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07:09 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomatidae) - Flug auf der Stelle

The film shows slow motion takes of the hovering flight of a glossophagine bat whirring on the spot while licking honey water from a pipette. The kinematics of the hovering flight can be observed in takes from the side, from above and from the front. The downward beat of the wings takes place with out-stretched, spread wings with a considerable inclination to the airflow. During the upward sweep a functional division of the wings takes place: the arm part is gathered and led up with little air resistance, the hand is turned sharply so that its morphological upper side receives a positive inclination angle relative to the oncoming airflow. In this way lift may be produced in the upward as well as the downward movements.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
34:10 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute English 1975

Refraction, Dispersion and Resonance

Animation and scientific instruments are used to demonstrate the principles of refraction, dispersion and resonance.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  • Language: English
27:27 IWF (Göttingen) German 1975

Mitteleuropa, Rheinland - Der Lazarusbrauch in Jülich

Every year on Shrove Tuesday the "Historische Gesellschaft Lazarus Strohmanus Jülich" (Historic Society Lazarus Strohmanus Jülich) performs in public the custom of throwing up a straw figure. The film presents in chronological order the general meeting of the performers and supporters of this custom (with "national song", commemoration of the dead, conferring of medals and swearing), the preparations for the performance (studying of the reprimanding verses, making of the brooms), and the principal phases of the performance: procession across the town, throwing up of the straw figure, entry into the inns, exhibition of the "Lazarus" in front of the town hall, and delivery of the keys of the town. Finally the undressed straw figure is thrown into Rur.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
04:47 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Ursus arctos (Ursidae) - Nahrungssuche

The film shows an Alascan brown bear looking for food. Shrubs and the ground of the forest are snuffed about throroughly. With its movable tongue a brown bear plucks off fruit. With its fore-paws it digs a trough into the soil and scrutinizes it by its nose.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
03:18 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Ursus arctos (Ursidae) - Lachsfang

The film shows how salmons are caught by the brown bear (Ursus arctos). The salmons swimming up-stream to their spawn grounds are caught in the shallow water by muzzle and fore paws of the bears which carry them to the bank and eat them. When the animals are eating one paw is put on the fish and keeps it on the ground. Often the bears eat the fish only partially and leave the rest behind for the sea-gulls.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
03:53 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Castor canadensis (Castoridae) - Schließen einer Dammlücke

The film shows how a beaver (Castor fiber canadensis) closes the break of a dam. Branches and sticks are collected and fastened at the gap by the swimming animal. With its teeth and fore paws the beaver rams the pieces of wood deeply into the branchwork of the dam. The bigger sectional area of the boughs is always directed with the streaming, the smaller branched out parts of them are directed against it.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
04:25 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Thalarctos maritimus (Ursidae) - Führen und Verteidigen der Jungen

The film shows how a polar bear (Thalarctos maritimus) is swimming, walking and climbing in the rocks with her two youngs. The female bear is constantly watching the environments. Dogs which are coming near to the youngs are driven away by the mother, she galopps with her open jaws towards the disturbers but does not take far away from her youngs.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:02 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Castor canadensis (Castoridae) - Sammeln von Wintervorräten

The film shows a beaver (Castor fiber) gathering winter stores. One can only see the upper part of the head with eyes, nose and ears and from time to time the back of a swimming animal. Sitting in the shallow water the beaver holds a bough with its fore paws and is gnawing the bark. A swimming animal keeps a branch with its strong incissors and carries it to another place. When transporting large branches the beaver would swim jerkingly. Also by land the beaver carries branches keeping them with its teeth. Boughs and branches lying in the water are fastened under water by a diving beaver.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
03:00 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Enhydra lutris (Mustelidae) - Putzen

The film shows different cleaning habits of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Swimming on their back the animals rub their fur with their forepaws and treat it with their teeth. As the forelegs are very short, hindlegs and tail are crooked upwards to the cleaned. If young sea otters get out their balance and are submerged while cleaning themselves, - as it happens frequently - they are held fast from backwards by an older animal.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:38 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Canis lupus (Canidae) - Lachsfang

The film shows a wolf (Canis lupus) catching salmons. After several fruitless efforts it succeeds in capturing a larger fish with its muzzle. The wolf puts its prey on a gravel bank for a while and bites sometimes into the fish. Afterwards it crosses an arm of the river and climbs up the river bank.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
10:12 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Zerspanen von Stahl C 45 W 3

The film shows the process of chip formation on a polished and etched specimen of C 45 W 3 unalloyed tool steel. The various phenomena of chip formation and the individual deformation processes can be observed particularly well in the perlitic-ferritic structure of the material. The high compressive strain and the marked deformation of the material in the cutting edge zone caused by it have a strong effect on the build-up of material at the cutting edge. Approach and scraping cuts demonstrate the extreme stresses and straines imposed on that part of the cutting edge which determines the quality of the machined surface.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
04:31 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Zerspanen von Stahl C 45 W 3

The film shows the process of chip formation on a polished and etched specimen of C 45 W 3 unalloyed tool steel. The various phenomena of chip formation and the individual deformation processes can be observed particularly well in the perlitic-ferritic structure of the material. The rake angle affects the type and extent of the stresses and strains to which the material is subjected in that the upsetting action and hence the shear strain increase as the positive rake angle becomes smaller and eventually turns negative. From this results the change from uniform flow chips at +45 degrees to irregular shear chips (curl chips) at -20 degrees.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
09:10 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Zerspanen von Stahl C 45 W 3

The film shows the process of chip formation on a polished and etched specimen of C 45 W 3 unalloyed tool steel. The various phenomena of chip formation and the individual deformation processes can be observed particularly well in the perlitic-ferritic structure of the material. The central significance to the cutting process of the factor "cutting speed" becomes particularly evident in the build-up of material on the cutting edge which increase more and more at cutting speeds in the range of 5 to 60 metres per minute and in concequence fundamentally alters the cutting conditions at the cutting edge. the shape, size, and also the formation mechanism of such build-up are varied and unusual according to hitherto customary views.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:11 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Zerspanen der Aluminium-Legierung AlCuMgPb

The film shows the process of chip formation in the orthogonal cutting of a polished and etched specimen consisting of the forging alloy AlCuMgPb. Owing to the coarse-crystalline structure of the alloy and the randomly oriented crystallites whose grain sizes are, in part, many times the thickness of individual chips, there is a correspondingly irregular variation in the resultant chip formation with the rake angle affecting the type of stresses and strains imposed on the material, that is to say the ratio of upsetting action to wedge action so that, with smaller and eventually negative rake angles, the chips become more irregular and change with increasing width of variation from flow chips to shear chips.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
07:35 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Zerspanen von Gußeisen GG 20

The film shows the process of chip formation on a polished and etched or etch-polished specimen of GG 20 lamellar cast iron. Chip formation in the perlitic structure which is shot through with graphite lamellae, is characterised by a multiplicity of typical tear chips which are lifted out of, and detached from, the structure of the material in haphazard fashion, particularly at the graphite lamellae, and thus produce the peculiar surface characteristic of this particular engineering material.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
08:33 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Zerspanen von Gußeisen GG 20

The film shows the process of chip formation on a polished and etched or etch-polished specimen of GG 20 lamellar cast iron. The formation of tear chips is typical of this material whose perlitic structure is shot through with graphite lamellae. Despite increasingly plastic deformation of the material at increasing cutting speeds with distinctly incipient build-up at the cutting edge, the chips formed in the cutting of this material retain nevertheless their irregular tear chip character.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
03:59 IWF (Göttingen) German 1975

Der Strahlungsvorgang beim Hertzschen Dipol

The film shows the radiation of electromagnetic waves from a Hertz dipole. In a continuous process the detachment of the lines of the electric field is depicted in all phases. Moreover, the lines of the magnetic field are shown in combination with those of the electric field in a perspective view in both the near and far fields.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
Offline Collection IWF (Göttingen) German 1975

Metamorphose der Actinotrocha branchiata (Phoronis muelleri, Tentaculata)

Habit and differentiation of the actinotrocha. Increase in the number of tentacles; formation of the metasomal diverticula, the apical nervous thickening, the pear-shaped organ and of the adult tentacles. Metamorphosis to Phoronis: evagination of the mesodermal diverticulum; invagination of the gut into the diverticulum; formation of the ampule; transformation of the episphere and of the tentacle region; invagination of the telotrochs; circulatory system beginning to function. Habit and way of life of adult animal.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
00:57 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Pulsierende Vakuolen bei Paramecien

Alternate pulsation of two contractile vacuoles, central vacuole with radiating canal paths at the diastole, sudden evacuation of the vacuole into the outer medium at the systole.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
Offline Collection IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Eiablage - Hausbock (Hylotrupes bajulus)

Palpation of a drying crack on the wood surface, oviposition, clutch.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
09:33 IWF (Göttingen) German 1975

Embryonalentwicklung von Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Acrania)

This film provides scenes of the embryonic development of the Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Initial scenes show the habitus and gonades of adults. Females are clearly distinguishable from males due to the large number of eggs in the ovaries under the binocular. These scenes are followed by those of sperms, which are among the smallest in the species of the chordates. When a sperm manages to penetrate an egg, this lifts away from the insemination membrane, which forms a transparent protective sheath through the intake of water. A fertilized and an unfertilized egg are shown. Approximatel one hour after fertilization the weak inequal furrowing commences. After gastrulation takes place the embryo starts moving inside the egg sac, since each ectoderm cell has a cilium. Depeding on size and dimension of the embryo various movements take place: turning through the body's cross axis, rotation through the body's long axis. If 2 or 3 primary segements have formed the embryo bursts the egg sac. Emergence and subsequent swimming are shown at normal speeds. In closing single phases of further embryonic development are shown in certain animals. After approximately 48 hours embryonic development is completed. Thy young larvae, in which chorda, mouth opening and the 1st gill opening are now formed, reach the ocean bed by means of varying snakelike movements or simple gliding, once here they commence a complicated process of metamorphosis.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
07:51 IWF (Göttingen) German 1975

Elterliche Merkmale im Balzverhalten von Schwertträger-Bastarden - Xiphophorus helleri, Xiphophorus montezumae

As an introduction, the males of the Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri) and the Montezuma Swordtail (Xiphophorus montezumae cortezi) and their hybrids are presented. The courtship patterns of the two species are very different. The F[1] hybrids show behavioural patterns of both parental species. When sexual motivation is low, courtship behaviour is similar to Xiphophorus montezumae cortezi; higher sexual motivation produces courtship behaviour exactly like Xiphophorus helleri. On the example of sword-bending during courtship, the ratio of separation in the F[2] generation is demonstrated using trick photography. The results shows that the behavioural differences are controlled by polygenes.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
53:03 IWF (Göttingen) German 1975

Konrad Lorenz spricht über "Soziale Bindungen und die in ihrem Dienste ritualisierten Verhaltensweisen", Göttingen 1972

Documentation of the ethologist's personality in the lecture hall of the IWF. Lorenz considers achievement of extremely complex shape-recognition to a precondition for individual recognition with and without pair bonding. In his opinion, observations in the animal kingdom allow other correlations of bonding and rank order than those assumed by Freud.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
13:08 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Mitteleuropa, Basel-Land - Fadenspiele

Two girls make together eight successive string figures. Then one of the girls makes a series of individual figures: eight rigid figures, two figures evenly moving and three string games (undoing the figure). All the figures are recorded first at 24 and then at 48 f/s.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:22 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Fusarium solani (Fungi Imperfecti) - Intranucleäre Mitose

Interphase and the process of mitosis. Nuclear division without any metaphase plate. During anaphase both spindle poles are connected by the spindle axis. The telophase nuclei separate from the residual nucleus which vanishes gradually. Time-lapse.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
05:38 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Schneidzerkleinerung von Polyäthylen - Einzelschnitt

The film shows the cutting of polyethylene by means of a cutting apparatus operating in principle along the lines of a cutter of the type used to cut continuous lengths of material into pieces of substantially uniform size. The parameters affecting the cutting operation are varied and include, among others, chip thickness and chip height, cutting angle and lip angle and the clearance angle resulting from these two, the gap between the blade and counterblade, and the cutting speed. The deformation present in the material during the cutting operation is rendered visible by a grid pattern (raster) applied to the material prior to cutting. It is apparent from the shots that the cut shown is a knife-type cut within the range of the parameters investigated. Close-ups show the entry and severance processes.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
05:39 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Schneidzerkleinerung von Gummi - Einzelschnitt

The film shows the cutting of rubber by means of a cutting apparatus operating in principle along the lines of a cutter of the type used to cut continuous lengths of material into pieces of substantially uniform size. The parameters affecting the cutting operation are varied and include, among others, chip thickness and chip height, cutting angle and lip angle and the clearance angle resulting from these two, the gap between the blade and counterblade, and the cutting speed. The deformation present in the material during the cutting operation is rendered visible by a grid pattern (raster) applied to the material prior to cutting. It is apparent from the shots that the cut shown is a knife-type cut within the range of the parameters investigated. Close-ups show the entry and severance processes.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
05:30 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Schneidzerkleinerung von Weich-PVC - Einzelschnitt

The film shows the cutting of soft polyvinylchloride (PVC) by means of a cutting apparatus operating in principle along the line of a cutter of the type used to cut continuous lengths of material into pieces of substantially uniform size. The parameters affecting the cutting operation are varied and include, along others, chip thickness and chip height, cutting angle and lip angle and the clearance angle reuslting from these two, the gap between the blade and counterblade, and the cutting speed. The deformation present in the material during the cutting operation is rendered visible by a grid pattern (raster) applied to the material prior to cutting. It is apparent from the shots that the cut shown is a knife-type cut within the range of the parameters investigated. Close-ups show the entry and severance processes.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:36 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Schneidzerkleinerung von Weich-PVC - Spannungsoptische Darstellung des Einzelschnitts

The film shows the cutting of soft polyvinylchloride (PVC) by means of a cutting apparatus which operates in principle along the lines of a cutter of the type used to cut continuous lengths of material into pieces of substantially uniform size. The stresses and strains occuring in the material during the cut are rendered visible. The principle parameters such as chip thickness, cutting angle, gap between blade and counterblade, and cutting speed which affect the cutting operation, are varied. With slow-motion.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
08:15 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Schneidzerkleinerung von Gummi - Schneidmühle

Collective cutting of rubber into small pieces in a commercially avaiblable cutting mill. The operation of two different rotors is shown. These differ from each other in respect of their shape as well as the blades fitted. In one of them, blades with a smaller lip angle are used which enable a smaller cutting angle to be employed. Close-ups show the cutting process at the stator blades and the screening of the cut material on the screen surface. Once the material in the mill reaches a certain level, a pulsating movement of the particles occurs which is shown at the normal filming speed as well as in slow motion.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
06:11 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Schneidzerkleinerung von Weich-PVC - Schneidmühle

Collective cutting of OVC into small pieces in a commercially available cutting mill. The operation of two different rotors is shown. These differ from each other in respect of their shape as well as the blades fitted. In one of them, blades with a smaller lip angle are used which enable a smaller cutting angle to be employed. Close-ups show the cutting process at the stator blades and the screening of the cut material on the screen surface.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
08:04 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Schneidzerkleinerung von Polyäthylen - Schneidmühle

Collective cutting of polyethylene into small pieces in a commercially available cutting mill. The operation of two different rotors is shown. These differ from each other in respect of their shape as well as the blades fitted. In one of them, blades with a smaller lip angle are used which enable a smaller cutting angle to be employed. Close-ups shows the cutting process at the stator blades and the screening of the cut material on the screen surface.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
Offline Collection IWF (Göttingen) Original sound, no spoken text 1975

Zulu (Südafrika, Natal) - Magisch-medizinisches Brauchtum bei der Geburt

An elderly woman witch doctor prepares from different tubers and roots the medicine imbhelethisane for pregnant women. When the mixture is boiling, the doctor performs with her female assistant a short song and dance. The way of application of the medicine is then demonstrated on a little girl. The central part of the film shows the spontaneous birth of a Zulu child with the mother in a kneeling position, and the measures taken by the midwife immediately after parturition. The film concluds with the traditional burying of the placenta.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Original sound, no spoken text
Offline Collection IWF (Göttingen) Original sound, no spoken text 1975

Geburt im Knien (Zulu, Südafrika)

Parturition in the kneeling position demonstrated by two Zulu women. The first example is birth in a hut with mother-in-law and one further family member present, where the woman is massaged with herb-saturated grass and the helpers assist the birth by pulling on a rope. The second example involves spontaneous birth. Cutting the umbilical cord with a sharp blade of grass.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Original sound, no spoken text
Offline Collection IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

Waika (Venezuela, Orinoco-Quellgebiet) - Ernte und Aufbereiten von Maniok; Fladenbacken

Women dig up manioc tubers in the plantation and carry them in baskets to the village. There the tubers are freed from their outer skin and then washed in the river. Brought back to the village, they are rasped on rasping boards placed on banana leaves. The resulting mass is put in pressing bags and freed by traction from its poisonous sap. Flat cakes are made from the manioc-flour and baked on iron plates set over the fireplace.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
Offline Collection IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1975

!ko-Buschmänner (Südafrika, Kalahari) - Jagd auf Springhasen

Near a "pan" bushmen are seen searching for a springhare warren. Several of these are empty. Finally a man succeeds in hooking an animal and while he is holding it, the other men, with digging sticks, dig down to capture and kill it. The film also shows bushmen repairing a broken springhare-spear.
  • Published: 1975
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
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