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06:01 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Oscillations of Molecules in Melamine Crystal Lattices with Hydrogen Bonds

Translatory and torsional vibrations of the molecules. Using melamine for an example, the elastic properties of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds are demonstrated. Using the thermally induced vibrations at 60 and 300 K it is shown, that they are the mechanical storage means of the specific heat of the melamine crystal.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
08:30 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Entwicklung von Sphaeroplea annulina (Chlorophyta)

Under conditions of limiting oxygen vegetative reproduction stops and is replaced by sexual reproduction. Metamorphosis of multinucleate cells by antheridia and oogonia. Production of spermatozoids and eggs. Chemotatic attraction of the male gametes, their penetration into the oogonia, fertilization, development of spherical hypnozygotes, zygote germination, growth of the initially bicillate zoospores to threads.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
07:54 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Electron Microscopic Preparation Techniques - 5. Spreading Technique for Preparing Isolated DNA

DNA and cytochrome c spread on the surface of a salt solution. The spreading area is dabbed at random with filmed grids. In this way a thin layer of protein and DNA adheres to the grid. Contrast enhancement by rotation cone shadowing with platinum-iridium alloy.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
20:39 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Electron Microscopic Preparation Techniques - 6. Freeze Etching

Preparation of the specimen by glycerol treatment and centrifugation; freezing the specimen; preparing the freeze-etching plant; course of fracturing, etching and shadowing the replica with platinum-iridium alloy and carbon and cone shadowing with carbon; reallife film and animation sequences; cleaning the replicas and mounting on carrier grids. Result: freeze-etched replica of a longitudinally fractured cell of the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
09:00 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Electron Microscopic Preparation Techniques - 1. Making a Plastic Carrier Film

Making a carbon-reinforced carrier film by the "flow out" method, floating off the film on the water surface, judging its quality, coating support grids with film, removing the coated grids from the water surface. Reinforcing the films by coating with evaporated carbon. Demonstration of the results.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
20:39 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Elektronenmikroskopische Präparationsmethoden - 6. Gefrierätzung

Vorbereitung des Objekts durch Glyzerinbehandlung und Zentrifugierung; Einfrieren der Präparate; Vorbereitung der Gefrierätzanlage; Ablauf von Gefrierbruch, Ätzung und Herstellung des Abdrucks durch Metall-Kohle-Schrägbedampfung und Kegelbedampfung mit Kohle; natürlicher Ablauf und schematische Darstellung; Reinigung und Aufnehmen der Abdrücke auf Objektträgernetze. Resultat: Gefrierätzabdruck eines Längsbruches durch eine Zelle der Grünalge Ankistrodesmus braunii.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
04:13 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Electron Microscopic Preparation Techniques - 3. Negative Staining

Negative staining a biological specimen with uranyl acetate. Floating a carbon carrier film on specimen suspension. Specimen particles are adsorbed to its underside, washing the adsorbed particles by floating the film on water, negatively staining them by floating the carrier film on aqueous uranyl acetate solution.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
04:44 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Electron Microscopic Preparation Techniques - 2. Making a Carbon Support Film

Making a carbon support film by sublimating graphite on to a mica sheet. Preparing the vacuum evaporation plant, deposition process, controlling the thickness of the coating by interference colour changes on gold-plated foil, separating the carbon support film from the mica sheet.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
06:16 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Electron Microscopic Preparation Techniques - 4. Contrast Enhancement by Metal Shadowing Evaporation

Making a biological preparation by the adsorbtion method. Electron micrograph of the flagella of the bacterium Rhizobium lupini after shadowing with platinum.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
01:05 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Flug auf der Stelle - Blütenbesuchende Fledermaus (Glossophaga soricina)

Hovering in place, seen from the side, from above and from the front. With slow motion.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:01 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Schwingungen von Molekülen im Kristallgitter - Melamin mit Wasserstoffbrücken

Translations- und Torsionsschwingungen der Moleküle. Am Beispiel des Melamins werden die elastischen Eigenschaften der zwischenmolekularen Wasserstoffbrücken-Bindungen demonstriert. Anhand der thermisch bei 60 und 300 K angeregten Gitterschwingungen wird verdeutlicht, daß sie der mechanische Speicher der spezifischen Wärme des Melamin-Kristalls sind.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
06:13 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Vibrations of Free Molecules - 2. Forms of Vibration of the Methyl Group in Propene

The movement of the atoms during the more important normal vibrations of propene are shown in perspective representation: the stretching vibrations of the C=C double bond and the stretching and bending vibrations of the CH[3]-group. The in-phase and out-of-phase movements as well as the concept of characteristic vibrations become clear in the process.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
06:49 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Vibrations of Free Molecules - 1. Stretching and Deformation Vibrations of Ethylene

The movements of the atoms during the more important normal vibrations of ethylene are shown: the stretching vibrations of the C=C double bond and the stretching and bending vibrations of the CH[2]-groups. The in-phase and out-of-phase movements as well as the concept of characteristic vibrations become clear in the process.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
03:48 IWF (Göttingen) English 1976

Vibrations of Free Molecules - 3. Forms of Vibration of Aromatic Rings in Melamin

The movement of the atoms during the more important normal vibrations of melamine are shown in perspective representation: stretching and bending vibrations of the aromatic ring in the melamine molecule. The in-phase and out-of-phase movements as well as the concept of characteristic vibrations become clear in the process.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
01:51 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Alligator alligator (Alligatoridae) - Beuteerwerb

Two alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are approaching a resting turtle; they try to grasp it with their teeth. One of the alligators is creeping into the water holding the turtle in its mouth. A rattlesnake lying on the ground moves its rattle rapidly. It is grasped by an alligator which bites it several times and shakes it. The alligator keeps to the snake when swimming in the water obviously in order to drown it. The snake is eaten by the crocodile at last.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:33 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Alligator alligator (Alligatoridae) - Drohen

Some alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are swimming in the water or are resting on land. As one of them is approaching to another which is laying on the bank it opens its mouth threatening and only shuts it after some seconds. Smaller menaced alligators leave their resting place. In the shallow water one of the alligators tries to bite another one but retreats with its mouth halfe open. Eventually the throat of one of the animals is blown up.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
03:43 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Bruchvorgänge - Bruchgabelung in Glasscheiben unter Zugbeanspruchung (Funkenkinematographische Aufnahmen)

With growing tensile stress the bifurcations of fractures multiply and get more and more complex (dependent on the form of the nick or notch). The primary shots were done with the help of a 24 spark camera after Cranz-Schardin.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
04:43 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Elektronenmikroskopische Präparationsmethoden - 2. Herstellung einer Kohleträgerfolie

Herstellung eines Kohleträgerfilms durch Bedampfen einer Glimmerplatte. Vorbereitung der Bedampfungsanlage, Bedampfungsvorgang, Kontrolle der Schichtdicke des entstehenden Kohlefilms über Interferenzfarben auf einer Goldfolie, Ablösen des fertigen Kohleträgerfilms von der Unterlage.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
07:54 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Elektronenmikroskopische Präparationsmethoden - 5. Spreitungstechnik zur Präparation isolierter DNA

DNA and cytochrome c spread on the surface of a salt solution. The spreading area is dabbed at random with filmed grids. In this way a thin layer of protein and DNA adheres to the grid. Contrast enhancement by rotation cone shadowing with platinum-iridium alloy.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
06:15 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Elektronenmikroskopische Präparationsmethoden - 4. Kontrastierung durch Metall-Schrägbedampfung

Making a biological preparation by the adsorbtion method. Electron micrograph of the flagella of the bacterium Rhizobium lupini after shadowing with platinum.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
04:12 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Elektronenmikroskopische Präparationsmethoden - 3. Negativkontrastierung

Negative staining a biological specimen with uranyl acetate. Floating a carbon carrier film on specimen suspension. Specimen particles are adsorbed to its underside, washing the adsorbed particles by floating the film on water, negatively staining them by floating the carrier film on aqueous uranyl acetate solution.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
00:47 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Laufen - Mausohr-Fledermaus (Myotis myotis)

When walking the mouse-eared bat touches the ground with its wrists and the outside-directed thumb, also with its ankles, toes and claws of its hind legs.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:12 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Schwingungen freier Moleküle - 2. Schwingungsformen der Methylgruppe in Propen

Bewegungen der Atome bei den wichtigsten Normalschwingungen des Propens: Valenz-Schwingungen der C=C-Doppelbindung, die Valenz- und Deformationsschwingungen der CH[3]-Gruppe. Gleichtakt- und Gegentakt-Bewegungen sowie das Konzept der charakteristischen Schwingungen werden dabei deutlich.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
03:47 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Schwingungen freier Moleküle - 3. Schwingungsformen aromatischer Ringe in Melamin

Bewegungen der Atome bei den wichtigsten Normalschwingungen des Melamins: Valenz- und Deformationsschwingungen des aromatischen Ringes im Melamin-Molekül, Gleichtakt- und Gegentakt-Bewegungen sowie das Konzept der charakteristischen Schwingungen werden dabei deutlich.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
06:48 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Schwingungen freier Moleküle - 1. Valenz- und Deformationsschwingungen in Äthylen

Bewegungen der Atome bei den wichtigsten Normalschwingungen des Äthylens: Valenz-Schwingungen der C=C-Doppelbindung, die Valenz- und Deformationsschwingungen der CH[2]-Gruppen. Gleichtakt- und Gegentakt-Bewegungen sowie das Konzept der charakteristischen Schwingungen werden dabei deutlich.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
00:51 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Phagocytose von Bakterien - Amöbe (Hartmannella castellanii)

Flow around food bacteria. Formation of a food vacuole. Lysis of bacteria. With time-lapse.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:16 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Phagocytose von Paramecien - Amöbe (Amoeba proteus)

Flow around prey with pseudopodia, thus formation of a food vacuole. Behaviour of prey. With time-lapse.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
Offline Collection IWF (Göttingen) Original sound, no spoken text 1976

Südafrika, Transvaal - 'tshikona'-Tanz in Johannesburg-Roodepoort

At a performance at Roodepoort a Tswana/Venda orchestra of eleven monotonic whistles plays and performs the dance tshikona.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Original sound, no spoken text
10:57 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Fortpflanzungsverhalten des Grünen Schwertträgers (Xiphophorus helleri)

As an introduction, the male and female of the Green Swordtail are presented, the sexual differences, including the development of the gonopodium, is explained and the range of the species is shown. A high-ranking alpha-male drives a lover-ranking male away. Where only slight differences in rank occur, the males threaten each other frequently. If the rank-order is not yet decided, and two males are about the same size, aggression increases until an intensive fight begins. This will decide the future rank-order. The courtship patterns of the male, including possible variations, are first shown separately and then in sequence. During copulation the male inserts the tip of his gonopodium as an holdfast-mechanism into the female's genital opening. Finally, the birth of a number of young fish is shown. Very rapid sequences of motion are shown in slow motion (64 f/s).
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
09:00 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Elektronenmikroskopische Präparationsmethoden - 1. Herstellung einer Kunststoffträgerfolie

Making a carbon-reinforced carrier film by the "flow out" method, floating off the film on the water surface, judging its quality, coating support grids with film, removing the coated grids from the water surface. Reinforcing the films by coating with evaporated carbon. Demonstration of the results.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
01:41 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Kern- und Zellteilung der Volvocacee Chlamydomonas reinhardii

Green alga. Nucleus with two pulsating vacuoles at the flagella pole, disappearance of the nucleolus, formation of chromosomes at the equatorial plate, migration to the poles, division of the protoplast, daughter nuclei with one nucleolus each, increase of vacuoles, further division after rotation of the protoplast. With time-lapse.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
10:02 IWF (Göttingen) German 1976

Entwicklung beim Seeigel (Psammechinus miliaris) - 1. Befruchtung und Furchung

Eindringen des Spermiums in das Ei und Abheben der Befruchtungsmembran; Verschmelzen der Vorkerne; Furchungsteilung bis zur Blastula.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
01:09 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Futterbetteln bei Ameisen - Glanzkäfer (Amphotis marginata)

The sap-beetle Amphotis marginata imitating the ant's tactile food-begging behaviour (stimulating the ant's mouthparts).
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:26 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Procavia johnstoni (Procaviidae) - Nahrungsaufnahme (Freilandaufnahmen)

When grazing the Rock hyrax holds the head at an angle, grass is bunched with the tongue, bitten off and chewed with the molars. When grazing at the fringe of the kopje the animals are apprehensive; nape and dorsal hairs are bristled, the pattern of lighter hairs surrounding the dorsal gland becomes visible. In the dry season the animals eat leaves, flowers and succulent plants; incisors and fore-feet help.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
04:15 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Procavia johnstoni (Procaviidae) - Paarungsverhalten (Freilandaufnahmen)

During the mating prelude the male executes weaving head movements, with erected penis and raised dorsal hairs. The female's rump is pressed against the male's flank or breast. Copulation lasts for some seconds only, the male gripping the female's sides.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
07:07 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1976

Procavia johnstoni (Procaviidae) - Hautpflegeverhalten (Freilandaufnahmen)

Various ways of scratching with the grooming claw are shown. In oral grooming the fur is ruffled against the grain, then nibbled and combed. The nose is rubbed on the rocks, a cleansing sneeze follows. Several animals join in water bathing, exhibiting play behaviour. Dust bathing is shown briefly.
  • Published: 1976
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
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