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30:51 University of Cambridge English 2013

Reliable ab initio methods

A lecture given by Tony Paxton, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. Electron theory in the understanding of iron, its magnetic properties and the behaviour of intersitials such as hydrogen and carbon in iron. An argument is made that the well established tight binding approximation to the electronic structure now furnishes us with a reliable theory for the description of the three phases of pure magnetic iron and its principal interstitials, including carbon and hydrogen. This will open the way in the coming five years to fully quantum mechanical atomistic simulations of steel and its embrittlement by hydrogen. Some key questions have recently been answered using density functional theory, namely: what are the equilibrium concentrations of vacancy-carbon and vacany-hydrogen point defects? Can hydrogen dissolve exothermically in ferrite through its binding to defects? Do carbon atoms form "dimer molecules" when bound to vacancies in ferrite? The tight binding theory can also answer these question quantitatively as I shall show, and moreover this is a theory that can be implemented with sufficient speed in a computer to admit molecular dynamics and statics simulations well out of the reach of density functional theory. Soon we will be able to answer questions such as, how do carbides act as traps for hydrogen? How deep are these traps? Are they located at the metal-carbide interface or in the depths of the precipitate? These are questions that are also just beginning to be answered using atom probe tomography, so the theory and experiment are at similar stages of this enquiry.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
32:57 University of Cambridge English 2013

Quenching and Partitioning: Science and Technology

A lecture given by John Speer, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. The quench and partitioning process involves partial transformation to martensite, followed by an increase in temperature to permit the excess carbon to partition into the residual austenite. The quenching and partitioning (Q&P) concept was first introduced about a decade ago, to utilise carbon in as-quenched martensite to stabilise retained austenite and thereby enhance the mechanical properties. This presentation will provide an update of advancements made in understanding important aspects of physical metallurgy and microstructure development, within the authors laboratories and elsewhere, which have led to interest in Q&P as a potential route for producing commercial steels in volume. A variety of applications have been explored in Q&P laboratory investigations. Initial industrialisation has focused on automotive sheet steels, and substantial activity is now underway to meet aggressive near-term targets for vehicle lightweighting using Q&P steels or other novel approaches to generate microstructures with enhanced austenite fractions. The current status of some of these efforts will be reported.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
30:46 University of Cambridge English 2013

Structure and properties of a chromium-molybdenum steel modified by fullerene and carbon nanotube additions

A lecture given by I. V. Shchetinin, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. A study of what happens when exotic forms of carbon are introduced into steel by mechanical work.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
29:24 University of Cambridge English 2013

Friction Stir Welding of Mild Steel-Tool Durability and Steel Microstructure

A lecture given by Tarashankar DebRoy, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. Mathematical modelling of the friction stir welding of steels. In previous work, we have established a scheme that exploits a combination of three-dimensional heat and mass flow models, together with fast calculation algorithms and damage accumulation models, to assess tool durability and define the domains of satisfactory tool life in the context of welding difficult aluminium alloys. We now apply this scheme to the friction stir welding of steel, and extend the calculations to cover consequences on the microstructure of the steel while optimizing tool life. This is the first model which covers both the processing parameters and the consequences on the physical metallurgy of the steel.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
54:56 University of Cambridge English 2012

Physical Metallurgy of Steels - Part 2

A series of 12 lectures on the physical metallurgy of steels by Professor H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia. Part 2 finishes with the phenomenological theory of martensite crystallography and aspects of the thermodynamics of martensitic transformation.
  • Published: 2012
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
37:43 University of Cambridge English 2012

Physical Metallurgy of Steels - Part 11

A series of 12 lectures on the physical metallurgy of steels by Professor H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia. Part 11 deals with steels which undergo stress-induced martensitic transformation, the so-called TRIP steels or TRIP-assisted steels.
  • Published: 2012
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:03:00 University of Cambridge English 2015

Modern Steel Products (2015) - lecture 6

A series of lectures on steels, given by Professor Bruno de Cooman, Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT), POSTECH, Republic of Korea
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
2:14:07 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Overview of Conventional Hot Strip Mill (HSM) Design: lecture 12

Professor de Cooman builds on the previous lectures in the sequence, this time dealing with the hot-strip mill. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:05:31 University of Cambridge English 2012

Physical Metallurgy of Steels - Part 1

A series of 12 lectures on the physical metallurgy of steels by Professor H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia. Part 1 here introduces the martensitic transformation.
  • Published: 2012
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
27:03 University of Cambridge English 2013

Steel composites for energy generation systems

A lecture given by Carlos Capdevila Montes, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. About oxide dispersion strengthened, mechanically alloyed steel. In order to meet future energy demands, new materials will be required to withstand extreme environments. Ferritic FeCr(Al) oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are an example of engineered steel composite that have excellent potential for use in next-generation high-temperature applications where superior creep strength and oxidation resistance is paramount. Originally designed as heat resistant steels for conventional fossil-fuel power plants, the high-Cr ODS steels are a successful example of development to overcome the issues to meet material requirements for next generation nuclear systems. In order to maintain mechanical properties under harsh conditions, i.e., combination of cyclic thermal loads, exposure to highly corrosive environments, and a hard and intense mixed proton/neutron fields, to the end of life of a component in a nuclear reactor, a highly stable microstructure is essential. Nanostructured ferritic FeCr(Al) ODS steels are ideal candidates for those applications, because these alloys usually contain a high density of Y/Al-rich and Ti/Al- rich nanoparticles, high dislocation densities and fine grains. As it is reported here, the presence of nanoscale, uniformly dispersed oxide particles act as pinning points to inhibit dislocation movement, retard recovery and recrystallization processes.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
57:25 University of Cambridge English 2012

Physical Metallurgy of Steels - Part 7

A series of 12 lectures on the physical metallurgy of steels by Professor H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia. Part 7 deals with the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Growth is treated as diffusion-controlled and by a reconstructive transformation mechanism. Note: this video has the inset on thr top right missing due to a technical problem during recording
  • Published: 2012
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
35:57 University of Cambridge English 2013

Magneto-structural coupling

A lecture given by Igor Abrikosov, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. The emphasis is on how magentic properties play a role in the properties of iron. Ab initio simulations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) are known as a useful tool for prediction of materials properties and for their understanding. In this talk we review recent progress in applications of DFT for Fe-based alloys. We underline a necessity to take into account explicitly temperature induced magnetic excitations. We show that magnetic and chemical interaction in Fe-based alloys are deeply interconnected, and strongly affect each other. We start with relatively simple examples, and show that there exists very strong dependence of thermodynamic properties, like elastic constants, structural distortions, and mixing enthalpies, on the underlying magnetic state in Fe alloys with Cr, Mn, Ni, V, Nb, C, and N. We then show that effective chemical interactions in steels can be tuned by its global magnetic state, which opens exciting possibilities for materials synthesis. Using first-principles theory we demonstrate that in Fe-Si system the magnetic disorder at high temperatures favour a formation of cubic Fe2Si phase with B2 crystal structure, which is not present in the alloy phase diagram. The experiment confirms the theoretical predictions, and the B2 Fe2Si alloy is synthesized from Fe-Si mixture using multianvil press.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
31:41 University of Cambridge English 2013

Non-­destructive non-contact microstructural characterization

A lecture given by Claire Davis, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. Presents the enticing story about the very rapid processing of steel to produce bainitic microstructures in milliseconds. The ability to non-destructively characterize microstructure is on most steel metallurgists wish list. Electromagnetic (EM) sensors can be used to quantify key microstructural features, not only that but they can be used on-line during steel processing for feedback control. EM sensors can already be used to monitor phase transformation in-situ during cooling after hot rolling, and recent work indicates that they can be used to quantify the phase balance in dual phase steels and therefore predict strength. This may mean that mechanical testing can be avoided, or at least reduced, when producing certain grades of steel, giving large cost and time saving to the steel industry. In the future in-situ systems to measure recrystallisation during annealing, or precipitate formation during tempering may be possible. Indeed there is potential to use different parameters from the complex EM signal response to characterise different steel microstructural features.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
30:30 University of Cambridge English 2013

Superbainite - Laboratory Concept to Commercial Product

A lecture given by Andrew Rose at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. The talk describes the pioneering technology for the mass production of the world's first bulk nanostructured metal, the so-called superbainite that consists of slender platelets of bainitic ferrite separated by thinner films of retained austenite. Tata Steel have undertaken work to demonstrate the feasibility of superbainite for application as armour steel. The challenge was to adapt the composition to the demands of a tonnage production route, while still attaining the property advantages of superbainite. The Tata production route involves oxygen steelmaking, continuous casting and hot strip rolling, followed by downstream processing to a final form as armour plate. Each of these stages presents challenges to the production of high-strength steels. Tata Steel Research have reviewed the requirements for production of superbainite, and undertaken experimental work, including optical and electron metallography, studies of transformation behaviour, and mechanical testing, to justify the final choice of production parameters. As a result a composition and process route have been formulated which enable production of commercial casts of superbainite without danger to the process. Further development work has supported the downstream processing steps culminating in heat treatment of the material, and enabled the optimisation of the parameters involved. Metallurgical examination and testing have confirmed that this processing gives the superbainite microstructure with the expected properties. Ballistic testing has shown that superbainite armour is comparable with other armour steels competing in the same area.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
31:04 University of Cambridge English 2013

Isotropy and fatigue

A lecture given by Peter Olund, at the Adventures in the Physical Metallurgy of Steels (APMS) conference held in Cambridge University. With the focus on steels for bearings, he talks about the role of inclusions in determining the anisotropy of fatigue properties, and of sampling volume effects. The demands of high cleanliness steel constantly increases due to the fact that higher loads are being introduced in the applications. Today there are cases where the elongated sulphide inclusions present in steel with "normal" sulphur content (around 80ppm) will cause premature fatigue failures. A clear trend is therefore reduced sulphur contents in air-melted steels. However, only increasing the desulphurization within the current process window, to produce low sulphur contents (less than 20ppm), will due to thermodynamics drastically increase the number and size of detrimental globular calcium aluminates. Re-melting process has therefore dominated the market for low sulphur steel. Recently, air-melt steel making processes have been developed to produce more isotropic low sulphur steel where the formation of large globular calcium alumina is thermodynamically suppressed. Consequently, steels produced with this process will exhibit more isotropic fatigue properties. In this work fatigue properties has been assessed for steels loaded in different directions with reference to the rolling direction for steels with different level of isotropy. Furthermore, the effect on operation temperature has been taking into account showing that moderate increases in temperature will affect the properties. This influence can be correlated to the microstructural stability, i.e. composition and structure, of the steel.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
2:22:29 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Corrosion of coated steel: lecture 15

Professor de Cooman builds on the previous lectures in the sequence, this time dealing with the hot-strip mill. The lecture then breaks into a new topic, on the mechanical behaviour of steel, elasticity in particular. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:14:53 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 8: formability

The eighth in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. This particular lecture deals in more detail with the formability of steels, particularly those for automotive applications.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:05:26 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 9: dislocations

The nineth in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. This particular lecture is a detailed exposition of dislocations and their role in steels.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:18:46 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Overview of Tandem Mill Designs (Cold- Strip Mill): lecture 13

Professor de Cooman talks about the cold rolling of steels to achieve the right thickness, shape profile and surface condition, after which the strip may be coated. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:06:48 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Batch Processing: lecture 14

Professor de Cooman builds on the previous lectures in the sequence, this time dealing with the batch processing of rolled steel sheet, and consequences on properties. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:04:34 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Continuous Casting: lecture 9

Professor de Cooman talks about the continuous casting of steel. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:16:11 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Fe-C phase diagram: lecture 3

A lecture about the iron-carbon equilibrium phase diagram. This is a part of a course of lectures by Professor Bruno de Cooman, of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea. This comprehensive course leads the audience through a large variety of metallurgical aspects that influence steel products.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:15:58 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Alloying elements: lecture 2

A course of lectures by Professor Bruno de Cooman, of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea. This comprehensive course leads the audience through a large variety of metallurgical aspects that influence steel products.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
56:29 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Formable steels: lecture 19

Professor de Cooman talks about formable steels. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:00:32 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 20: grain size strengthening

The 20th in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. Deals with the theory and practice of grain size strengthening.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:12:18 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 24: polycrystal strain hardening

The 24th in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. Deals with the strain hardening of polycrystalline steel.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:03:51 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 23: precipitation hardening

The 23rd in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. Deals with the theory and practice of precipitation hardening.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:18:53 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 2: Elastic deformation

The second in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. This particular lecture introduces the general concepts elastic deformation.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:17:02 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 22: precipitation hardening

The 22nd in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. Deals with the theory and practice of precipitation hardening.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:07:37 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 5: plasticity

The fifth in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. This particular lecture introduces plasticity, yield criteria, multiaxial stresses, Mohr's circles and R-values.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:03:39 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 4: stress-strain relations

The fourth in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. This particular lecture introduces stress-strain relationships including constitutive functions, yield criteria, plastic instablities and strain rate dependence.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
49:52 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 21: grain size strengthening

The 21st in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. Deals with the theory and practice of grain size strengthening.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:08:44 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 7: evolution of plastic strain

The seventh in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. This particular lecture develops further the concepts of plasticity with a focus on the formability of steels, particularly those for automotive applications.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:16:42 University of Cambridge English 2013

Mechanical properties of steel 6: yield criteria for plasticity

The sixth in a series of lectures given by Professor Bruno de Cooman of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, South Korea. This particular lecture introduces plasticity, yield criteria, multiaxial stresses, Mohr's circles and R-values.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:10:35 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Formable steels: lecture 20

Professor de Cooman takes the topic of formable steels further. This is a part of a course of lectures given at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
1:11:46 University of Cambridge English 2014

Modern Steel Products (2014) - Introduction: lecture 1

A course of lectures by Professor Bruno de Cooman, of the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Republic of Korea. This comprehensive course leads the audience through a large variety of metallurgical aspects that influence steel products.
  • Published: 2014
  • Publisher: University of Cambridge
  • Language: English
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