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10:39 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Locomotion of Plant Cells

Flagellar movement is visualized using spirochaetes, the algal flagellates Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Euglena, Peranema, Gymnodinium, and the gametes of Chara and Hydrodictyon. Amoeboid movement is demonstrated with Physarum and Amoeba proteus, sliding on Beggiatoa, Oscillatoria, Spirulina and on selected diatoms and desmids.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
08:30 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Ecology of Larger Foraminifera

Nummulites gizehensis is one of numerous larger foraminifera which from the Carboniferous to the Tertiary contributed to the formation of sedimentary rocks. In the Allgäu, Bavaria, nummulitic limestones are exposed. Recent larger foraminifera occur, like their fossil allies, in warm shallow seas. Upon their death, their shells turn into marine sand. This is illustrated by a Hawaiian sandy beach. The sublittoral algal benthos of a Hawaiian rockpool is a habitat of these sand producers. Here Sorites variabilis, Amphistegina lobifera, Amphistegina lessonii, Peneroplis pertusus and Heterostegina depressa occur the ecology of which is treated in the film. In the interstice of the algae they are protected against surf and solar radiation.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
10:12 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

The Larger Foraminifer Heterostegina depressa - Multiple Fission in Microspheric and Megalospheric Generation

The protoplasm retreats into the shell shortly before multiple fission. It then flows out through a system of channels before reforming on the shell surface. The second chamber is formed shortly after subdivision into daughter individuals. After a 13 h resting phase the offspring, which are still connected by maternal protoplasmic strands, are dispersed. They settle in the immediate vicinity and start to grow new shells. Time-lapse.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
1:01:46 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Blutfluidität als Folge der Erythrozytenfluidität

Bewegung von Erythrozyten in Kapillaren der Ratte und des Frosches (Original). Entwicklung des Erythrozyten aus dem Erythroblasten (Trick). Demonstration der Fließfähigkeit von gehärteten und unbehandelten Erythrozyten sowie einer konzentrierten Erythrozytensuspension (Original).Physikalische Bedingungen des Fließens (Scherung, Schubspannung, Schergeschwindigkeit). Entstehung laminarer Strömung (Trick). Beobachtung von Erythrozyten im gegenrotatorischen Koaxialzylinder-Rheometer. Nachweis von Orientierung, Deformierung, Membranrotation und Innenzirkulation der Erythrozyten (Original, Trick). Fließverhalten von Erythrozyten in Glas- und physiologischen Kapillaren (Original).
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
08:32 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Ökologie der Großforaminiferen

Großforaminiferen bewohnten im Alttertiär die Tethys. Ihre Gehäuse bilden heute als Nummulitenkalke mächtige Gesteinsschichten, z. B. am Rande der Kalkalpen. Die heute lebenden Verwandten besiedeln entsprechende Lebensräume, durchlichtete Flachmeere der Tropen und Subtropen. Die Sande am Strand von Hawaii bestehen hauptsächlich aus Gehäusen rezenter Foraminiferen. Die die Felsküsten dicht besiedelnden Braun- und Rotalgen sind Substrat für Sorites, Amphistegina, Peneroplis und Heterostegina.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
10:14 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Die Großforaminifere Heterostegina depressa - Vielteilung der mikrosphärischen und der megalosphärischen Generation

Kurz vor der Vielteilung zieht sich das Protoplasma in den inneren Gehäuseteil zurück. Darauf fließt es durch das Kanalsystem heraus und formiert sich auf der Schale neu. Nach der Aufteilung in Tochterindividuen wird bald die zweite Kammer angelegt. Nach einer etwa 13stündigen Ruhezeit werden die zweikammerigen Jungen durch restliche mütterliche Protoplasmafäden vom Gehäuse wegtransportiert. Die Jungen siedeln sich in der Nähe an und wachsen unter Kammerbildung heran. Zeitraffung.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
22:11 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Fluidity of Blood as a Consequence of Fluidity of Erythrocytes

Movement of erythrocytes in the capillaries of the rat and of the frog (original image). Development of erythrocytes from an erythroblast (special effects). Demonstration of the fluidity of hardened and untreated erythrocytes as well as a concentrated erythrocyte suspension (original image): Physical conditions of flow (shear, shear stress, shear rate). Development of laminar flow (special effects). Observation of erythrocytes in counter-rotatory coaxial-cylinder rheometer. Demonstration of orientation, deformation, membrane rotation and internal circulation of erythrocytes (original image, special effects). Flow behaviour of erythrocytes in glass and physiological capillaries (original image).
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
13:57 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Phototaxis of Desmids and Diatoms

Desmids move towards light: positive phototaxis with Micrasterias, tested with white, red and blue light; light fields of varying size and intensity. Mass response demonstrated with Cosmarium. Diatoms reach a more illuminated environment by modifying their reversal rhythm ("shunting movement"). Positive phototaxis (capillary experiment) and negative phototaxis demonstrated with Navicula peregrina. Safety light: 537 nm. Time-lapse.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
02:11 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Plasmolyse - Allium cepa

Epidermal cells of the onion. Playsmolis of cells in 1 mole glucose solution, deplasmolysis after supply of water. Convex plasmolysis in hypertonic KCl- solution, concave plasmolysis in hypertonic CaCl[2]-solution. Hecht's threads in high magnification. Time-lapse.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
10:39 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Lokomotion pflanzlicher Zellen

Die Bewegung der Geißeln wird bei Spirillen, den Flagellaten Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Euglena, Peranema, Gymnodinium und den Gameten von Hydrodictyon und Chara mit Zeitdehnung sichtbar gemacht. Die amoeboide Bewegung wird an Physarum-Amoeben und bei Amoeba proteus demonstriert, Gleitbewegungen an Beggiatoa, Oscillatoria und Spirulina sowie an Diatomeen und Desmidiaceen.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
05:47 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Kristallumwandlung - Lamellenstrukturen beim Verdampfen von Kaliumchlorid-Einkristallflächen

The thermal history of a crystal plays a very important part in the visual and electrical examination of alkali halides. For this reason, crystal surfaces are examined at high temperatures. During evaporation in air the fracture planes show characteristic changes. Thus, below the melting point of 770°C, various surface structures are observed. Rectangular lamella structures form within narrowly defined temperature ranges below 720°C. Between 720°C and 740°C intermediate structures occur and circular lamella structures appear between 740°C and 770°C. The observations were carried out with the aid of a phase contrast microscope. The micro-cinematographic exposures were made using time lapse photography with ratios of 3:1 to 144:1.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
17:21 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Evaporation of Crystals - Evaporation of Germanium-mono-sulfide Cleavage Plane

With the interference-contrast-microscope it is possible to observe low steps which occur on a GeS-cleavage face during evaporation. The surface evaporates at locations where the crystal structure is disturbed: at the cleavage steps and at distinct dislocations. At first the cleavage steps are completely evaporated if they are not oxidized. Subsequently terraced pits are formed. Steps spread from the center of the pits over the surface homogeneously. The origins of the steps are locally fixed (at dislocations) or appear at random locations when the steps are formed by dislocation loops or by stacking faults. The shape of the pits is rhombic at low temperatures and oval at high temperatures. In addition, rectangular pits randomly appear at different locations at high temperatures. With increasing temperature stationary rhombic step patterns appear temporarily dendritic. Herringbones are formed by intersecting steps of different stationary centers. Precipitated impurities (GeS[2]) affect the spreading steps if the surface deviates from the ideal cleavage plane. Many details of the step patterns are explained by still pictures which show chemically etched examples. A ball model and an animation illustrate the relation between evaporation patterns and the crystal structure.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
17:25 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Kristallverdampfung - Verdampfung der Germaniummonosulfid-Spaltfläche

Germaniummonosulfid-Verdampfung zwischen 660 und 800 K an ebenen Spaltflächen im Auflicht-Interferenzkontrast in Heizkammer mit Argon-Schutzgas. Probendicke 0,5 bis 1 mm. Mikro- und REM-Aufnahmen. Kristallgitterabbau im Modell und Zeichentrick: kovalente Bindungen, Stufen- und Schraubenversetzungen, Halbkristallagen. Verdampfungsmuster: rhombisch und dendritisch. Bildung von Grübchen und Inseln. Ausscheidung von Germaniumdisulfid.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
02:07 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Wallach-Michotte-Bewegung

The objective motion of a circle excentrically fixed on a turntable can be divided into: the translational motion (a) around the centre of rotation and the rotation (b) around itself. In homogenous textures (b) is invisible (Wallach und Adams 1956). The exclusion of this component in a "stabilized" human body shape was, reverse, was not noticed by most of Michottes' (1962) test persons.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:47 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Amessches Fenster vor dem Spiegel

Variation on Ames' window configuration (see also film K 59). Because the reflexion also points forward for reasons of perspective it rotates in the same direction as the original. This effect - indicating the core of Ames' oscillation - is to be distinguished form the floating inversion of the mirrored Necker cube (see film K 140).
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
04:25 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Anhinga anhinga (Anhingidae) - Nahrungsaufnahme

In order to dry his feathers, which are not waterproof, the Anhinga anhinga lies in the sun with feathers spread. When swimming only the head and neck are above the surface of the water. Fish caught are thrown into the air and caught again in such a way that they can be swallowed head first. This skill is practised with twigs.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:10 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Artificial Insemination in Cattle - 3. Insemination

Explanation of oestrous symptoms. The use of stud bull to recognize ovulation time. Menstrual calender. Examination of the external genitalia. Preparation of the semen. Introduction of the inseminator into the vaginal opening and internal examination. Release of sperm into the cervical canal (animation). Hygiene.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
08:37 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

The Zhabotinsky Reaction as a Model of Pattern Formation

Dissipative patterns form in originally simple chemical compounds. Starting from pacesetting centers, chemicalwaves of a redox reaction are transmitted. This can be seen in the change in color of a redox catalyst. The decarboxylation of malonic acid drives the total reaction. Pattern formation in the aggregation of Dictyostelium proceeds analagously (film/photos in cooperation with G. Gerisch, 1963).
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
03:58 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

The Briggs-Rauscher Reaction as a Model of a Chemical Clock

Chemical oscillation reactions are made visible by the periodic appearance and disappearance of an iodine-starch complex. The oscillation is based on autocatalytic reactions, in which intermediary compounds are oxidized and reduced in rhythmic sequence. The total reaction is driven by the decarboxylation of malonic acid. With time-lapse.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
21:39 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Brutbiologie von Kupferstecher und Buchdrucker

The reproduction of Ips typographus L. and Pityogenes chalcographus L. in the pine forest is shown in detail partially in time lapse including the boring action of the male, the preparation of the mating place, mating, creation of the female's passage and egg niches, egg laying, transportation of boring dust, larval development, pupa stage and leaving the bark. Places attacked by the insect and damage in the open are shown as well as the significance of the beetle in natural pine woods and commercial forests. The influence of predators on Thanasimus formicans L. is shown.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
08:33 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Bud Opening in the Common Beech Fagus sylvatica

Animated film documenting the opening process: the buds opens, as in other deciduous trees and bushes, by intercalulary growth of the medial and apical blades as well as simultaneous elongation of the young stem in the bud interior. The opened leaf layers increase by planar growth. Their nature reveals bud blades to be secondary leaves.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
08:33 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Knospenentfaltung bei der Rotbuche Fagus sylvatica

Zeitrafferaufnahmen dokumentieren den Entfaltungsvorgang: die Knospen öffnen sich (wie bei anderen Laubbäumen und Sträuchern) durch interkalares Wachstum der mittleren und apikalen Knospenschuppen sowie durch gleichzeitiges Streckenwachstum des jungen Zweiges im Innern der Knospe. Die gefalteten Blattspreiten vergrößern sich durch Flächenwachstum. Die Knospenschuppen sind ihrer morphologischen Natur nach Nebenblätter.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
13:16 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Reifenrollgeräusche - Strömungs- und Druckschwankungen im Bereich der Aufstandsfläche

The noise of a rolling tire is conected with unsteady flow around the contact patch. The flow is made visible - and depicted in this film - by rolling a test tire through a water trough at low speeds. The observations are then related to results of pressure measurements in the area of the contact patch. The film depicts the quasi-stationary flow around a bald tire and its disruption due to a ridge in the pavement or a transverse groove in the tire, as well as the flow around a standard tire.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
12:46 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Lebenszyklus von Leuckartiara octona (Hydrozoa)

The medusas, which are unisexual, release their sexual products directly into the ambient water. The planula larva, which develops from the zygote and briefly leads a planktic life, attaches itself to the bottom and develops into a primary polyp. Stolons, on which secondary polyps develop, sprout from it. The medusas develop as buds on stolons and polyp pedicles. The differentiation process are presented in strongly time-lapsed sequences. With diagram of the metagenetic alteration of generations.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
06:30 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Versuche zur Quellung von Erbsen

Volume expansion and increase in pressure in imbibing peas are demonstrated in time-lapse photography on a balance. The values are presented in graphical form and give an exponential result. The film includes K 120, see also K 137.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
24:27 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Mitteleuropa, Tirol - Herstellung eines Wagenrades in Flaas

1. Manufacture of a wheel of wood: Drilling the opening of the hub, making the different parts, assembling the wheel on the wheelwright's bench, wedging the fellies. 2. Tiring of the wheel by the blacksmith in Lana, Meran: Measuring the circumference, fixing the wheel in a special holding device, shaping the wheel-band in the fire, manual welding, plaing the band on the wheel, colling the finished, burning wheel in water.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
12:21 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Heathland Beekeeping - 7. Central Europe, Northern Lower Saxony - Harvest of Heather Honey in a Skep Apiary

In late autumn heather honey is harvested from the skeps stored in the farmstead. The combs are divided. Comb honey is cut, weighed, and packed. Pieces of wax are removed and collected for wax processing. From unsealed honey cells honey is extracted with a wooden Stade-type screw press. The pressed honey is cleared and filled in cans and jars.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
20:03 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Heathland Beekeeping - 6. Central Europe, Northern Lower Saxony - Autumn Work in a Heather Skep Apiary

In Autumn the beekeeper Georg Klindworth (Langenfelde bei Sittensen) smokes the bees out of the hives and collects the combs. Then he strengthens and feeds the colonies in preparation for winter, as well as packing those destined for sale.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
12:56 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Die frühesten Entwicklungsvorgänge beim Spiralierkeim (Platynereis, Sabellaria, Pomatoceros)

Entwicklung von der Befruchtung bis zum 8-Zellenstadium. Platynereis: Polkörperbildung, ungleiche Plasmaverteilung. Sabellaria: Ungleiche Plasmaverteilung durch Pollappenbildung. Pomatoceros: Äquale Teilungen und typische "spiralige" Anordnung der aufeinanderfolgenden Blastomeren.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
06:42 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Angeborene Verhaltenselemente in der Pferdedressur

Comparison between innate components of behaviour in free-living horses (Camargue, Dülmen) with similar but artistically refined and alienated behaviour patterns in dressage horses of the Knie Brother's Swiss National Circus. The following mode of movement have been chosen: rearing, levade, Spanish gait, pirouette, capriole, piaffe and passage.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
13:43 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Tiger-Elefanten-Dressur im Zirkus Knie

Set-up of a animal act with 3 tigers and 3 elephants in Circus Knie (Rapperswil). Several modes of movement from the natural behaviour inventory of the tigers, which are still young, such as leaping over one another and rolling on the floor are used for the training. "Contrary to their nature", the tigers and the elephants learn to mutually tolerate each other in the course of many months and in small training steps. In the finished performing act, the tigers jump onto the elephants and are carried around the ring by them.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
10:35 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Instrumentelle Samenübertragung beim Rind - 1. Gewinnung und Konservierung des Samens

Collecting semen using artificial cow. Preparation of hygienic donor. Techniques of semen collection. Testing the ejaculate. Preparation for deep freezing. Shape of the freezing graph. Various means of deep freezing (minitubes-, palette-, glass ampule and pellet-methods).
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
10:32 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Artificial Insemination in Cattle - 1. Collecting and Storing Semen

Collecting semen using artificial cow. Preparation of hygienic donor. Techniques of semen collection. Testing the ejaculate. Preparation for deep freezing. Shape of the freezing graph. Various means of deep freezing (minitubes-, palette-, glass ampule and pellet-methods).
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
11:02 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Artificial Insemination in Cattle - 2. Evaluating Semen

Testing cattle semen (volume, optical assessment, total motility, individual motility, dilution). Dye absorption using eosin, haemocytometric measurements. Sperm morphology including pathological forms. The crystallization of semen upon freezing (resistance test). Photomicrography.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
11:05 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Instrumentelle Samenübertragung beim Rind - 2. Samenbeurteilung

  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
12:04 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Entwicklung und Ernährungsweisen von Vampyrella lateritia (Rhizopoda)

There are three strains of Vampyrella lateritia which are known to feed on green algae. One attacks Spirogyra, a second Closterium and the third Mougeotia. V. lateritia bores a hole through the algal cell wall and surrounds the protoplast with an ingestion pseudopodium. Vampyrella encysts after phagocytosis has been completed. Vegetative swarmers are subsequently released from the cyst. Time-lapse.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
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