the same task without spending a large amount of money on proprietary software.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
56:55 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

OpenIKED

This talk introduces the OpenIKED project, the latest portable subproject of OpenBSD. OpenIKED is a FREE implementation of the most advanced Internet security "Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2)" Virtual Private Network (VPN) protocol using the strongest security, authentication and encryption techniques. The project was born in need of a modern Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) implementation for OpenBSD, but also for interoperability with the integrated IKEv2 client since Windows 7 and to provide a compliant solution for the US Government IPv6 (USGv6) standard. The project is still under active development; it was started by Reyk Floeter as "iked" for OpenBSD in 2010 but ported to other platforms including Linux, FreeBSD and NetBSD in late 2012 using the "OpenIKED" project name.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
28:30 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Automating the deployment of FreeBSD & PC-BSD systems

In PC-BSD 9.x every installation is fully-scripted, due to the the pc-sysinstall backend. This backend can also be used to quickly automate the deployment of FreeBSD servers and PC-BSD desktops using a PXE boot environment. In PC-BSD & TrueOS
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
22:01 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Runtime Process Infection (part 1)

This presentation will instruct participants on how to inject arbitrary code into a process during runtime. Writing malware on Linux isn't an easy task. Anonymously injecting shared objects has been a frightful task that no one has publicly implemented. This presentation will show how and why malware authors can inject shared objects anonymously in 32bit and 64bit linux and 64bit FreeBSD. The presenter will be releasing a new version of a tool called libhijack. libhijack aims to make injection of arbitrary code and shared objects extremely easy. There will be a live demo injecting a root shell backdoor into multiple programs during runtime.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
41:53 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Open Source Meets the Commercial World

Bambi Meets Godzilla: They Elope The world of open source and the world of commercial software intersect in profound and sometimes surprising ways. In some sense the two are like oil and water, but in other ways they can build on each other. This talk describes some of those differences — and ways they can enhance one another — using the sendmail open source mail transfer agent and Sendmail, Inc. as a case study.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
43:41 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

The Hail Mary Cloud And The Lessons Learned

There was a time when brute force attacks were all rapid-fire and easily blackholed on sight. That changed during the late 2000s: The low intensity, widely distributed password guessing botnet dubbed "The Hail Mary Cloud" that made its debut in 2007 was remarkable for three things: - the service it targeted was SSH, an almost exclusively Unixish-based phenomenon - the glacial pace of attack from each of the participants - the apparent stay-below-the-radar profile Against ridiculous odds and eventually even some media focus, the botnet apparently thrived for several years. This session presents the known facts as seen by an early observer, proceeds to an analysis of the patterns observed during the various encounters with the phenomenon, with conclusions that may have implications for current detection and prevention stratgies and points to remember when formulating future approaches to network security.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
48:45 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

The surprising complexity of checksums in TCP/IP

The well-known IP and TCP/UDP (and less well known, ICMP) checksums seem pretty much straighforward. Digging into the network stack reveals a surprising complexity dealing with them and updating. The rise of hardware checksum offloading didn't exactly make things easier. It goes so far that the old "pseudo header checksum" hack where parts of the checksum are precaclucated on the template PCBs and updated on the way out made its way into some of the hardware offloading engines. The talk explains how IP and protocol (UDP/TCP and ICMP) checksums are handled in the OpenBSD network stack and pf, both traditionally and after redesigning. This includes a closer view on performance impact - while the IP checksum only covers the header, the protocol checksums cover the entire payload, which makes them comparably expensive to verify recalculate. While the actual math is dirt cheap, the data access is not, and for forwarded packets we would not access the payload otherwise. Several different output pathes like the regular IP output, the bridging case and various tunneling/encapsulation mechanisms make things harder. The redesigned checksumming mechanism pretty much centralizes the checksum handling instead of having it all over the place, making dealing with the checksums in the rest of the stack much easier. It also allows us to benefit a little more from the NICs' offloading capabilities and fixes a long-standing bug which prevented us from enabling protocol checksum offloading on the RX side on many chipsets.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
42:01 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

FreeBSD, Capsicum, GELI and ZFS as key components of a security appliance

I use to talk at various BSD conferences about projects I was/am working on (GEOM, GELI, ZFS, Capsicum, HAST, auditdistd and others). This time I'd like to talk about the meeting point of reality and some of those technologies: a security appliance I was working on for the last year. The talk will demonstrate practical use of various technologies available in FreeBSD (Capsicum, GELI, ZFS and others). The appliance needs to process and store very sensitive data at high speeds, so strong sandboxing provided by Capsicum and strong encryption provided by GELI were a must. The talk will also provide practical hints how to build and manage appliance, eg. how to create installation image with all dependencies from source, how to implement secure and reliable upgrades with an option to downgrade, how to monitor health of hardware components and how to cluster multiple nodes together.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
58:00 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

Case Study: Switching from Linux to FreeBSD

This talk will outline the strategy used to migrate a small Canadian software company's Linux-based server infrastructure to FreeBSD. Part advocacy-strategy and part best-practices, the hope is that you'll come away with some extra tools to promote implementation of FreeBSD in your workplace. ExperiencePoint is a small (20 person) Canadian company that creates training simulations as web applications. The business is wholly dependent on its web server infrastructure for delivering its product. In 2011, I started working for ExperiencePoint and began the process of replacing its aging collection of Linux servers with a more robust FreeBSD server infrastructure. The Linux servers in question had been set up in a hurry, and the skilled software engineers who had set them up were not professional systems administrators. Linux was selected as the server operating system, but there were great opportunities for improvement and change. This talk is the story of that change. In addition to addressing the management concerns of replacing a "known" (Linux) with an "unknown" (FreeBSD), we'll explore the kinds of opportunities you should recognize in Linux environments you may come across. If you can improve reliability, reduce risk and improve performance, that's even better job security than switching to an operating system that nobody else knows.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
57:54 Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross English 2013

The future of wireless networking - mobile, gigabit and beyond

This presentation will cover the current state of wireless technologies in BSD (at least focusing on 802.11 and Bluetooth) and how well (or not) each is implemented and supported by the various BSDs. This includes the classic operating modes (hostap and station modes) as well as newer developments (TDMA, 802.11s, P2P/TLDS, Bluetooth/802.11 PHY sharing.) It will then cover upcoming technologies - 802.11ac, 802.11ad, hybrid operating modes, aggressive mobile power saving technologies - with the technical, architectural and structural changes required to make these technologies a reality.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Berkeley System Distribution (BSD), Andrea Ross
  • Language: English
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