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11:02 IWF (Göttingen) English 1980

Stage Specific Protoplasm Streaming in the Stalk of Acetabularia mediterranea

The formation of intracellular transport systems in the course of cell differentiation. A network of cytoplasmic filaments transports chloroplasts, a system of wider cytoplasmic bands moves cell inclusions and generative nuclei. The cytoplasmic bands follow along the filaments and are faster than the movement of the chloroplasts. With time-lapse.
  • Published: 1980
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
11:05 IWF (Göttingen) English 1980

Effect of Cytochalasin B and Anti-Microtubule Inhibitors on Protoplasmic Streaming in Acetabularia mediterranea

All intracellular movements are reversibly inhibitedby the anti-microfilament agent cytochalasin B. The microtubule inhibitors colchicine, chlorisopropyl-N-phenyl-carbamate (CIPC), amiprophosmethyl (APM) reversibly inhibit nuclear migration and have no influence on chloroplast movement. With time-lapse.
  • Published: 1980
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
11:37 IWF (Göttingen) English 1978

Life History of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta)

Vegetative reproduction and alternation of generations in the brown alga under laboratory conditions: formation of plurilocular sporangia, liberation and germination of mitospores, growth to sporophyte generation; formation of unilocular sporangia, liberation and germination of meiospores, formation of plurilocular gametangia, release and copulation of gametes. Microcinematography, partly in time-lapse, animated graphics of life cycle.
  • Published: 1978
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
19:32 IWF (Göttingen) German 1999

Polarität bei Pflanzen

Polarity is a basic phenomenon in plants. Induction of polarity by blue light is demonstrated on cellular level in side branch formation of the alga Vaucheria (Siphonales) and in the germination of the spermatized eggs of the brown alga Pelvetia. Polarity, once established in a cell persists during the whole lifetime of a plant. Expression of polarity is illustrated in roots and in under water leaves of higher plants; in the case of the leave it is characterized by the flux of protons from under to upper side. The influence of proton flow in leave and root is molecularly visualised using computer animations.
  • Published: 1999
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
11:39 IWF (Göttingen) German 1978

Entwicklung von Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta)

Vegetative Vermehrung und Generationswechsel der Braunalge unter Laborbedingungen: Bildung plurilokulärer Sporangien, Freisetzung und Keimung von Mitosporen, aufwachsende Sporophyten; Bildung unilokulärer Sporangien, Freisetzung und Keimung von Meiosporen, Bildung plurilokulärer Gametangien, Freisetzung und Kopulation von Gameten. Mikrokinematographische Aufnahmen, z. T. Zeitraffung, Schemata des Entwicklungsgangs.
  • Published: 1978
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
08:44 IWF (Göttingen) English 1982

Hormone Effects in Sexual Reproduction of Brown Algae

Attached female Ectocarpus gametes attract the male gametes with the pheromone ectocarpen, which they release into the sea water. Mature Laminaria egg cells effect the release of their pheromone. With high-speed, time-lapse and animated sequences.
  • Published: 1982
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
07:03 IWF (Göttingen) English 1982

Reaction of the Diatom Navicula peregrina to Illumination of Different Parts of Cell

Navicula reversing its direction of movement voluntarily (autonomic reversal rhythm); induced reversal on the boundary of a light trap (step-down reaction). Partial illumination (40 µm wide, moving light spot) of anterior and posterior cell poles and the middle of the cell prove that the poles are the sites of light preception. Red light, 670 nm; green safety light, 525 nm. Time-lapse.
  • Published: 1982
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
09:00 IWF (Göttingen) English 1982

Photokinesis and Photophobic Responses of the Diatom Navicula peregrina

Pennales. Comparison of photokinesis in intense and weak light. Autonomic reversing rhythm and photophobic responses: premature reversing at the light trap boundary through the step-down and step-up reaction. Photoaccumulation and emptying of the trap. White light. With time-lapse and animation.
  • Published: 1982
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
13:57 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Phototaxis of Desmids and Diatoms

Desmids move towards light: positive phototaxis with Micrasterias, tested with white, red and blue light; light fields of varying size and intensity. Mass response demonstrated with Cosmarium. Diatoms reach a more illuminated environment by modifying their reversal rhythm ("shunting movement"). Positive phototaxis (capillary experiment) and negative phototaxis demonstrated with Navicula peregrina. Safety light: 537 nm. Time-lapse.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
07:04 IWF (Göttingen) German 1982

Reaktion der Kieselalge Navicula peregrina auf Belichtung verschiedener Zellabschnitte

Rangierbewegung mit willkürlicher Bewegungsumkehr (autonomer Umkehrrhythmus) und induzierter Umkehr an der Grenze einer Lichtfalle (Step-down-Reaktion). Partielle Belichtungen (40 µm breiter, mitgeführter Lichtfleck) des "hinteren" Zellpols, des "vorderen" Zellpols und der Zellmitte beweisen, daß die Pole die Orte der Lichtperzeption sind. Rotlicht 670 nm, grünes Sicherheitslicht 525 nm. Zeitraffung.
  • Published: 1982
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
16:43 IWF (Göttingen) German 1994

Cell Division in the Diatom Surirella

Edition: Robert Lauterborn, the first observer of chromosomal movement in the living cell, published in his book "Bau, Kernteilung und Bewegung von Diatomeen", Leipzig 1896, his observations of cell division in Surirella which fell into oblivion. Jeremy Pickett-Heaps fully confirmed his observations using shots from interference contrast microscopy and electron microscopy. He adds new findings about shell formation, partly with time lapse.
  • Published: 1994
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
03:45 IWF (Göttingen) German 1982

Diffusion in Abhängigkeit vom Molekulargewicht am Beispiel verschiedener Farbstoffe

The dyes chrysoidin (mol. wt. 249), orange G (452), acid fuchsin (586), light green (793) diffuse through 10% gelatine columns. The diffusion velocity decreases with increasing molecular weight and continuous experimental duration (8 days at room temperature).
  • Published: 1982
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
23:03 IWF (Göttingen) German 1995

Nematophage Pilze

Nematophage Pilze fangen Nematoden auf sehr unterschiedliche Weise, töten und verdauen sie: Endoparasitäre Pilze benutzen ihre Sporen, räuberische Pilze haben spezielle Fangorgane entwickelt, wie klebrige und kontrahierende Myzelstrukturen. Pleurotus lähmt die Beute mit Toxinen, bevor er sie mit normalen Hyphen infiziert, Verticillium befällt Eier von Zysten- und Gallennematoden mit einfachen Hyphen. Es werden die Entstehung von Fangorganen und Infektionssporen dokumentiert sowie die Infektions- und Verdauungsvorgänge. Zeitraffung.
  • Published: 1995
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
23:18 IWF (Göttingen) English 1995

Nematophagous Fungi

Nematophagous fungi use different mechanisms of capture, before killing and digesting nematodes: the endoparasites use their spores, the predatory fungi have developed special capture organs formed on hyphae, such as adhesive and constricting mycelial structures. Pleurotus infects nematodes by simple hyphae after having immobilized them with toxins. Verticillium infects eggs of cyst and root knot nematodes, also by simple hyphae. Penetration of the nematode cuticule, digestion of animals, formation of traps and sporulation are shown. Time-lapse, slow-motion.
  • Published: 1995
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
08:37 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

The Zhabotinsky Reaction as a Model of Pattern Formation

Dissipative patterns form in originally simple chemical compounds. Starting from pacesetting centers, chemicalwaves of a redox reaction are transmitted. This can be seen in the change in color of a redox catalyst. The decarboxylation of malonic acid drives the total reaction. Pattern formation in the aggregation of Dictyostelium proceeds analagously (film/photos in cooperation with G. Gerisch, 1963).
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
03:58 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

The Briggs-Rauscher Reaction as a Model of a Chemical Clock

Chemical oscillation reactions are made visible by the periodic appearance and disappearance of an iodine-starch complex. The oscillation is based on autocatalytic reactions, in which intermediary compounds are oxidized and reduced in rhythmic sequence. The total reaction is driven by the decarboxylation of malonic acid. With time-lapse.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
11:02 IWF (Göttingen) German 1980

Stadienspezifische Protoplasmaströmung im Stiel von Acetabularia mediterranea

Bildung intrazellulärer Transportsysteme im Verlauf der Zelldifferenzierung. Ein Netz dünner Plasmafäden transportiert Chloroplasten, ein System breiter Plasmabänder Inhaltskörper und Fortpflanzungskerne. Die Plasmabänder gleiten an den Plasmafäden entlang und sind schneller als diese.
  • Published: 1980
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
11:04 IWF (Göttingen) German 1980

Wirkung von Cytochalasin B und Anti-Mikrotubuli-Stoffen auf die Plasmaströmung von Acetabularia mediterranea

Alle intrazellulären Bewegungen werden durch die Anti-Mikrofilamentsubstanz Cytochalasin B reversibel gehemmt. Die Anti-Mikrotubulisubstanzen Colchicin, Chlorisopropyl-N-phenyl-carbamat, Amiprophosmethyl hemmen die Kernmigration reversibel und beeinflussen die Chloroplastenbewegung nicht. Mit Zeitraffung.
  • Published: 1980
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
08:59 IWF (Göttingen) German 1982

Photokinese und photophobische Reaktionen der Kieselalge Navicula peregrina

Pennales. Vergleich der Photokinese im Stark- und Schwachlicht. Autonomer Umkehrrhythmus und photophobische Reaktionen: vorzeitige Umkehr an Fallengrenzen durch Step-down- und Step-up-Reaktion. Photoakkumulation und Fallenentleerung. Weißlicht. Mit leichter Zeitraffung und Zeichentrick.
  • Published: 1982
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
13:06 IWF (Göttingen) German 1980

Strukturveränderungen des Primärkerns und Kernteilungen bei Acetabularia cliftonii

Die karyologischen Untersuchungen umfassen: Heranwachsen des Primärkerns zum Riesenkern, Tätigkeit der Nukleolarvakuolen, Primärkernteilung mit Bildung einer intranukleären Spindel, Sekundärkernteilung und -wanderung, Kernteilung in der Zyste. Die mikrokinematographischen Aufnahmen sind trickmäßig den Entwicklungsstadien der Alge zugeordnet. Zeitraffung, Phasen- und Interferenzkontrast.
  • Published: 1980
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
04:51 IWF (Göttingen) German 1982

Der Einfluß des Ionenmilieus auf die Quellung von Agar

Preparation of Hofmeister's lyotropic series of cations (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and anions (Cl, Br, J). Due to the agar's negative charge, its degree of imbibitional swelling decreases with increasing ionic radius of the cations and with increasing ionic radius of the anions.
  • Published: 1982
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
04:31 IWF (Göttingen) German 1982

Traubesche Zelle

Formation of a Traube Cell is followed in time-lapse photography starting from a crystal of potassium hexacyanoferrate II in a 4% copper sulphate solution through its development until the destruction of the semipermeable deposit membrane and reversal of the cell.
  • Published: 1982
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
08:33 IWF (Göttingen) English 1983

Bud Opening in the Common Beech Fagus sylvatica

Animated film documenting the opening process: the buds opens, as in other deciduous trees and bushes, by intercalulary growth of the medial and apical blades as well as simultaneous elongation of the young stem in the bud interior. The opened leaf layers increase by planar growth. Their nature reveals bud blades to be secondary leaves.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
09:36 IWF (Göttingen) German 1995

Fangen von Nematoden durch klebrige Hyphenäste von Monacrosporium cionopagum

Der räuberische Pilz Monacrosporium cionopagum erbeutet Nematoden mit Hilfe von Klebfallen, die aus ein- oder mehrzelligen spezialisierten Hyphen bestehen. Wie im Film gezeigt, berührt das Opfer eine Klebfalle oft mehrfach, ehe es schließlich haftenbleibt. Der Schwerpunkt des Films liegt auf dem anschließenden Penetrationsvorgang, der in Zeitraffung dokumentiert ist und anhand von elektronenmikroskopischen Aufnahmen erläutert wird. In die erbeuteten Nematoden wachsen schließlich Ernährungshyphen ein, das Tier wird vollständig verdaut und resorbiert.
  • Published: 1995
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
08:33 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Knospenentfaltung bei der Rotbuche Fagus sylvatica

Zeitrafferaufnahmen dokumentieren den Entfaltungsvorgang: die Knospen öffnen sich (wie bei anderen Laubbäumen und Sträuchern) durch interkalares Wachstum der mittleren und apikalen Knospenschuppen sowie durch gleichzeitiges Streckenwachstum des jungen Zweiges im Innern der Knospe. Die gefalteten Blattspreiten vergrößern sich durch Flächenwachstum. Die Knospenschuppen sind ihrer morphologischen Natur nach Nebenblätter.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
16:00 IWF (Göttingen) English 2002

Yellow Loosestrife and Hair-legged Mining Bees (Lysimachia and Macropis)

Close interrelations between plants and animals have developed during evolution. One form of symbiosis is common in South America and Africa and is extremely fascinating: some flowering plants don't offer nectar or pollen, but a fatty oil. These flowers are called "oil flowers". This interrelation is hardly known in Europe although it occurs between bees (Macropis) and their host plant, the Yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia). The film was shot in their natural habitat at the banks of the Rhine backwaters. By means of macrography and slow-motion all phases of the bees' complex collecting behaviour are documented, including their nests. The flower structure is explained in detail. The film exemplarily introduces the basic mechanisms of a plant-animal interaction and the close connection between form and function in an ecosystem.
  • Published: 2002
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
17:48 IWF (Göttingen) English 2002

Malpighiaceae and their Pollinators

Close interrelations between plants and animals have developed during evolution. In Brazil one can find an extremely fascinating symbiosis: some flowering plants don't offer nectar or pollen, but a fatty oil. These flowers are called "oil flowers". The film shows the tight link between bees (Centridini) and their host plants (Malpighiaceae) in their natural habitat. By means of macrography and slow-motion all phases of the bees' complex collecting behaviour are documented, including microscopic shots of the bees' legs and their larvae. The flower structure is explained in detail. The film exemplarily introduces the basic mechanisms of a plant-animal interaction and the close connection between form and function in an ecosystem.
  • Published: 2002
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
13:16 IWF (Göttingen) English 2002

Pollination of Angelonia hirta (Scrophulariaceae)

Close interrelations between plants and animals have developed during evolution. In the garden and pastureland of Northeast Brazil one can study a fascinating symbiosis: some flowering plants don't offer nectar or pollen, but a fatty oil. They are called "oil flowers". The film documents the close interdependence between the bees (Centris) and plants (Scrophulariaceae) in their natural habitat. By means of macrography and slow-motion all phases of the bees' complex collecting behaviour are documented, including microscopic shots of the bees' legs. The flower structure is explained in detail. The film exemplarily introduces the basic mechanisms of a plant-animal interaction and the close connection between form and function in an ecosystem.
  • Published: 2002
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
09:55 IWF (Göttingen) English 1998

Ballistospore Discharge in Basidiomycetes

Violent spore discharge in mushrooms and other basidiomycetes uses the same mechanism: Due to certain morphological and physiological properties of the spore wall, two liquid droplets are formed. When these two droplets coalesce, the surface area of the fusion droplet is reduced, which instantly generates energy utilized in spore discharge. Investigations were made with Itersonilia perplexans, a ubiquitous fungus which is easily grown in culture. The film introduces the organism, shows for the first time the process preceding spore discharge, and presents experiments which clarify the origin of the drops. The processes and physical forces during spore discharge are explained by animation. Includes time-lapse.
  • Published: 1998
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
09:55 IWF (Göttingen) German 1998

Abschuß von Ballistosporen bei Basidiomyceten

Alle Ständerpilze, die ihre Sporen abschießen, folgen demselben Mechanismus: Morphologische und physiologische Eigenschaften der Sporenwand bewirken, daß zwei Flüssigkeitstropfen entstehen. Die schlagartige Veränderung der Oberflächen- und Grenzflächenenergie beim Zusammenfluß beider Tropfen wird als Impuls für den Abschuß genutzt. Itersonilia perplexans, ein leicht zu handhabender aquatischer Pilz, dient als Untersuchungsobjekt. Der Film stellt diesen Pilz vor, zeigt erstmals die Vorgänge, die dem Abschuß vorausgehen, und dokumentiert Experimente, welche die Herkunft der Tropfen klären. Ein Trick verdeutlicht die Vorgänge und physikalischen Verhältnisse beim Abschuß. Mit Zeitraffung.
  • Published: 1998
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
12:25 IWF (Göttingen) English 1999

Pilobolus, a specialised coprophilous Fungus

Pilobolus, the hat thrower, is a minute fungus belonging to the Mucorales, which grows on the dung of herbivores. It has adapted itself to their way of life and ingestive habits: in the daily rhythm of its phototropic sporangiophore development, violent sporangium discharge, the attachment mechanism of its sporangia to herbage, and spore germination. The video-tape carefully documents the asexual development of the fungus by time lapse cinematography and lays emphasis on the phototropism of the sporangiophores and discharge of the sporangia.
  • Published: 1999
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
08:18 IWF (Göttingen) English 1995

Trapping of Nematodes by Constricting Rings of Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Dactylaria brochopaga

Certain nematode-trapping Deuteromycetes form ring-shaped traps with a mechanical function. Touched by a nematode or stimulated artificially - e. g. by heating - the ring-cells swell and capture the nematode. The swelling is documented by slow-motion sequences, details are shown by means of electronmicrographs. The further course of infection events is shown by time-lapse sequences.
  • Published: 1995
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
08:02 IWF (Göttingen) German 1995

Fangen von Nematoden durch Ringfallen von Arthrobotrys dactyloides und Dactylaria brochopaga

Einige räuberische Deuteromyzeten bilden ringförmig gekrümmte Fanghyphen aus. Bei Kontakt mit einem Nematoden oder nach künstlichem Reiz, z. B. durch Erhitzen, schwellen die Ringzellen und klemmen das Tier ein. Das Schwellen ist in zeitgedehnten Aufnahmen dokumentiert, zytologische Details werden anhand von elektronenmikroskopischen Aufnahmen erläutert. Der weitere Ablauf der Infektion ist in Zeitraffung dargestellt.
  • Published: 1995
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
13:07 IWF (Göttingen) English 1980

Structural Changes of the Primary Nucleus and Nuclear Divisions in Acetabularia cliftonii

The caryologic investigations include: growth of the primary nucleus into a very large nucleus, activities of the nucleolar vacuoles, division of the primary nucleus with formation of an intranuclear spindle, secondary nucleus division and its movements, nucleus division in the cyst. In animation the micrographic shots are coordinated with the developping degrees of the alga. Timelapse, phase- and interference contrast.
  • Published: 1980
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
12:11 IWF (Göttingen) English 1980

Life History of the Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii

The development of the sugar beet nematode on seedling roots of rape (Brassica napus) in aseptic agar culture is shown in detail: penetration of the larvae into the root cells; further development within the root cells over several molts to female or to male; giant cell system as location of feeding during the development; copulation; hatching of the larvae. With time-lapse.
  • Published: 1980
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: English
15:30 IWF (Göttingen) German 1983

Pflanzenschädigung durch sedentäre Wurzelnematoden

Schadbilder verschiedener Nutzpflanzen (Kartoffel, Zuckerrübe, Möhre), verursacht durch Zystennematoden (Globodera rostochiensis, Heterodera schachtii) und Wurzelgallennematoden (Meloidogyne hapla). Entwicklung des Parasiten innerhalb der Wirtspflanze am Beispiel von Heterodera schachtii. Reaktionen der Wirtspflanze auf den Befall (Riesenzellensystem, Wachstumsstörung, vermehrte Seitenwurzelbildung). Mit Zeitraffung.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
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