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11:34 Vereniging Arbeiders Radio Amateurs, VARA Dutch; Flemish 2013

De Wereld Leert Door - Interview with Rolf Hut

Part of a serie of four clips from television shows is presented. These clips all contain interviews with geoscientists Cathelijne Stoof or Rolf Hut. The videos are analysed as case studies in the academic article "Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences" (Hut et al 2016), published in the journal: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: Vereniging Arbeiders Radio Amateurs, VARA
  • Language: Dutch; Flemish
19:23 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a “end-to-end” 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
21:31 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Depth assisted compression of full parallax light fields

Full parallax light field displays require high pixel density and huge amounts of data. Compression is a necessary tool used by 3D display systems to cope with the high bandwidth requirements. One of the formats adopted by MPEG for 3D video coding standards is the use of multiple views with associated depth maps. Depth maps enable the coding of a reduced number of views, and are used by compression and synthesis software to reconstruct the light field. However, most of the developed coding and synthesis tools target linearly arranged cameras with small baselines. Here we propose to use the 3D video coding format for full parallax light field coding. We introduce a view selection method inspired by plenoptic sampling followed by transform-based view coding and view synthesis prediction to code residual views. We determine the minimal requirements for view sub-sampling and present the rate-distortion performance of our proposal. We also compare our method with established video compression techniques, such as H.264/AVC, H.264/MVC, and the new 3D video coding algorithm, 3DV-ATM. Our results show that our method not only has an improved rate-distortion performance, it also preserves the structure of the perceived light fields better. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
17:40 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Assessing the benefits of stereoscopic displays to visual search

Visual search is a task that is carried out in a number of important security and health related scenarios (e.g., X-ray baggage screening, radiography). With recent and ongoing developments in the technology available to present images to observers in stereoscopic depth, there has been increasing interest in assessing whether depth information can be used in complex search tasks to improve search performance. Here we outline the methodology that we developed, along with both software and hardware information, in order to assess visual search performance in complex, overlapping stimuli that also contained depth information. In doing so, our goal is to foster further research along these lines in the future. We also provide an overview with initial results of the experiments that we have conducted involving participants searching stimuli that contain overlapping objects presented on different depth planes to one another. Thus far, we have found that depth information does improve the speed (but not accuracy) of search, but only when the stimuli are highly complex and contain a significant degree of overlap. Depth information may therefore aid real-world search tasks that involve the examination of complex, overlapping stimuli. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
19:05 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

An objective method for 3D quality prediction using visual annoyance and acceptability level

This study proposes a new objective metric for video quality assessment. It predicts the impact of technical quality parameters relevant to visual discomfort on human perception. The proposed metric is based on a 3-level color scale: (1) Green - not annoying, (2) Orange - annoying but acceptable, (3) Red - not acceptable. Therefore, each color category reflects viewers' judgment based on stimulus acceptability and induced visual annoyance. The boundary between the “Green" and “Orange" categories defines the visual annoyance threshold, while the boundary between the “Orange" and “Red" categories defines the acceptability threshold. Once the technical quality parameters are measured, they are compared to perceptual thresholds. Such comparison allows estimating the quality of the 3D video sequence. Besides, the proposed metric is adjustable to service or production requirements by changing the percentage of acceptability and/or visual annoyance. The performance of the metric is evaluated in a subjective experiment that uses three stereoscopic scenes. Five view asymmetries with four degradation levels were introduced into initial test content. The results demonstrate high correlations between subjective scores and objective predictions for all view asymmetries. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
12:58 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

A 3D mosaic algorithm using disparity map

Conventionally there exist two major methods to create mosaics in 3D videos. One is to duplicate the area of mosaics from the image of one viewpoint (the left view or the right view) to that of the other viewpoint. This method, which is not capable of expressing depth, cannot give viewers a natural perception in 3D. The other method is to create the mosaics separately in the left view and the right view. With this method the depth is expressed in the area of mosaics, but 3D perception is not natural enough. To overcome these problems, we propose a method to create mosaics by using a disparity map. In the proposed method the mosaic of the image from one viewpoint is made with the conventional method, while the mosaic of the image from the other viewpoint is made based on the data of the disparity map so that the mosaic patterns of the two images can give proper depth perception to the viewer. We confirm that the proposed mosaic pattern using a disparity map gives more natural depth perception of the viewer by subjective experiments using a static image and two videos. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
15:17 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Disparity modification in stereoscopic images for emotional enhancement

This paper describes an experiment that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of prominent 3D movies. From the results of the experiment, it was found that pleasant and arousal was increased by expanding 3D space to a certain level. In addition, pleasant gradually decreased and arousal gradually increased by expansion of 3D space above a certain level. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
11:33 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

A novel optical design for light field acquisition using camera array

There is pressing need for 3D imaging technology in many areas. A number of light field camera designs are proposed using single image sensor. However, due to the limited size of image sensor chip and optical design, the disparity of the light field captured using single sensor camera systems is very small. Stanford group pioneered an implementation of light field capture systems using camera array. But, since the camera array often employs discrete imaging sensors and associated optics, the coverage image area for 3D reconstruction is limited. We propose a novel optical design approach that customizes the design for each optical channel to maximize the image quality, coverage area, among other design targets. We then integrate the optical design of all imaging channels into a single monolithic piece with compact structure, high reliability and assembly precision. As a result, the captured light field images from all imaging channels have the same object size with uniform image quality, thus greatly improve the quality of 3D light field reconstruction. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
18:31 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Interactive stereo games to improve vision in children with amblyopia using dichoptic stimulation

Amblyopia is a common condition affecting 2% of all children and traditional treatment consists of either wearing a patch or penalisation. We have developed a treatment using stereo technology, not to provide a 3D image but to allow dichoptic stimulation. This involves presenting an image with the same background to both eyes but with features of interest removed from the image presented to the normal eye with the aim to preferentially stimulated visual development in the amblyopic, or lazy, eye. Our system, called I-BiT can use either a game or a video (DVD) source as input. Pilot studies show that this treatment is effective with short treatment times and has proceeded to randomised controlled clinical trial. The early indications are that the treatment has a high degree of acceptability and corresponding good compliance. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
54:32 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

A Stereoscope for the PlayStation Generation

Ian Bickerstaff from Sony Computer Entertainment gave this wonderful presentation, which discussed some of the interesting technology challenges of presenting stereoscopic 3D images in a head-mounted display in anticipation of the upcoming release of the Sony Project Morpheus VR headset. The presentation was fully shown in stereoscopic 3D and used the 3D visuals to maximum effect to give the audience an "in-depth" explanation of the topic.
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
53:27 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

What is stereoscopic vision good for?

Stereo vision is a resource-intensive process. Nevertheless, it has evolved in many animals including mammals, birds, amphibians and insects. It must therefore convey significant fitness benefits. It is often assumed that the main benefit is improved accuracy of depth judgments, but camouflage breaking may be as important, particularly in predatory animals. In humans, for the last 150 years, stereo vision has been turned to a new use: helping us reproduce visual reality for artistic purposes. By recreating the different views of a scene seen by the two eyes, stereo achieves unprecedented levels of realism. However, it also has some unexpected effects on viewer experience. The disruption of established mechanisms for interpreting pictures may be one reason why some viewers find stereoscopic content disturbing. Stereo vision also has uses in ophthalmology. Clinical stereoacuity tests are used in the management of conditions such as strabismus and amblyopia as well as vision screening. Stereoacuity can reveal the effectiveness of therapy and even predict long-term outcomes post surgery. Yet current clinical stereo tests fall far short of the accuracy and precision achievable in the lab. At Newcastle University, we are exploiting the recent availability of autostereo 3D tablet computers to design a clinical stereotest app in the form of a game suitable for young children. Our goal is to enable quick, accurate and precise stereoacuity measures which will enable clinicians to obtain better outcomes for children with visual disorders.
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
18:06 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Visual perception and stereoscopic imaging: an artist's perspective

This paper continues my 2014 February IS and T/SPIE Convention exploration into the relationship of stereoscopic vision and consciousness (90141F-1). It was proposed then that by using stereoscopic imaging people may consciously experience, or see, what they are viewing and thereby help make them more aware of the way their brains manage and interpret visual information. Environmental imaging was suggested as a way to accomplish this. This paper is the result of further investigation, research, and follow-up imaging. A show of images, that is a result of this research, allows viewers to experience for themselves the effects of stereoscopy on consciousness. Creating dye-infused aluminum prints while employing ChromaDepth® 3D glasses, I hope to not only raise awareness of visual processing but also explore the differences and similarities between the artist and scientist―art increases right brain spatial consciousness, not only empirical thinking, while furthering the viewer’s cognizance of the process of seeing. The artist must abandon preconceptions and expectations, despite what the evidence and experience may indicate in order to see what is happening in his work and to allow it to develop in ways he/she could never anticipate. This process is then revealed to the viewer in a show of work. It is in the experiencing, not just from the thinking, where insight is achieved. Directing the viewer’s awareness during the experience using stereoscopic imaging allows for further understanding of the brain’s function in the visual process. A cognitive transformation occurs, the preverbal “left/right brain shift,” in order for viewers to “see” the space. Using what we know from recent brain research, these images will draw from certain parts of the brain when viewed in two dimensions and different ones when viewed stereoscopically, a shift, if one is looking for it, which is quite noticeable. People who have experienced these images in the context of examining their own visual process have been startled by the effect they have on how they perceive the world around them. For instance, when viewing the mountains on a trip to Montana, one woman exclaimed, ”I could no longer see just mountains, but also so many amazing colors and shapes”―she could see beyond her preconceptions of mountains to realize more of the beauty that was really there, not just the objects she “thought” to be there. The awareness gained from experiencing the artist’s perspective will help with creative thinking in particular and overall research in general. Perceiving the space in these works, completely removing the picture-plane by use of the 3D glasses, making a conscious connection between the feeling and visual content, and thus gaining a deeper appreciation of the visual process will all contribute to understanding how our thinking, our left-brain domination, gets in the way of our seeing what is right in front of us. We fool ourselves with concept and memory―experiencing these prints may help some come a little closer to reality. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
20:40 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Partially converted stereoscopic images and the effects on visual attention and memory

This study contained two experimental examinations of the cognitive activities such as visual attention and memory in viewing stereoscopic (3D) images. For this study, partially converted 3D images were used with binocular parallax added to a specific region of the image. In Experiment 1, change blindness was used as a presented stimulus. The visual attention and impact on memory were investigated by measuring the response time to accomplish the given task. In the change blindness task, an 80 ms blank was intersected between the original and altered images, and the two images were presented alternatingly for 240 ms each. Subjects were asked to temporarily memorize the two switching images and to compare them, visually recognizing the difference between the two. The stimuli for four conditions (2D, 3D, Partially converted 3D, distracted partially converted 3D) were randomly displayed for 20 subjects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that partially converted 3D images tend to attract visual attention and are prone to remain in viewer’s memory in the area where moderate negative parallax has been added. In order to examine the impact of a dynamic binocular disparity on partially converted 3D images, an evaluation experiment was conducted that applied learning, distraction, and recognition tasks for 33 subjects. The learning task involved memorizing the location of cells in a 5 × 5 matrix pattern using two different colors. Two cells were positioned with alternating colors, and one of the gray cells was moved up, down, left, or right by one cell width. Experimental conditions was set as a partially converted 3D condition in which a gray cell moved diagonally for a certain period of time with a dynamic binocular disparity added, a 3D condition in which binocular disparity was added to all gray cells, and a 2D condition. The correct response rates for recognition of each task after the distraction task were compared. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the correct response rate in the partial 3D condition was significantly higher with the recognition task than in the other conditions. These results showed that partially converted 3D images tended to have a visual attraction and affect viewer’s memory. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
14:54 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Load-balancing multi-LCD light field display

We propose a load-balancing multi-LCD light field display technology. The multiple LCD panels operate as a spatial light modulator. Each light ray is the combination of pixels located in multiple LCD panels. The challenging problem is how to decompose the light field into limited layer images and display the light field compressively. Each pixel, as a controllable unit, is in spatial-multiplexing which means one pixel needs to be responsible to modulate multiple target light rays at the same time. We analyze the load imposed on each pixel by casting the light field decomposition as an over-determined equation problem. We found each pixel works in the state of overload and single pixel couldn’t give consideration to all target light rays. In order to reduce the load on pixels and improve display fidelity, we develop a multi-layer and multi-zone joint optimization strategy. The target light field is divided into multiple subzones and each subzone is displayed by multiple LCD panels combining with a dynamic directional backlight. By resolving the target light field, our display system further explores the multi-LCD’s capability of displaying light field and higher quality of light field display is achieved. We test our load-balancing decomposition algorithm based on different scene. The parallax, occlusion and blur of out-of-focus are restored successfully. And a three-layer prototype is constructed to demonstrate that correct light field is displayed in indoor lighting environment. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
15:38 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Subjective contrast sensitivity function assessment in stereoscopic viewing of Gabor patches

While 3D displays are entering hospitals, no study to-date has explored the impact of binocular disparity and 3D inclination on contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of humans. However, knowledge of the CSF is crucial to properly calibrate medical, especially diagnostic, displays. This study examined the impact of two parameters on the CSF: (1) the depth plane position (0 mm or 171 mm behind the display plane, respectively DP:0 or DP:171), and (2) the 3D inclination (0° or 45° around the horizontal axis of the considered DP), each of these for seven spatial frequencies ranging from 0.4 to 10 cycles per degree (cpd). The stimuli were computer-generated stereoscopic images of a vertically oriented 2D Gabor patch with a given frequency. They were displayed on a 24” full HD stereoscopic display using a patterned retarder. Nine human observers assessed the CSF in a 3-down 1-up staircase experiment. Medians of the measured contrast sensitivities and results of Friedman tests suggest that the 2D CSF as modeled by Barten1 still holds when a 3D display is used as a 2D visualization system (DP:0). However, the 3D CSF measured at DP:171 was found different from the 2D CSF at frequencies below 1 cpd and above 10 cpd. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
14:42 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Real object-based 360-degree integral-floating display using multiple depth camera

A novel 360-degree integral-floating display based on the real object is proposed. The general procedure of the display system is similar with conventional 360-degree integral-floating displays. Unlike previously presented 360-degree displays, the proposed system displays the 3D image generated from the real object in 360-degree viewing zone. In order to display real object in 360-degree viewing zone, multiple depth camera have been utilized to acquire the depth information around the object. Then, the 3D point cloud representations of the real object are reconstructed according to the acquired depth information. By using a special point cloud registration method, the multiple virtual 3D point cloud representations captured by each depth camera are combined as single synthetic 3D point cloud model, and the elemental image arrays are generated for the newly synthesized 3D point cloud model from the given anamorphic optic system’s angular step. The theory has been verified experimentally, and it shows that the proposed 360-degree integral-floating display can be an excellent way to display real object in the 360-degree viewing zone. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
16:30 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Evaluation of vision training using 3D play game

The present study aimed to examine the effect of the vision training, which is a benefit of watching 3D video images (3D video shooting game in this study), focusing on its accommodative facility and vergence facility. Both facilities, which are the scales used to measure human visual performance, are very important factors for man in leading comfortable and easy life. This study was conducted on 30 participants in their 20s through 30s (19 males and 11 females at 24.53 ± 2.94 years), who can watch 3D video images and play 3D game. Their accommodative and vergence facility were measured before and after they watched 2D and 3D game. It turned out that their accommodative facility improved after they played both 2D and 3D games and more improved right after they played 3D game than 2D game. Likewise, their vergence facility was proved to improve after they played both 2D and 3D games and more improved soon after they played 3D game than 2D game. In addition, it was demonstrated that their accommodative facility improved to greater extent than their vergence facility. While studies have been so far conducted on the adverse effects of 3D contents, from the perspective of human factor, on the imbalance of visual accommodation and convergence, the present study is expected to broaden the applicable scope of 3D contents by utilizing the visual benefit of 3D contents for vision training. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
16:27 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2015

Preference for motion and depth in 3D film

While heuristics have evolved over decades for the capture and display of conventional 2D film, it is not clear these always apply well to stereoscopic 3D (S3D) film. Further, while there has been considerable recent research on viewer comfort in S3D media, little attention has been paid to audience preferences for filming parameters in S3D. Here we evaluate viewers’ preferences for moving S3D film content in a theatre setting. Specifically we examine preferences for combinations of camera motion (speed and direction) and stereoscopic depth (IA). The amount of IA had no impact on clip preferences regardless of the direction or speed of camera movement. However, preferences were influenced by camera speed, but only in the in-depth condition where viewers preferred faster motion. Given that previous research shows that slower speeds are more comfortable for viewing S3D content, our results show that viewing preferences cannot be predicted simply from measures of comfort. Instead, it is clear that viewer response to S3D film is complex and that film parameters selected to enhance comfort may in some instances produce less appealing content.
  • Published: 2015
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
58:38 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Discussion Forum: 3D Movies – Is There Enough Depth?

  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
18:45 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Disparity analysis of 3D movies and emotional representations

The authors have analyzed binocular disparity included in stereoscopic (3D) images from the perspective of producing depth sensation. This paper described the disparity analysis conducted by the authors for well-known 3D movies. Two types of disparity analysis were performed; full-length analysis of four 3D movies and analysis of emotional scenes from them. This paper reports an overview of the authors’ approaches and the results obtained from their analysis. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
35:17 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Coverage of the London 2012 Olympic Games in 3D

  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
16:57 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Temporally consistent disparity estimation using PCA dual cross-bilateral grid

Disparity estimation has been extensively investigated in recent years. Though several algorithms have been reported to achieve excellent performance on the Middlebury website, few of them reach a satisfying balance between accuracy and efficiency, and few of them consider the problem of temporal coherence. In this paper, we introduce a novel disparity estimation approach, which improves the accuracy for static images and the temporal coherence for videos. For static images, the proposed approach is inspired by the adaptive support weight method proposed by Yoon et al. and the dual-cross-bilateral grid introduced by Richardt et al. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the color dimensionality in the cost aggregation step. This simple, but efficient technique helps the proposed method to be comparable to the best local algorithms on the Middlebury website, while still allowing real-time implementation. A computationally efficient method for temporally consistent behavior is also proposed. Moreover, in the user evaluation experiment, the proposed temporal approach achieves the best overall user experience among the selected comparison algorithms. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
18:51 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Towards standardized 3DTV QoE assessment: Cross-lab study on display technology and viewing environment parameters

Subjective assessment of Quality of Experience in stereoscopic 3D requires new guidelines for the environmental setup as existing standards such as ITU-R BT.500 may no longer be appropriate. A first step is to perform cross-lab experiments in different viewing conditions on the same video sequences. Three international labs performed Absolute Category Rating studies on a freely available video database containing degradations that are mainly related to video quality degradations. Different conditions have been used in the labs: Passive polarized displays, active shutter displays, differences in viewing distance, the number of parallel viewers, and the voting device. Implicit variations were introduced due to the three different languages in Sweden, South Korea, and France. Although the obtained Mean Opinion Scores are comparable, slight differences occur in function of the video degradations and the viewing distance. An analysis on the statistical differences obtained between the MOS of the video sequences revealed that obtaining an equivalent number of differences may require more observers in some viewing conditions. It was also seen that the alignment of the meaning of the attributes used in Absolute Category Rating in different languages may be beneficial. Statistical analysis was performed showing influence of the viewing distance on votes and MOS results. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
16:58 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Simulator sickness analysis of 3D video viewing on passive 3DTV

The MPEG 3DV project is working on the next generation video encoding standard and in this process a call for proposal of encoding algorithms was issued. To evaluate these algorithm a large scale subjective test was performed involving Laboratories all over the world. For the participating Labs it was optional to administer a slightly modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) from Kennedy et al (1993) before and after the test. Here we report the results from one Lab (Acreo) located in Sweden. The videos were shown on a 46 inch film pattern retarder 3D TV, where the viewers were using polarized passive eye-glasses to view the stereoscopic 3D video content. There were 68 viewers participating in this investigation in ages ranges from 16 to 72, with one third females. The questionnaire was filled in before and after the test, with a viewing time ranging between 30 min to about one and half hour, which is comparable to a feature length movie. The SSQ consists of 16 different symptoms that have been identified as important for indicating simulator sickness. When analyzing the individual symptoms it was found that Fatigue, Eye-strain, Difficulty Focusing and Difficulty Concentrating were significantly worse after than before. SSQ was also analyzed according to the model suggested by Kennedy et al (1993). All in all this investigation shows a statistically significant increase in symptoms after viewing 3D video especially related to visual or Oculomotor system. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
19:35 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Natural 3D content on glasses-free light-field 3D cinema

We present a combined hardware-software solution to visualize free viewpoint 3D video on a cinema-sized screen. The new glasses-free 3D projection technology can support larger audience than the existing autostereoscopic displays. We introduce and describe our new display system including optical and mechanical design considerations, the capturing system and render cluster for producing the 3D content, and the various software modules driving the system. The indigenous display is first of its kind, equipped with front-projection light-field HoloVizio technology, controlling up to 63 MP. It has all the advantages of previous light-field displays and in addition, allows a more flexible arrangement with a larger screen size, matching cinema or meeting room geometries, yet simpler to set-up. The software system makes it possible to show 3D applications in real-time, besides the natural content captured from dense camera arrangements as well as from sparse cameras covering a wider baseline. Our software system on the GPU accelerated render cluster, can also visualize pre-recorded Multi-view Video plus Depth (MVD4) videos on this light-field glasses-free cinema system, interpolating and extrapolating missing views.
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
16:18 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Visibility of binocular crosstalk for high-dynamic range displays

Crosstalk is one of the main stereoscopic display-related visual perceptual factors degrading image quality and causing visual discomfort. In this research the impact of high display contrast and high display luminance on the perception of crosstalk is investigated by using a custom-built high-dynamic range LCD (liquid-crystal display) in combination with a Wheatstone viewer. The displays’ opto-electrical response was characterized and the display calibrated, to independently vary luminance, contrast, and crosstalk (defined as (BW − BB) ⁄ (WW − BB)). The crosstalk visibility threshold was determined via a ‘one-up/two-down’ staircase method by fourteen participants for three different images that varied in luminance (125, 500, and 1,500 cd/m2) and contrast (1,000:1 and 2,500:1). Results show that an increase in luminance leads to a reduced crosstalk visibility threshold to a minimal value of 0.19% at 1,500 cd/m2. The crosstalk visibility threshold was independent of the tested contrast levels, indicating that contrast levels above 100:1 do not affect crosstalk visibility thresholds. Important to note is that for displays with high contrast, the finite discrete levels of transmission in the LC-panel quantize the luminance levels, which propagates into and limits the accuracy of the crosstalk visibility threshold. In conclusion, by introducing OLEDs (high contrast), the system crosstalk will increase by definition, but visibility of crosstalk will not. By introducing high-dynamic range displays (high peak luminance), the crosstalk visibility threshold will be lower. As the absolute threshold levels of low-dynamic range displays are already very low (at or below 0.3%) this will result in little perceptual effect. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
17:40 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Multi-view display module using MEMS projectors for an ultra-large screen autostereoscopic display

A multi-view display module using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) projectors is proposed to realize ultra-large screen autostereoscopic displays. The module consists of an array of MEMS projectors, a vertical diffuser, and a lenticular lens. All MEMS projectors having different horizontal positions project images that are superimposed on the vertical diffuser. Each cylindrical lens constituting the lenticular lens generates multiple three-dimensional (3D) pixels at different horizontal positions near its focal plane. Because the 3D pixel is an image of a micro-mirror of the MEMS projector, the number of 3D pixels in each lens is equal to the number of MEMS projectors. Therefore, the horizontal resolution of the module can be increased using more projectors. By properly modulating lasers in the MEMS projector, the horizontal positions of dots constituting a projected image can be altered at different horizontal scan lines. By increasing the number of scan lines corresponding to one 3D pixel, the number of views can be increased. Because the module has a frameless screen, a number of modules can be arranged two-dimensionally to obtain a large screen. The prototype module was constructed using four MEMS projectors. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
20:16 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Automatic depth grading tool to successfully adapt stereoscopic 3D content to digital cinema and home viewing environments

To ensure an immersive, yet comfortable experience, significant work is required during post-production to adapt the stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content to the targeted display and its environment. On the one hand, the content needs to be reconverged using horizontal image translation (HIT) so as to harmonize the depth across the shots. On the other hand, to prevent edge violation, specific re-convergence is required and depending on the viewing conditions floating windows need to be positioned. In order to simplify this time-consuming work we propose a depth grading tool that automatically adapts S3D content to digital cinema or home viewing environments. Based on a disparity map, a stereo point of interest in each shot is automatically evaluated. This point of interest is used for depth matching, i.e. to position the objects of interest of consecutive shots in a same plane so as to reduce visual fatigue. The tool adapts the re-convergence to avoid edge-violation, hyper-convergence and hyper-divergence. Floating windows are also automatically positioned. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
23:46 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Accommodation responses to horizontal-parallax-only super multiview display

Super multi-view (SMV) displays have been developed to solve the vergence-accommodation conflict that causes visual fatigue with conventional three-dimensional (3D) displays. An ideal SMV display should generate dense viewpoints in both the horizontal and vertical directions. However, the SMV displays developed so far generate dense viewpoints only in the horizontal direction because of the system complexity required for full-parallax systems. Therefore, the accommodation responses to SMV displays were measured mostly for 3D images that contain distinctive vertical edges. In this study, we investigated the influences of the edge properties contained in 3D images upon the accommodation responses evoked by horizontal-parallax-only (HPO) SMV displays. We used the recently developed reduced-view SMV display, whose interval of viewpoints was 2.6 mm, for the accommodation measurements. Two test images were used: a “Maltese cross”, which contains several sharp edges, and a standard test image of “Lenna”, which contains various types of edges. We found that the HPO–SMV display still evoked the accommodation responses when “Lenna” was displayed. There were two types of accommodation responses for “Lenna”; the amounts of the evoked accommodation were smaller than or similar to those for the “Maltese cross”, depending on where the viewers gazed. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
19:35 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Methodology of stereoscopic motion picture quality assessment

Creating and processing stereoscopic video imposes additional quality requirements related to view synchronization. In this work we propose a set of algorithms for detecting typical stereoscopic-video problems, which appear owing to imprecise setup of capture equipment or incorrect postprocessing. We developed a methodology for analyzing the quality of S3D motion pictures and for revealing their most problematic scenes. We then processed 10 modern stereo films, including Avatar, Resident Evil: Afterlife and Hugo, and analyzed changes in S3D-film quality over the years. This work presents real examples of common artifacts (color and sharpness mismatch, vertical disparity and excessive horizontal disparity) in the motion pictures we processed, as well as possible solutions for each problem. Our results enable improved quality assessment during the filming and postproduction stages. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
17:21 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Depth perception of audio sources in stereo 3D environments

In this paper we undertook perceptual experiments to determine the allowed differences in depth between audio and visual stimuli in stereoscopic-3D environments while being perceived as congruent. We also investigated whether the nature of the environment and stimuli affects the perception of congruence. This was achieved by creating an audio-visual environment consisting of a photorealistic visual environment captured by a camera under orthostereoscopic conditions and a virtual audio environment generated by measuring the acoustic properties of the real environment. The visual environment consisted of a room with a loudspeaker or person forming the visual stimulus and was presented to the viewer using a passive stereoscopic display. Pink noise samples and female speech were used as audio stimuli which were presented over headphones using binaural renderings. The stimuli were generated at different depths from the viewer and the viewer was asked to determine whether the audio stimulus was nearer, further away or at the same depth as the visual stimulus. From our experiments it is shown that there is a significant range of depth differences for which audio and visual stimuli are perceived as congruent. Furthermore, this range increases as the depth of the visual stimulus increases. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
21:12 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Immersion, tangibility, and realism: Explaining the qualitative experience of stereopsis

The fundamental visual property that drives 3D stereoscopic technology is the compelling qualitative experience of tangible solid objects, immersive space and realism that is lacking in conventional 2D displays. This qualitative visual phenomenon, referred to as ‘stereopsis’, is widely assumed to be a by-product of binocular vision. However, its underlying cause, variation and functional role remain largely unexplained. In this theoretical paper I briefly present an alternative hypothesis that stereopsis is not a phenomenon restricted to binocular vision, but a more basic qualitative visual property related to the perception of egocentric distance and scale. I review recent empirical evidence showing that stereopsis is not simply a product of binocular disparities or the mere perception of “more depth”. The theory and results imply critical distinctions between the qualitative experience of stereopsis and the quantitative perception of 3D structure. I describe how this alternative view has important implications for the perception of scale and realism in both conventional and stereoscopic display systems; e.g., perception of miniaturization (puppet-theater effect) and gigantism. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
58:11 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

History of Polarized Image Stereoscopic Display

Stereoscopic photography became popular soon after the introduction of photographic processes by Daguerre and by Talbot in 1839. Stereoscopic images were most often viewed as side-by-side left- and right-eye image pairs, using viewers with prisms or mirrors. Superimposition of encoded image pairs was envisioned as early as the 1890s, and encoding by polarization first became practical in the 1930s with the introduction of polarizers in large sheet form. The use of polarizing filters enabled projection of stereoscopic image pairs and viewing of the projected image through complementary polarizing glasses. Further advances included the formation of images that were themselves polarizers, forming superimposed image pairs on a common carrier, the utilization of polarizing image dyes, the introduction of micropolarizers, and the utilization of liquid crystal polarizers. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
12:30 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Extended depth-of-field in integral imaging by depth-dependent deconvolution

Integral Imaging is a technique to obtain true color 3D images that can provide full and continuous motion parallax for several viewers. The depth of field of these systems is mainly limited by the numerical aperture of each lenslet of the microlens array. A digital method has been developed to increase the depth of field of Integral Imaging systems in the reconstruction stage. By means of the disparity map of each elemental image, it is possible to classify the objects of the scene according to their distance from the microlenses and apply a selective deconvolution for each depth of the scene. Topographical reconstructions with enhanced depth of field of a 3D scene are presented to support our proposal. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
19:57 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Simple measurement of lenticular lens quality for autostereoscopic displays

Lenticular lens based autostereoscopic 3D displays are finding many applications in digital signage and consumer electronics devices. A high quality 3D viewing experience requires the lenticular lens be properly aligned with the pixels on the display device so that each eye views the correct image. This work presents a simple and novel method for rapidly assessing the quality of a lenticular lens to be used in autostereoscopic displays. Errors in lenticular alignment across the entire display are easily observed with a simple test pattern where adjacent views are programmed to display different colors. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
21:59 IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium English 2013

Characterizing and Reducing Crosstalk in Printed Anaglyph Stereoscopic 3D Images

  • Published: 2013
  • Publisher: IS&T Electronic Imaging (EI) Symposium
  • Language: English
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