Aerospace Village - Understanding Space

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Video in TIB AV-Portal: Aerospace Village - Understanding Space

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Title
Aerospace Village - Understanding Space
Subtitle
Through a Cybersecurity Lens
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CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
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2020
Language
English

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Abstract
This exciting, fast-paced course delivers the "big picture" of space missions from cradle to grave. Understanding Space is the ideal course for technical or non-technical professionals new to the space industry or who need a refresher on the fundamentals. Learning outcomes will be: - Gain Core Space Knowledge - Comprehend space mission Capabilities, Trade-offs and Limitations - Apply Space Concepts to real-world problems - Analyze Typical Space Problems - Synthesize concepts to Design a Space Mission - Evaluate basic technical and programmatic space issues This will be a half-day course instead of the normal 2-day course.
Email Trajectory Context awareness Mountain pass Information technology consulting Computer programming Data model Exact sequence Medical imaging Mechanism design Different (Kate Ryan album) Core dump Computer network Set (mathematics) Information security Physical system Cybersex Purchasing Link (knot theory) Software developer Bit Staff (military) System programming Spacetime Addition Constraint (mathematics) Mathematical analysis Student's t-test Smith chart Architecture Frequency Latent heat Ranking Text editor Computer architecture Focus (optics) Surface Core dump Limit (category theory) Vector potential Faculty (division) Word Spring (hydrology) Integrated development environment Design by contract Systems engineering Domain name Structural load INTEGRAL Multiplication sign 1 (number) Mereology Data management Graphical user interface Information Process (computing) Series (mathematics) Vulnerability (computing) Area Graphics tablet Source code Service (economics) Email Trajectory Internet service provider Student's t-test Auto mechanic Computer science Website Self-organization Hill differential equation Energy level Video game console Information security Physical system Sinc function Modem Row (database) Game controller Enterprise architecture Link (knot theory) Cybersex Vector potential Wave packet Time domain Natural number Robotics Operator (mathematics) Spacetime Integrated development environment output Systems engineering Domain name Operations research Context awareness Forcing (mathematics) Computer program Information technology consulting Cyberspace Event horizon Point cloud Object (grammar) Form (programming)
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cloud there we go welcome so understanding space through cyber security lens i'm jerry sellers and um a little bit about me so i did 20
years in the air force uh mainly space stuff i worked space shuttle mission control back in the day i worked about 14 different shuttle flights including on console for the challenger accident and then worked uh returned to flight after that so if you saw the movie apollo 13 anybody i actually worked for gene krantz back in the day um then did a bunch of other stuff in the air force all space related i retired from the air force in 2004 and then i've been work our small company tsti we do training and uh workforce development and system engineering consulting kind of all over the industry so i'm also adjunct at stevens institute of technology and at georgetown do some graduate courses with them and i'm an agile guy so i teach agile around the industry of that too i'm here today with two other folks helping me out so i'll turn first over to terry tara if you want to say a few words about yourself hi there i am terry johnson and i am the chair of the computer networking and cyber department at pikes peak community college located here in colorado springs i started in it over 20 years ago really specializing in computer networking and then securing those computer networks starting out with uh um like deloitte and anderson two of the uh big five or whatever they're called now taxonomic ferns and then i realized that i really have this love for education and have served on as both faculty and staff in k-12 and higher ed like when i have free time i really like to spend it on beaches so you're uh i'm and i'm coming to you from colorado and actually all of us are in colorado so she's at a virtual beach back there but yeah and then uh help today too by jason and jason you want to say a quick word about yourself um yes i am a high school student i'm i'm interested in computer science and uh cyber security i am on the robotics team and i've participated in a number of local uh coding competitions and i'm just going to be helping out here so he's getting a little experience rubbing shoulders virtually with with uh folks in the cyber community so this is good practice for them today so uh sid our company is tsti so we do training consulting around the industry we like to say we have a front row seat uh to the industry we get to see what kind of challenges everybody has at nasa esa dvd industry uh we work on a lot of support a lot of textbook development work and we our company does on-site training back when you can do that we've kind of pivoted 100 virtual training since covid uh we also do coaching and integrated programs and then we do other consulting especially in model-based system engineering is a very growing area for us so um i saw one question in there in the chat about uh reasonable rockets let's hold that question that's a good one to bring up when we get to the uh the break so if you've got specific questions about the material i'll probably handle it out right then if it's a good question but i think we might deserve a deeper answer i might wait until the break so that if you're okay with that that's how we'll proceed um so here's our overview of what we're going to try to do this afternoon we're going to start with big picture we want to know their context or space and that context is also the context of which uh cybersecurity has to occur with respect to space so we'll tackle that and we'll look at this thing we call the space mission architecture and how all the puzzle pieces that have to go together to make the space mission be successful we'll then look at various opportunities so opportun opportunities for uh people to do necessarily possibly the various things and with respect to that we'll look at orbital mechanics and mission operations we'll focus on those two uh if you will uh surfaces and then we'll look at specific threats having to do with the natural environment of space and the man-made environment we're going to see the natural environment is pretty darn nasty um so it's hard enough to work in space let alone just throw humans on there to try to do bad things but we'll try to understand both of those potential threat areas and then we'll end up this afternoon looking at vulnerabilities and we'll look at two key vulnerabilities one being rf links so the rf systems radio frequency systems shown here and that cartoon has uplinks downlinks these are the pipes that carry the data that we use in missions and then we'll talk a bit about the space data architectures that we use in ground and onboard systems so here's our objective oh sorry first first of all this course is based around this textbook so there's textbook called understand space and it's available through that website this is part of the space technology series i think there's roughly up to 30 books now in that series that tackle all kinds of different space subjects so if you're interested in pretty much anything to do in space there's a textbook probably for it but this is the introductory book and a lot of the material here are the images came out of that book so if you're interested in that you can try to copy that um so here's our objectives for the afternoon we're going to start by trying to build some core space knowledge so we're basically launching you on a trajectory here um where we're going to start by you know laying the foundation and launch pad with our course based knowledge what is the space mission architecture and that kind of thing and then we'll look at how we build upon that to understand the basic capabilities and trade-offs and limitations as they apply specifically to the cyber security domain we're going to focus on mechani orbital mechanics and the opportunities or lack thereof that that creates for getting access to space systems and then look at the operational architectures as well and see how that can constrain access as i said we'll focus on the natural and human-made uh threats that can be out there especially the natural ones where the and what kind of vulnerabilities that come comes out from there as we look at things like uh radio frequency links and the data architectures um so uh so he's asked for the recording yeah i think we'll be posting that recording i just sent the morning recording off to the organizers so they're gonna put that on discord somewhere i don't know where they put that uh but if you um my uh did i put my email i guess yeah no i didn't uh
yeah i put my email address so if um if anything comes up in this course or afterwards uh please feel free to reach out to me if you can't find the recording or whatever i can i can get it for you so please feel free to track us down
if you need to um so here's our uh agenda we're an afternoon session day one over there on the left so we're just getting started and you see the course is broken into kind of half hour segments so we'll tackle a subject for about a half an hour and then i've got some poll questions that i'll ask you just kind of see if you're been paying attention and also gives us a chance to discuss some of the topics a little deeper um we'll have time for a little stretch break in there and also we can tackle any any sort of uh other questions that you might come up with that are a little off topic but i wanted to build in some time to to talk about those somewhat off topic questions we had some great questions this morning about slingshot trajectories and other stuff so again kind of any questions fair game uh here so feel free to come up with stuff and we we've got time built in to do that so we'll we'll hit each section for actually about a half hour take a pull have a short break and then we'll get right back at it and then you want to say save up some energy for the very end because then we're going to have a little cyber security challenge for all of you so i'm going to present you with a scenario and you're going to have to think through what you do to respond to that potential cyber security scenario so get ready for that that's coming here at the end of the afternoon so it should be pretty action-packed hopefully fun afternoon for you so let's start
with the contents so i'm a big picture guy i like to think about okay what you know how does this uh let me show you that you know i can't put together the pieces of the puzzle until you show me the the picture on the front of the box okay so this is the picture on the front of the box of what the puzzle is going to look like and that puzzle has these various key pieces that we want to look at we call that we put that whole puzzle together we call it the space mission architecture which includes orbits and trajectories spacecraft launch vehicles operations and at the core there we have the mission itself so we want to know how all those pieces go together that's what we're going to start by tackling and to do that we want to first understand well why because we're going to look at the mission why do we go to space at all you know what are the reasons that we would even bother spending all this money time effort risking people's lives to go to space and space it turns out is a pretty big industry i think as of last year the latest numbers i saw space is a 420 billion dollar industry i mean it rivals uh rivals airline industry in terms of size so it's a pretty big industry so where where's all this money coming from why are people even making money in space why do we go to the time and trouble to go to space so we list here what we call his space imperatives the the unique aspects about space that make us want to go there and so we have global perspective clear view of the heavens free fall environment resources and the final friendship so those um those reasons or those five reasons we might go to space which do you think is the single most important the reason the reason that we most often go to space and the reason most people make money in space who wants to guess which of those five are the most important go ahead you just put it in the chat or you can shout out i'd say the uh global perspective you can see the whole world yeah you nailed it um so i live in colorado so i like to tell people the reason we go to space is to get high that's the main reason we go into space because it's higher by being higher we can see more stuff right the more i can see the better i can understand what's going on um if we could simply build a tall tower and look down we'd probably prefer to do that but we can't build a tower quite that tall although i have some colleagues trying to build a space elevator but that's another discussion but um but uh by being being high we can see more right and the more i can see the more i can understand what's going on it turns out back in the back in the 50s from 1957 when the russians launched sputnik they actually did us a favor um they um they they established the precedent international law that you can overfly any country from space now you can't overfly any country in the air you can't just get an airplane and go fly with canada they wouldn't like that um but you can overfly canada from space um that's international law that's an okay thing to do um so that that established space is sort of open sky in terms the ability to go over and overfly anything that's out there so that was sputnik one and then later on they flew a couple other missions and then anybody know the first animal to fly in space the russians flew the first animal place yeah as a dog the dog was named laika you may remember laika so lika mike was a dog of flew in space and of course we didn't know much about lika you know during the soviet times but after the fall of soviet union information came out about leica and it turns out leica was not any ordinary dog they scoured the entire soviet union to find a special dog because they wanted to have a talking dog because they couldn't have an air-to-ground leg so they they needed a talking dog so like i was a talking dog and when lika came down the land there she was supposed to land on the land but you know the early times their guidance wasn't that accurate so she ended up landing in the in the in the sea it was a stormy night a little capsule got kind of tossed around and finally got the capsule up on the beach and they opened up the hatch and micah came trotting down they said lika how was the trip and she said rough so yeah talking dog like but so actually that's a lie like it couldn't talk actually like unfortunately burned up on reentry which is why the russians say they invented the hot dog so anyway but um there we go um so uh but i digress so we get up there to be high we get there to see what's going on and that's the most important reason these other reasons are cool too but uh in terms of making money uh being high is where it's about so while we're up there we can do some cool things by being high we one of the most important things we can do is provide communication so arthur clark came up with this idea he's a science fiction writer i came up with this idea in the 40s actually somebody else came up with it but he's popular for for stating it is that if i could put a satellite that two people could see on opposite sides of the earth they both see the satellite then we could talk through that satellite so we can relay information through that satellite that special orbit we can use to do that is called geostationary orbit we'll talk about that here in a little bit in a little while and if you look at the bottom picture there you can see out the this is not quite the scale the geostationary orbit is pretty popular there's roughly 400 active satellites up there in geostationary orbit mostly doing communication and they're not really stacked up like little bbs there that's just showing how many are in a given slot the slots are pretty big it's about a one degree slot roughly 360 degrees if you will around the earth in roughly one degree slots um so there can be more than one satellite in a slot but it's a very popular place to be if you have the you know if you if you own a slot if you have licenses to use a slot um that's literally money in the bank um so it's like owning beachfront property because they're not making any more of it so very popular place to operate from space um you can kind of see where the the popular places are you can see there's a lot kind of over europe there's a lot over the north america a lot over asia not so much over the middle of the pacific so that's that's where most of the money being made in space today is is in geostationary calm the other big area that's not so much a money maker although people do make money off gps but is certainly an enabler for the global economy is navigation and really position navigation and timing global you know geospatial navigation services um and of course the most most popular there is gps the global positioning system uh operated by the air force uh now space force and then of course there's glonass there's the the chinese uh baidu system and there's galileo the new european system so there's more and more systems coming available uh which is good it gives us some backup because if you think about it the entire global economy depends on this capability for position navigation and timing if you were to take out that capability the world economy would be worse shape than it is right now so really bad atms wouldn't work um you wouldn't be able to use a lot of global communication and of course you know people would get lost so all this is key so it's and and the ability to do gps is provided by the fact that we can put satellites in a high orbit and standing on earth i can see at least four satellites at any one time four tenths it turns out to be the magic number i need to solve the problem so i can see four satellites at once usually i can see more than that i can get that by having those satellites up there in a very high orbit so any place on earth you can always see at least four satellites so that that's simply an advantage of being up there high and here on earth i can access those satellites uh quite easily and now i have the ability to do my navigation so so that that high ground again that global perspective is being leveraged by gps and other navigation systems of course the other thing we can do by being up there is we can look down we can look down and take pictures of what's happening on earth so that's our we can broadly call remote sensing kind of missions and and of course obvious one would be something like the nightly weather report you we just had a hurricane pass off the
coast of florida so you probably saw some of the images from that all came from uh satellites we have satellites in geostationary orbit and in low earth orbit that monitor the weather and then we have all all kinds of satellites that do imaging planet labs has a whole number of satellites they do for daily imaging of the earth and you can do low resolution high resolution of course the military does very high resolution imagery spy satellite type things we have missions like uh uh that do just environmental monitoring that will look for uh ozone monitoring and things like that landsat is a long-term mission that uh that's been flown now for gosh 2140 years but they've been monitoring the earth's environment for that long so nice longitudinal data in terms of behavior and these spy satellites all go back to the early days so one of the very first well the first military satellite we tried to build was to do which was by satellites and that was a mission called corona not to be confused with the beer or the virus but the corona mission uh was stood up by the national reconnaissance office at the time that was his job was to go do that and and to give you an idea the priority their their 13th flight was successful they had 12 consecutive failures and still got funding to keep going um and they launched these satellites up in the space this is now the early 60s how did they get the pictures down they know how they got the pictures when they dropped like film rolls down yes yes they they ejected the film roles from the satellite the satellite the film rolls entered the containers obviously entered the atmosphere and then they popped a parachute and then they would snatch them out of the air and then they would send them to a place called photo mat and you get your pictures back in a couple of weeks right that was the instagram of the day right that's when we use this stuff called film um yeah hard to believe that they actually literally launched rolls of film and then parachuted the rolls of film down from outer space i mean it's hard to hard to imagine but that's what they did it wasn't until the 70s that they went to all digital so i mean you can pretty much uh you know thank uh spy satellites for the digital capability digital camera capability you have on your cell phone today the ability to develop the ccds and that sort of technology came and was pushed by remote sensing kind of missions so again why there why can we do this because we're above the earth because we're high because we can see what's going on um so let's explore that architecture now a little bit deeper now that we understand why we're going to space and the first part of our architecture is why is the mission right so in 1961 president kennedy gave a very famous speech about going to the moon i believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal before this decade is out of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth no single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind or more important for the long-range exploration of space and none won't be so difficult or expensive to accomplish so that in that case uh kennedy outlined a very simple uh mission right and at least it's simple in terms of articulating it right land a man on the moon turn him safely to the earth end of the decade three three goals and objectives right there um so what we want to know about any mission is first of all what need are we addressing here was the need to you know beat the russians but then what are the goals and objectives we're trying to accomplish and how do we plan to go about accomplishing that we call that the concept of operations so we want to know all those things to give us the an idea of the of the why once you know the why we can figure out the how and the how usually starts with a spacecraft so a spacecraft is a satellite in orbit we'll talk about orbits a bit later here and that satellite is going to do a job and that that satellite we can break into two parts we call it the payload and the bus so the payload is the part that's doing the mission it's taking the pictures it's sending the the the it's relaying the hpo signal whatever it is its mission is doing and then the bus is there to support the payload so just like our little cartoon in the bottom there the button you know the school bus job is to get the payload the kids it's cool so that that payload we got a live mic [Music] here that payload then is getting transported by the bus and so the bus has to have what it has to have structure has to have you know propulsion it has to have a radio air conditioning all the things to keep the payload happy and that's what we're doing in any uh in any mission right we have the the bus carrying the payload the payload's doing the the mission the bus is is uh is carrying the payload and we typically will often sometimes actually split up the operations with that there there's a there's a dod mission where the army operates the payload and the air force i guess now space force operates the bus and and that's a because it's a big mission and it's a lot to manage so they split that between two organizations so and some science missions may have a dozen different payloads and so you have may have multiple payload operators uh for different parts of that so that's kind of how we want to think about our mission we have our mission at the center of our spacecraft that's doing the job and we have the payload that's actually doing the interaction taking the pictures the bus supporting the payload and then we once we're up there the spacecraft has to operate from an orbit and as we're going to see we can think about an orbit like a big race track and so once i get into that racetrack i'm going to be going around around the earth all day long and then i'm going to look down and when i look down i'm going to see some amount of the earth how much i see depends on how high right the higher i am more of the earth i can see as i look down then that cone that you see in that cartoon on the bottom a cone has a field of regard the field of regard is everything i potentially can see and then the field of view is what i actually do see when i say point my camera i've got animation of that coming up a little bit later um and then that swath you see that that line across there that tells you how much of the earth i can see as i'm kind of going around the earth so that's why i think about mowing a lawn right i'm mowing a swath across the earth and depending on how high i am and depending on some other factors of my mission that'll tell you how wide a swath i can cut and if i cut a wide swath then maybe i don't need to orbit the earth very many times to see everything if i have a narrow swath i may have to orbit the earth quite a few times before i see everything and so that's going to be a big trade-off for us in terms of access to information on the ground and access from the ground to the satellite as we're going to see we'll look at a thing called ground tracks and see why that's important the other piece of the problem is getting two space so here's our launch of the atlas v launch of the nasa osiris-rex mission uh from a couple of years ago she had a big old atlas v rocket and um liquid oxygen kerosene engines on the first stage there rd 180 engines and that's going to take you into orbit into that orbit we just talked about rockets are broken into stages and that's because of the just inherent limitations of the rocket technology we have today um in this case their stage is not recoverable if i've shown you falcon 9 it should probably show you recovering that first stage it's also locks kerosene it turns out but um that's how i'm going to get to orbit and we're going to see how much energy that launch vehicle has to deliver for me to get into orbit turns out that's quite a bit once i'm up there now i can start doing my mission and the main reason i'm going to space i'm up there i'm high i'm looking at the earth i'm up there either
creating data or moving data right so the whole name of the game in the space business is about ones and zeros going from one point to another right how those ones and zeros get around are on all these links that we're going to talk about so that's that architect that's that communication architecture we show there at the top so all of mission operations is about people processes and things for doing the jobs we've got a lot of got a thing a lot of things a lot of infrastructure manufacturing launch capabilities um communication networks and then i have all the people the mission management operations that are actually run in the mission so i have a classic picture down at the bottom that's the apollo 13 mission after they successfully got the astronauts back uh from their harrowing experience you see you know dozens of people there just in the front room but you know the you know large mission like human space flight international space station literally has thousands of people around the world supporting that now if i have a little cubesat mission maybe i only have a dozen or so people supporting that but still you've got people right people processes and things that we need to run the mission then finally we have system engineering and project management to pull it all together so system engineering is our process of turning a need into a capability system engineering is about balancing cost schedule performance along with risk to deliver our mission successfully and then we have our project management to lead lead the team and ultimately try to deliver the program on cost on schedule on budget with with acceptable acceptable risk and then supporting all that especially as we kind of emerge into this area of cyberspace um and cyber security force base is we have an organization uh that we can call out here called information sharing and analysis center the ice act uh started just a year or so ago to look at trying to pull together some of these threats and opportunities in cyberspace so they they work with industry and they work with government focusing on three key areas of supply chain safety business systems and overall missions to try to make sure that we're staying keep the community aware of what the cyber security issues could be so there's our big picture context i wanted to understand why we go to space for that global perspective what kinds of missions we do up there especially communication remote sensing and navigation when you want to understand what we mean by that space mission architecture that includes the mission itself the the spacecraft the orbit the launch vehicle the mission operations systems as well so from a cyber security standpoint what we'd like you to take away here is an understanding and appreciation for how important space is to the global economy not only is it a big industry just by itself and nearly half a billion half a trillion dollars um but it's integral to pretty much everything so from cell phones to power grids to gps to commercial transportation and simply knowing where you are and commercial and financial markets we depend we that we the world depend on space and of course the more you depend on something the more vulnerable it can potentially be and that's the vulnerability we want you to be aware of and that because because of that space is becoming a larger attack vector that we have to focus on and then finally just be aware of the space ice hack and what that collaborative groups like that can help do for us all right um there's a good question about reusable rockets i want to get to in here in a second but any specific questions about what we just covered in terms of big picture see we ended up with a pretty healthy crowd so that's great um any questions that came out from what we covered uh yeah i think i i have a question so i am french so i have a french accent so i hope you will uh you will be able to understand me um the thing that i have to to go on another so it was really interes interesting and thank you so much and uh i have to go on another talk but can i have your email address because i i would like to ask you some questions but i need to leave now so is it possible that you write it in the chat maybe yeah it was in the slides but i just put there too i didn't okay well that's very nice thank you so much and i really need to leave a zoom well we'll be doing it again tomorrow and sunday morning so if you want to drop back can you start watching are we at what time because uh tomorrow tomorrow's at nine and at uh 1 30. okay i then another one on sunday at 9 00 a.m yep okay it was not returned [Music] i'm not sure is it written on the devcon schedule website with aerospace village i'm not sure i didn't see it it should be a matt you know that should be able to answer that yep and if you check in the discord there's a understanding space uh discord channel uh schedules in there as well okay that's great thank you you bet any other specific questions from what we covered all right i'm going to give you the poll so let's uh watch the poll there so take a couple of minutes to answer the poll and uh we will start back up in about 10 minutes so this gives you a chance to answer the poll and then we'll cover the poll and then we'll pick right back up there and we're going to hit opportunities so buckle up we're going to talk about orbital mechanics when we get back so go ahead and take the pole take a stretch break if you need it and then we'll dive into orbital mechanics and do your best with the poll questions and then if there's any other questions you have from what we've covered so far or if there's something you want to make sure i do cover please put that in chat um all right we're getting pretty good participation in the chat there we're in the hole give everybody another minute or
two and then we'll go through the poll and see if we have any other questions and then we'll pick up from there so all right let's see how we did all in the poll here and share the results so all right so single most important reason we go to space is to get high right ultimate high ground to get that global perspective it's more than just getting above the atmosphere in fact we'll see we don't always even get above the atmosphere completely um it's about uh getting up there so we can see more stuff that's the single most important reason and it's not to experience zero g so we'll talk about that that word uh we don't like to use that word um so the part of the spacecraft that does the business basically does the mission we call that the payload the thing that takes some pictures or collects science or whatever and then um mission operations systems are is all the ground and space-based infrastructure we need to coordinate we call that the glue that holds the mission together so that's broadly we call that mission operation systems um space capabilities yep definitely true have become so integral to everything we do it's it's hard to imagine life without space uh we've um we've become if anything too dependent on it um and then icesac focuses on those key areas there supply chain business systems and missions so good stuff any questions before we dive a bit into orbital mechanics right so when we're done here my goal is to make you all genuine bona fide certified orbital mechanics so and i can tell you where to buy the tool kit but um but it's you'll be an orbital mechanic you'll be certified to fix people's orbits you'll be all ready to go so that's what we're doing in this section is really focus on opportunities so where are the opportunities to uh actually do things to space systems and some of those are quite limited as we'll see based on things like orbital mechanics some of them are quite open because we have a pretty wide attack space potentially in the area of mission operations so we're going to look at orbits and operations as two opportunity areas uh that we have to focus on so as i said a little bit ago that when we look at orbits to first order you can imagine an orbit is like a big race track so think of this race track going around the earth round around all day i've got the hubble space telescope in that race track and it's just going around around all day long uh in the us we have a kind of a popular sport called nascar and the joke is if you know how do you escape if a nascar person is chasing you and the answer is turn right um because in nascar they just turn left all day long going around around around around the track and and that's pretty much what a satellite does it just goes around around around around the track all day long in low earth orbit that takes it about 90 minutes to go once around the earth so it's roughly 15 times a day it's going to go around around europe and that's what it does and that's what we want it to do we want it to be predictable we want it to be in the same orbit all the time and those are things that they're going to help us understand how to do our mission operations so we're trying to get into that racetrack well how do we get into that racetrack well they get into that racetrack we have to remember there's this thing called gravity and so if you drop something it goes down and you forget how gravity work works just remember the earth sucks it just pulls it down so i if i drop a baseball it's going to fall so in my cartoon in the upper right i now have a two baseball players and one who's going to drop a ball and i have one who's going to throw a ball from the same height at the same time so if i drop a ball and i throw a ball which one should hit first well way back in the day there was a guy named aristotle he thought that he had a heavy ball and a light ball that the heavy ball would fall faster and it wasn't until galileo came along and said hey let's try it and he figured out well wait a minute heavy ball light ball everything falls at the same rate so it turns out gravity doesn't care about the motion of the ball you can throw it you can spin it and do whatever you want to it it's still going to fall at the same rate which at the surface of the earth is about 9.8 meters per second squared so if you don't believe me a little video here that shows this simultaneous dropping and throwing so i'm gonna drop a ball here and throw a ball at the same time and you can see there in slow motion [Applause] they're they're hitting at the same time [Applause] if anybody likes the mythbusters remember the mythbusters they did one where they they shot a bullet and they dropped a bullet so the bullet went like 300 feet and then hit the ground um and they showed the same thing that whether you drop it or even with a bullet right it's still going to fall at the same rate as when you drop okay so what does that mean okay so now we're going to do a little thought experiment here to understand orbits so picture the earth right imagine the earth is a perfect sphere um at the earth where a perfect sphere then for every eight kilometers you go horizontally the earth curves away five meters so we're gonna do a little thought experiment here we're gonna build a tower on the earth that's five meters tall and on that tower we're gonna put a diving board that's eight kilometers long so if i walk all the way up to the edge of that eight kilometers and look down the earth is going to be 10 meters below me because i started out five i went out eight kilometers the earth curved away five meters so now the the surface earth could be 10 meters below the edge of the diving board okay well now imagine i was gonna throw a baseball so i'm gonna go back to my tower i'm gonna throw a baseball i'm gonna throw it really fast i'm gonna throw it eight kilometers per second so that means it's going to reach the edge of the diving board in a second well how far will it fall in a second well it turns out the distance you fall is one half a t squared so a is nine point eight one so we'll just call that ten and half to ten is five so basically in one second you're gonna call fall five meters so you started out five meters above the surface you went out eight kilometers in a second you fell five meters and you are still five meters above the surface well what's going to happen the next second well you're gonna go another eight kilometers you're gonna fall another five meters the earth is going to curve away another five meters you're still going to be five meters above the surface you are in a circular orbit what did it take to get into a circular orbit you had to go eight kilometers per second horizontal is this a condition of free of uh zero gravity no you're falling the earth is pulling you down you are just going so fast forward that your your earth is curving away as fast as you go forward so you keep missing the earth right you're following but you keep missing the earth because the earth keeps carving away from you that's what allows you to be in a circular orbit it's about that about that horizontal velocity so sometimes people talk about uh centrifugal force stuff regret if anybody tells you about centrifugal force with respect to orbits just that's not right there's no such thing as a centrifugal force it turns out um it's all about the speed it's about going fast and so fast you keep missing near if you don't believe me check newton you're going to newton's if you can see uh you know newton's sketch pad
back when he was in his 20s and he drew little cannonballs being launched from cannons and showed how you would get into orbit right that's and there was no uh centrifugal force concept going on there it's just about the velocity and this concept of gravity so depending then on how hard i throw the ball i'm going to get into a different orbit so at any given altitude there's only one specific velocity that'll give me exactly a circular orbit if i throw it a little faster than that circular orbital velocity then i'll be in an elliptical orbit if i throw it slower then i'll it become an intercontinental ballistic baseball and i'll take out rio down there the shape of this trajectory is actually also an ellipse now they might have told you in high school physics then you throw basketballs or baseballs or something that those are parabolic they're not it's an ellipse so this is an ellipse that happens to intersect the earth if i do in fact throw the ball really really fast then i can enter my own independent orbit around the sun that's different i'm no longer tied to the earth and i'm in my own independent orbit around the sun different than the earth but i don't really go anywhere um the uh and i used to say we don't do that and then we started doing that and uh and as we call that earth trailing orbits now so we use that for solar observation um if i want to go somewhere i got to throw the ball even faster so it goes out to the edge of the earth's gravitational sphere of influence and actually has excess velocity to go somewhere we call that hyperbolic excess velocity so when nasa launched the perseverance rover to mars last week it not only had to escape the earth they had to escape the earth with extra velocity that would allow it to go all the way to mars so it left earth on a hyperbolic trajectory it then entered an elliptical trajectory around the sun and then it's going to encounter mars again on a hyperbolic trajectory and they'll have to fire rockets to inner orbit uh well actually they're with uh with rover they're going to directly enter they got a big heat shield so they're going to just slam right into the atmosphere that's how they'll bleed off all that energy and then they'll land on mars using their complicated sky crane thing they have worked out so no matter what i do there's only four options circle ellipse hyperbola parabola um and in reality you can never get a perfect circle and you can never get a perfect parabola so the only other things we'll see is uh in reality or ellipses and hyperbolas and for our business of orbiting around the earth everything is an ellipse now a lot of orbits are close enough that we call them circular but realize to you go out enough decimal places they're not exactly circular so those are our orbit options any questions on that so far what it takes to get into orbit what are are there like orders of magnitude uh in terms of how much power you need to get out there does it like increase significantly or is it all fairly linear um that's a really interesting question so let me let me tackle that here in a second because that's an interesting way to think about it um so when i'm getting up into orbit so first of all i got to launch the ball all right so i got to get that ball going fast so if i don't get it going quite fast enough it's going to smash into the earth if i have it going just fast enough it enters a circular orbit if i go a little faster it's going to enter an elliptical orb um so as i said right around the earth you know low earth orbit a couple hundred kilometers up we're looking at going about eight kilometers per second but when i talked about that uh race track the bigger the racetrack the more energy right and we're talking about mechanical energy here the bigger the racetrack the more energy so if i want to go higher i'm gonna have to act throw it throw the baseball harder right um so in low earth orbit i'm going about eight kilometers per second but as i go out to higher orbit let's say all the way to geostationary orbit which is 36 000 kilometers away i'm now only going about three kilometers per second okay well where'd the energy go well this is it's all potential now right i don't have the same uh kinetic energy i have more potential energy because it costs me energy to get out there i have to spend energy to get higher right climb out of that gravity will um but so that my the so i need to get out to geostationary orbit from low earth orbit costs you about four kilometers per second extra delta v to go from low earth orbit all the way to geostationary turns out that's about the same amount as it takes to go to the moon to go from low earth orbit to the moon is pi kilometers per second so it's 3.14 kilometers per second give or take um and then to get into lunar orbit is about another 800 meters per second so it's about four kilometers per second to go from low earth orbit to the moon about the same as geo and going to mars is only about five and a half uh so it's it's not exponential and it's not really linear either but one of my favorite science fiction writers are robert heinlein once said low earth orbit is halfway to everywhere if you it costs you about eight kilometers per second to get into low earth orbit if you have another eight kilometers per second available you can go anywhere in the solar system eventually right it might take you nine years to get the pluto but you'll get there right um and so it's all about the gravity you know so you know if you live you know there's certain parts of the country and parts of the world when you ask people how far something is they tell you in time not in distance right so it's all about how you think about it so in space the distance is not so important it's about the energy right and we'll use that delta v as our kind of uh coin of the realm there so that delta v then is depends on the orbit and so the low earth orbit is about eight kilometers per second as i said if you go higher this number goes down that's what goes down to about three kilometers per second at geo um so it's all about trading the energy though this is the conservation of mechanical energy so just like being on a swing right so you're when you're going low you're fast when you're going high you're slow so i'm trading mechani i'm trading uh kinetic energy for potential energy here right so at the high point of the orbit which we call apogee i'm going slowest at the low point we call perigee i'm going fastest but my total energy is the same energy is conserved we say energy is a conservative field which means whatever energy you start with you end up with which is nice because that means if i tell you the energy of the orbit of the satellite at any one spot i know it at every spot so i don't have to continuously track orb stuff in orbit and for i really probably couldn't do that even though i wanted to in a lot of cases which is good news because i that means i only have to track it for a little bit and and it's going to what if i know that energy is going to be the same all the time so that that's a big advantage for that the other thing that's conserved in my orbit is angular momentum so angular momentum is a vector quantity so if you're right wrap your right hand around the direction of your of the of the orbit it'll tell you the angular momentum vector um so you can see that in this animation so that that what that means is that orbit plane is fixed in space so the or the earth is rotating underneath me but that plane is fixed with respect to the stars right so you see that angular momentum vector that big arrow pointing out there that's that's a you know orthogonal to that orbit plane um but the plane itself is fixed in space right and the earth is rotating underneath me that's a key thing to try to visualize because most people you know it's hard to imagine something being fixed in space but that that's because of angular conservation of angular momentum and that's important in terms of what i can see when i'm going around so as i'm going around is this is uh animation this is not a artist's conception this is using a uh an animation a simulation tool called system toolkit made by a company called analytical graphics we're an educational partner so that's my advertising for those guys but they make a neat tool and that tool helps us understand
the behavior here and the big the circles you see represent different uh things that i can look at so that big circle that outer circle represents everything i can see out to the true horizon and this
satellite is in a 700 kilometer orbit the littler circle represents a field of regard for what we call an elevation angle of about 60 degrees that big circle is an elevation angle of zero degrees basically look along the horizon as i go up to about 60 degrees i get this circle and then when i look down with my camera you see that little itty bitty soda straw
that's what i can actually image with my high resolution camera typically these high resolution imagers only have about a degree or so field of view that means it's going to take me a long time to image the whole earth so
that that's swath then is telling me how much of the earth i'm covering on a given pass and it's also going to tell me when i can see the satellite when the satellite can see me right these are the opportunities i have to interact with that satellite so as those satellites going over imagine that we're tracing a line on the earth right so it's just we're going to call this the ground track so as i'm going around the earth the yellow there is the equatorial plane just for reference um so i'm as i'm going around the earth notice that the satellite stays in its plane and the earth is rotating underneath that plane which means i'm i'm basically doing like a spiral cut if you will of the of the earth as i'm going around and so if i want to if i'm on the ground and i want to see that satellite i have to wait for it to pass over me or think about another way me to rotate underneath its orbit plane right depends on how you want to think about it and that creates our ground track so we have a you know a static map because it's hard to move a map so we just have a map and we have our guy standing down there in south america so when the satellite crosses the equator on on its first orbit let's say the the person could look over and see the satellite to his east now imagine it's a low earth orbit satellite has a period of about 90 minutes now the earth is going to rotate 22 and a half degrees in 90 minutes 15 degrees an hour that means the next time the satellite passes the equator from the person's standpoint the satellite will now be to his west okay so the satellite stayed in the same plane the earth rotated underneath the orbit plane right so and probably the next orbit on the third orbit it'll be beyond the horizon and you won't even be able to see it right so this is telling us when i can access that satellite to you know get you know have it take pictures of me have me talk to it or if i was trying to do something to it when i could even have that opportunity so then different orbits will have different ground tracks so there's things that we can adjust on the orbit we call their orbital elements and one of those is the the size of the orbit and the bigger the orbit the longer the period the longer it takes to go once around the orbit so here you see different orbits a b c d e and notice a has a period of 2.7 hours b is a period of eight hours he has a period of 18 hours and he has a period of about 24 hours notice what's happening to the ground track the ground track is getting scrunched together that's our technical term scrunched we're getting stretched together until i get to orbit d which ends up being a figure eight so orbit d the the period is about 24 hours so we say it is synchronized with the earth's rotation in other words it is a geosynchronous c d a b c and d have the same inclination so inclination is the angle of the orbit with respect to the equator if you think of it that way so if i was orbiting around the equator we'd say we have an inclination of zero if i was orbiting around the poles we'd say have an inclination of 90. and in the case of abc and d they all have an inclination of 50 and i can tell that by looking at the highest point the highest latitude that it reaches you see where the high latitude glad is 50 north 50 south so that's telling me the inclination is about 50 degrees um and then look what happens to orbit e now i flank the inclination so it's now is going around the equator and so now the ground track for orbit e is a dot on the equator so it is now stationary with respect to that spot so we call it geostationary it is orbiting it's going three kilometers per second but it's orbiting at the same rate that the earth rotates so that gives that gives me that uh perception of it being you know always over the same spot it is it's orbiting exactly the same rate at which the earth is rotating which is why it seems to hover over that same spot it's going three kilometers per second it's not hovering by any means um so those different ground tracks give me different opportunities to access the different orbits so here's an example this is the actual international space station you can see it going around in orbit its ground track and so you see the trace it makes on the globe and then the ground track so it has an inclination of 51.6 degrees that's because they had to launch pieces of it out of russia and the lowest inclination russia could reach was 51.6 because they launched from baikonur in kazakhstan um would have been easier for us if it had been launched everything from florida but that's another story um so that's our ground track this is the international space station and this is gonna look i'll go ahead can i have a question about that so is it because you're closer to the
equator you get more spin from the earth is that why florida is better than that yes that's the short answer um so the uh so when we we're launching everything from the shuttle if we were to launch due east from florida we get maximum effect of the earth's rotation but because we had to launch from florida into 51 degrees which means we had to go somewhat northeast we lost capability and they ended up having to completely redesign the external tank of the shuttle to remove 8 000 pounds of weight so that they could get the stuff into orbit it's quite a heroic tale we could go into offline but but it all came it's amazing and you know so politics drove orbital mechanics which drove technology it was pretty amazing uh but that's the way the world works some ways sometimes but yeah great question um so here's our geostationary satellites so um what you'll notice here a couple of things first of all one geostationary satellite cannot see the entire earth one in fact to cover the entire equator you need three satellites and then you get overlapping coverage but a geostationary satellite can only see up to about 70 or 80 degrees latitude so you end up with this triangle on the north pole in the south pole that a satellite from geo cannot see or said another worry if i'm on the north pole i can't talk to a satellite in geostationary orbit uh so if you have a direct tv dish and you're planning to move into to the north pole to visit santa claus don't take your tv dish with you i don't know what santa claus does but he cannot get directv so most for the most most part we don't care uh because there's not that mean nobody lives up there anyway however um there are military missions that do care and then we'll use a different orbit called ammonia orbit or highly highly elliptical orbit that can cover that those high latitude regions but i didn't i didn't include a example of that but if you want to talk about that we can um so quick overview then this is our orbital mechanics there's uh the uh how we calculate some of those uh so some of those things i had to put in put in a second order nonlinear vector differential equation just to see if anybody was paying attention but um but a little bit here how we solve that equation we can talk about more detail if you want in the break but i want to get to operations and then we'll pull up our poll so remember we have these things called mission operation systems which are all the people processes and things we need to do missions so we have manufacturing launch and things like our mission control center which you're used to seeing on tv and then we have our architect our communication architectures which are all those links that move the data around remember i said space is all about moving the data so i have ground stations and control centers and i have relay satellites all that's happening to help me move the data and i have various methods of doing that so there are there are various networks for helping move that data so on the top we see the air force satellite control network which i guess is could not be called the space force satellite control network i'll never be able to say that um and it has sites all around the world they use for talking to satellites they do they manage they talk to what about 450 different satellites a day if i recall um that's the air force network there's a there's a navy network there's an army network there are commercial networks there's a commercial network called universal space network and they have sites all over the world that you can rent basically by the by the minute to talk to your satellite then nasa has a deep space network you see there on the bottom um they have three sites in california madrid and australia and then they nasa has something called the tracking data relay satellite systems which are satellites in geostationary orbit that are used to talk to satellites in low earth orbit so if you you see video coming from the international space station it's probably coming through tdrs so that's how they relay data so all of that represents really critical infrastructure uh without those you can't run your mission you've got to be able you've got to have those to talk to your satellite and your satellite to talk to you so those are important parts of the problem here and then we have various operational activities we have to accomplish so there's nine different activities shown in this cartoon uh the one you're probably most used to thinking about is flight control you see the upper right there you see people sitting at a console you know the headset on you know managing the mission um but that's really just the tip of the iceberg right you have people doing planning you have people moving the data you have people doing tracking maintenance and support spacecraft support mission data archiving all that right all of these are things that happen to make new operations effective and a key key part of that is that mission data delivery and data processing right because it's all about moving the ones and zeros and then these are expensive ones and zeros right i'm collecting data on what's happening on mars that's cost me a lot of money get that data so i want to get that data so i have to have the data generators in space and then have the data analyzers on the ground and we need to make sure we have the tools in place to do that and we have a lot of trade-offs to make in terms of what we do in in operations planning on one hand we'd love satellites to just take care of themselves be 100 autonomous on the other hand we maybe have invested a billion dollars in that satellite we don't really want it to just go to wandering around the solar system on its own you know without supervision so so there's a trade between spacecraft autonomy and how much how many people we have on the ground and people on the ground are expensive for every every person you have sitting in a seat and a console you probably had to hire five people um because by the time you you know have three shifts a day and then people take vacations and they need training you know it adds up so for long-term missions more than half your mission costs can be in operations um was there a question okay um and then of course anomaly response right so if i have a cubesat that i built you know university built and has a problem you know i can get around to fix that next week and nobody's gonna care that much but if gps has a problem i probably need to fix it right now because we've got you know the whole world depending on so that that and you know understanding the state of health and understanding the new hardware and software that i'm flying are all parts of the trade-offs i have to do in mission operations so here are the key tasks again just as a review of what we have to do emission operations those nine key tasks and the trade-offs that go with that and then these are the takeaways from a cyber security lens first of all you know getting to space is hard eight kilometers per second not easy orbital mechanics inherently limits some of the things we can and can't do for space operations and when you can even get an opportunity to talk to a satellite and finally there's a lot of things going on in mission operations and that creates a fairly large attack surface you know again people processes and things that i can get into often spread all over the world that i have to be concerned about so all of these are important things for us to consider from cyber security and cyberspace lens i had a question here does translation introduce significant orbital effects what do you mean by translation higher pin obviously you're in there can you clarify what you mean by translation in your question don't have to come back to that again so it's in the chat you say does this translation introduce significant orbital effects i don't really do that oh no you're still there eye open uh if you can sorry the earth's moving around the sun um no um the earth is you know if i'm in orbit around the sun the fact the earth is moving around the sun does not create any orbital effects on the orbit itself now the sun can have an impact gravitational impact on my my spacecraft we call that gravitational perturbation uh the moon as well so if you see out a geostationary orbit um we have these sun moon effects that actually impact uh the spacecraft's ability to stay within the box that's been assigned and so you have to spend a little bit of energy every year to stay within your box because if you just leave it alone the sun and the moon will start to move you outside the box and we don't want to be outside the box we spend a little energy to do that um so matt asked about cubesats so cubes so a cubesat was a a standard that was invented about 20 years ago by some uh folks out at stanford and cal poly um and uh these guys and and they're still in business today i know know the guys um they just decided one day that they were going to define a cube stat to be 10 10 by 10 by 10 centimeters right now they just said okay how 10's a nice round number in centimeters um and so that became a cubesat standard and now of course that's a 1u cubesat 10 by 10 by 10 and you can make
2u 3u 9u people are doing 26u at which point you become stupid but um but the nice thing is what happened it became kind of a self-licking ice cream cone in that this became a standard size satellite you know for a tiny little satellite and people then created abilities to launch those and so now if you want to launch a satellite there are a number of companies that will launch cubesats for you as long as you follow the cubesat standard and it's usually one two or three use is the most common uh that you see and if you stick to that standard then folks like nanoracks can get you launched in six months and the cost is getting down to the point that it's that literally high schools are launching their own satellites um so it's it's and that it makes of course now we have this massive proliferation of small satellites which creates other problems that we'll talk about but it's it's really lowered the barrier to entry for a lot of organizations and countries and even schools to build their own satellites and that's obviously they're good and a bad thing depending on who you ask um did that answer your question matt on that yeah yeah it did uh how much you said it was getting cheap how much does it cost to actually launch one uh launch i think last time i checked for about a one you know and you know there's a lot of it depends when it comes to the price tag it was it was uh in the 50 to 100 000 range i want to say and the q in the cubesat itself you want to build one that'll actually work um for you know more than a day you're gonna end up spending a hundred thousand probably anyway um so yeah a couple hundred k you can get a reasonable cubesat with a payload that actually can do something um which you know from millions to hundreds of thousands uh is pretty good and and you can from somebody you might be able to even do a cheap that's that's if you actually wanted to do something if you just want to build a toy you can go cheaper than that but people usually going to go to the trouble they kind of want it to work so no cool thank you that was perfect all right uh let's uh pull up the poll here let me launch the poll while i launch the poll if anybody has any other questions you guys have some good ones there so go ahead and answer the poll and then we'll don't have any other questions we'll start up in about five minutes so take the pull take a stretch and then when we come back uh we're going to focus on threats so we'll look at natural the natural environment and the human environment in terms of threats so if you thought you wanted to be an astronaut be ready to be disappointed any questions that was our question all right so we'll start up again in a minute or two here so all right get there with all the whole answers just give you another minute or so and then we'll review that and then start into our next topic all right let's see where we ended up so how fast you need to be going eight kilometers per second 98 000 kilometers per second that'd be pretty fast and not the speed of light for sure the speed of light is how fast you'd have to be going to go into orbit or around a black hole but um the orb of the earth you only need to go on eight kilometers per second um can you see any leo satellite from any spot on earth any time no no you can't so again the key there was low earth orbit satellite because that's low is pretty low as we're going to see and so you can only see at certain times of the day you know maybe only a couple of times a day depending on where you are um the geostationary satellite definitely cannot see every spot on earth you can only see about a third or so of the earth at any given time not even quite a third so that means we need multiple geo satellites to uh to provide full coverage so if a bad guy wants an opportunity to covertly contact your satellite they're going to have to wait until that satellite passes over them there's really now they could you know they could bounce something through another ground station anywhere um but um if i'm trying to do it directly i have to wait for it to pass overhead and then opportunities to threaten spaceops all of the above everybody got that so pretty big threats threat surface there that we have to concern ourselves with so good stuff all right so who wants to be an astronaut here who wants to be an astronaut what if i could just you didn't have to go through all the training i would just get you into space yeah sounds great all right well after we go through this section uh let's see if that's still the case all right so um so here we're going to look at threats we're going to look at natural threats and man-made threats um as we're going to see the man the natural threats are bad enough and we don't you know don't need to give me human threats because we've got enough to deal with it turns out so we want to look at both both kinds though and the natural threats especially are important because about a quarter of all anomalies the spacecraft experience are a direct result of the natural environment so you can read all the different uh things that have happened over the years to different satellites because of the natural environment the uh there's a radiation storm that affected the stereo satellites there was a coronal mass ejection that impacted the dawn satellite when it was in orbiting ceres um the galaxy 15 one is interesting because again this was uh having to do an electrostatic discharge that caused because of a solar flare and that satellite lost its mind um it was wandering around geostationary orbit out of control so people on the ground could not send it any commands but it was it was broadcasting it was on and he was broadcasting so it was interfering both physically and rf to other satellites other satellites had to actually get out of the way of it and then eventually it kind of accidentally uh pointed away from the sun and the the battery discharged and it did kind of a control alt delete and reset itself and then it was fine you know so uh that was that was a crazy one um and then there's animation in the top here you see an impact of this is a collision between two uh two satellites one is a dead satellite one's a live satellite um and that caused a whole bunch of debris so these are all just issues that come up because of the space environment because space is dangerous and you got a lot to worry about up
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so no beans on the space station just keep that in mind you don't don't fart in a spacesuit but um so where's space it turns out space is not very far away um it's about 100 kilometers 60 miles straight up if you could drive straight up um there's something called the carmen line that kind of defines you know a generally accepted beginning of space but there really is no internationally defined exactly where space begins in fact if you're only 100 kilometers you couldn't stay in orbit because there's just too much drag i need to be at least another uh 20 miles further before you can even have a hope of staying in orbit very long and really you want to be even higher than that so if any of you bought your tickets to ride on virgin galactic i guess it's going to be early next year now uh 200 000 bucks you're gonna get a ride to space um and they're gonna define space as 100 kilometers so um you're not gonna go into orbit you're gonna go up and come down um but hey 200 000 bucks you know trillionaires there you go so space isn't that far away so if you imagine the earth or the size of a peach the international space station is just above the fuzz right so the fuzz represents the atmosphere it's just that little fuzz and that's we're not that high up i mean we're like yeah right there in fact it's not even a scale in that picture because it's too too hard to draw it that close um really really really close um that's that's to get to space now once i get in space space is really really really big you know so to try to put that those distances in perspective we tried to you know put some things to scale here um so imagine the sun were the size of a house um then the earth is the size of a baseball so roughly what by eight centimeters or so in diameter about 10 mil 10 10 10 centimeters in diameter um and it but it's 1.2 kilometers away or you know three-fourths of a mile away that's how far away we are from the sun and the moon is the size of a large marble about an inch in diameter and it's uh it's 10 feet away or three meters away and this is the one i have trouble wrapping my head around because you know you look at the moon at night it seems closer than that it seems bigger than that but it's really just optical illusion and how our brain processes stuff so the the moon you know get get a baseball and a marble out sometime and pace off the distance and and you'll just you won't believe it but it's true i've re-ran the numbers many times and that's how it works out so um and then you go to pluto and pluto's you know 20 almost 30 miles away and again about the size of a marble uh 30 miles away from the sun so you know just the size of this of the uh of the solar system is a little hard for us to grasp really so huge distances involved here but once i get out to those distances once i'm out there in space there's a lot of nasty stuff i have to worry about so there's six main things that we worry about gravitational environment the atmosphere or lack thereof than being in a vacuum the debris environment and then radiation and charged particles so i'm not going to say much about the gravitational environment that tends to be a bigger issue for fluid handling and especially for humans but we're going to focus on the things that are the biggest threats to spacecraft which are all the other things so let's start with atmosphere drag and atomic oxygen so in low earth orbit there's still a little bit of drag and it's still a little bit of atmosphere that's going to slow me down so atmosphere or the atmosphere basically is like friction almost very spacecraft it's going to rob energy from my orbit remember i said the bigger the or the bigger the orbit the more energy so if i take energy out of the orbit the orbit gets smaller right or we're getting smaller eventually it gets so small that i re-enter the atmosphere completely that atmosphere decreases exponentially with altitude so come visit us here in colorado and get off the plane and you'll know immediately that the atmosphere has decreased a bit from sea level um the atmosphere doesn't go completely away ever well not ever but i mean uh you know goes up to nasa detected molecules of the atmosphere up to about out out by the moon uh but those are like molecules they detected um so but in terms of low earth orbit we use 600 kilometers is kind of a rough rule of thumb so in other words if we're below about 600 kilometers then then atmosphere drag is something we probably have to worry about if we're above 600 then probably it's nothing we need to worry about but again it's not hard and fast it's just roughly because when i look at that drag equation there on the left the drag that i get from a satellite uh depends on the number of things one of the things it depends on is the velocity how fast i'm going uh the the drag coefficient basically the shape and then the cross-sectional area of the of the spacecraft so i know most of those things what i don't know very well is the density because that density the atmosphere changes day and night it changes with season it changes with latitude and it changes based on what mood the sun happens to be in and the sun goes through these 11-year cycles of moods at least as long as we've been watching it which isn't that long really but so far it's 11 years as far as we've been we can tell um and we're actually just coming off the latest solar minimum so so the sun is always putting out these charged particles i'm going to talk about and we call the solar wind so these charge particles are always coming out from the sun and think of that as a constant breeze coming from the sun but the sun is going to get more active less active over this 11-year cycle right now it's we're just coming off the the solar min about ready to start back into the next high part of the cycle when the sun is not very active the atmosphere contracts which means there's less drag when the sun is fairly active the atmosphere expands which means there's more drag so we've been going through a period of relatively low drag and we're starting to enter a period of relatively high drag uh over the next six to eight years in addition when uh uv light hits the hits oxygen molecules in the upper atmosphere they break apart into atomic oxygen so individual atoms of oxygen which are very reactive oxygen by itself as you know is very reactive that's why things rust but when i have atomic oxygen it's even more reactive and that can cause damage to the surface of your satellite so these are issues of simply the atmosphere again generally issues below about 600 kilometers the international space station is at 400 kilometers so yeah it has to worry about this stuff if we didn't do anything the international space station at solar maximum the international space station would re-enter in about three months um at solar minimum which is where we've been it will re-enter in a couple of years but it's a big difference between
maximum minimum in terms of how that impacts drag but for the most part space sucks we're in a vacuum and because we're in a vacuum we have other things to worry about one of things we have to worry about is called outgassing so if you have a soda bottle and you shake up the soda bottle and open up the top you're going to hear the fizz well what's happening you're releasing pressure and the gas is escaping right so the dissolved gas in the liquid is escaping because of the release pressure same thing can happen in space with material so if i have a polymers or adhesives or anything like that they they tend to during manufacturing they'll have alcohols and other volatiles that'll get stored in there when i release the pressure those things will come off we call that um outgassing and in space there's a one really important law that governs everything we do and that's called murphy's law if you're from england it's called saad's law and don't ask me why they're different but their laws are different the guys did the guys guys different the law is the same and murphy's or sod's law says that anything that can't happen will happen at the worst possible time and the corollary to that in space for outgassing is that outgassing will go wherever you don't want it to go which is probably on the surface of your mirror or sensor or things like that we also worry about off gassing inside where the crew lives because the crew has to smell everything you know if you ever bought a new car then a car smells like a new car well what's new car smell it's outgassing plastic right uh now in your car you can simply roll down the window you don't have to smell it anymore but if i'm the international space station and i have a smell like that i i can't roll down the window right there's not that's not going to work for me so that becomes a hazard for astronauts so they want to make sure they don't have anything smelly like that anything they'll off gas plastics or things like that we can also get cold welding in a vacuum this is where two pieces of metal can literally get fused together because we get a weak molecular bond between the two pieces we can get tin whiskers that can form on tin solder which is why we like to have a bit of lead in the solder so we don't do that in space because that crystallization can cause a failure of solder joints and probably the most problematic thing for being in a vacuum in space has to do with heat transfer there are three ways to move heat convection conduction radiation it's in convection is what's keeping you cool here in in your room air blowing around you conduction if you feel when you stir your coffee with a metal spoon and then radiation is what you feel when you actually feel the heat coming off a fire well in a vacuum i i can't conduct anything i don't have any air blowing around me so the only way he's getting in and the only way he's getting out of my satellite is through radiation um so you see on the right there the bottom right uh you see the radiator panels on the international space station so they use ammonia loops so ammonia flows around where the astronauts live carries the heat goes through those uh panels where it is radiated into space and then it cools off the ammonia and the ammonia does another trip back through the where the astronauts live so we we do testing in space using these chambers you see at the top of thermal vacuum chamber to make sure we know how things will behave spacecraft will behave when we get up there into space so that that thing on the front of your car that cools your engine what's that called what do you call that thing in the front of your engine that cools your engine radiator radiator how does it cool your engine heat transfer yeah convective heat transfer not radiated heat transfer that thing should be called a convector i'm on a campaign to change its name because i'm tired of it called people calling it a radiator it's a convector right you're pumping fluid around the engine block and then air blows over the veins and cools the fluid that is not radiation that is convection my friend so uh by the next time you go by make sure you buy the convector fluid not the radiator fluid it's a little more expensive but it's more precise so anyway um so that's an issue with being in a vacuum another issue being in space is all the junk so here's the history of the junk like those cubesats [Music] [Music] so [Music] [Music] [Music] thank you [Music] so [Music] [Applause] [Music] okay it's important to note that each of those little blobs are not to scale but so we're up to 20 000 objects in space that we're currently tracking so this is the the box score you just comes out quarterly so this is the last one that came out so we're just over 20 000 objects um nancy i got that's from agi i think i got that off of youtube uh you could google it um they may even have a newer one they put a new one out every once while because you notice that one's about four years old but um but uh 20 000 objects that are 10
centimeters or bigger so think softball size or bigger we can and that's a limit of what we're able to track so we have tracking capabilities on the ground so the u.s space force now in charge of keeping track of that they have a satellite satellite space surveillance network of satellite of ground systems that track that radar systems and currently the limit is about 10 centimeters in low earth orbit and about beach ball size out of geostationary orbit um that capability is about ready to change the space force is about ready to bring operational thing called the space fence which means they'll be able to attract things smaller um how much smaller uh depends um and but people are saying what's going to happen is that number is going to change by a lot maybe by an order of magnitude um just because we'll be able to see things that now we know are we're sure are there but we can't see them so now we are blissfully ignorant but then we'll be able to start seeing them and we can't be blissfully ignorant anymore so now instead of 20 000 objects to see why uh two hundred thousand or more that we'll have to keep track of um so and that just keeps continuing to proliferate there have been numerous satellites damaged by debris and it's and numerous other satellites uh maneuvering to avoid debris has become fairly routine uh i mean but you know every time i have to move my satellite i'm spending propellant that i'm never going to get back so that's it's interesting you look at geostationary we once worked out what it what propellant is worth at geostationary orbit because the geostationary satellite makes like 100 million dollars a year revenue if you work out what the propellant is worth per gram it's more expensive than plutonium uh it's it's a it means way more expensive than gold it's like more expensive than plutonium it's uh so if i have to spend some of those precious grams of propellant i'm not going to be happy if i'm have to dodge a piece of piece of junk you know what i'm saying but that's the situation that we're dealing with um but the big dog in space is the sun so the sun is putting out a number of things we have to pay attention to first of all is electromagnetic radiation so the physicists you know they use this word radiation and they're not always clear about what they mean so i'm going to distinguish between electromagnetic radiation and ionizing radiation aka charged particles so for electromagnetic radiation we mean light and heat right and all across the electromagnetic spectrum literally from x-rays and gamma rays all the way up to radio waves you see the graph up there of the output of the sun most of the sun's output of em not too amazingly is right in the middle of the visible um and that's a function of veen's law it turns out but any and you see this is actually plonk's law plotted there but the peak of that curve is right in the middle of the visible but which is convenient for us because that's what we can see but the uh range is all the way from x-rays all the way up to radio waves um so that the the infrared of course is going to cause heating the light we can turn into solar energy ultraviolet can cause damage of our surfaces we can get radio interference from the sun the sun is actually very noisy from our radio standpoint and uh and we actually get solar pressure we get force from the sun from light so light is made up of waves or or particles depending on what mood you happen to be in when you do the experiment and if it's a particle we call that a photon now photons do not have mass turns out they don't have volume either and but they do have momentum so that's a quantum thing so a photon can actually transfer momentum to you and it's not much it's like five newtons per square kilometer but if i have a big old solar rays hang out for my satellite uh that can be significant over time and if i had a really big sail i could literally sail around the solar system harnessing the pressure of light as i did that so i have to worry about that um but the probably the bigger worry are the charged particles so by charged particle i have to go back to the definition of an atom if you guys remember in the bohr model of an atom where in the nucleus you have a proton an electron proton being positive and then the electron being negative going around the outside there and the neutron neutral um and you probably know the story about the two atoms two atoms were walking down the road one fell down and his buddy helped him back up and said are you sure or he said are you okay he says no i think i lost an electron he said are you sure he said yeah i'm positive so that's how you know you lost an electron and neutron walked into a bar and the bartender said for you no charge bartender said we don't serve faster than light particles in here a tachyon walked into a bar so think about that one so um so i got these charged particles they have ions which are positive you know positively charged and then i have electrons or negative and they're coming from the solar wind which i said there's this constant breeze coming off the sun and then occasionally i get these big solar particle events just like a gust of these charged particles i also get them coming from outside the solar system we call those galactic cosmic rays and then again i'm uh getting concentrated in the van allen radiation belts in the earth's magnetic field so i kind of can't escape these things if you're watching that video on the bottom you're seeing the these sensors on the soho satellite start sort of fizzed out there when it got hit by a big solar particle event so it affected the sensor there um so these charged particles come in kind of two flavors um but uh we're going to worry about the low energy and the high energy stuff and the low energy we'll call plasma so the plasma effects having to do with arcing the plasma effects are mainly going to be on the surface so arcing electrostatic discharge electromagnetic interference and re-attracting of contaminants mostly this is going to be a problem at gls cell allele and mainly on the surface so this is an annoyance but not something that's going to really uh be a big problem i just noticed pete's question there can entire orbit be taken out with debris um we're almost there where you see that there were some popular uh orbits there geostationary you actually see a ring and then uh in low earth orbit especially the sun synchronous orbits they're they're getting so popular that there's a lot of debris built up there not to the point that that orbit is unusable but it's there's certainly more debris in some orbits than others that's for sure so thanks to that question pete probably
the most problematic issue has to do with the high energy charge particles and so every once while the sun burps out a big bunch of charged particles and a coronal mass ejection shown in this animation in the upper right there luckily most of the time it's not aimed at us but if it is we've got to be ready so we get this big coronal mass ejection all these big gusts to charge particles lucky for us we have our shields up so our earth's magnetic field protects us from that big blob of charged particles deflecting most of it but some of those charged particles get trapped in the field lines and then they go down and interact at the at the field generators where the klingons always target down there and interact at the poles where the field lines come together and cause excitation of the atmosphere which causes the glow which is the northern lights and the southern lights now for our spacecraft those charged particles are getting those high energy ones are going to go whipping through the surface of our satellite like it's not even there and go right through our electronics and if it happens to hit the right spot if the little bullet happens to be in the wrong place at the wrong time then it can cause a latch up of one of the transistors on your microprocessor it can affect the ability for your semiconductor to carry charge and all that can have problems in terms of how your system's going to behave so there's immediate effects here we call single event phenomenon and and they happen like that i mean and they're like little bullets going in all the time that are causing issues with how our system can behave it can flip a bit it can latch up a part of a transistor and there's sort of two effects here i think of them in terms of sunburn and skin cancer so the sun burns happening today skin cancer cancer is happening over many years so you get a total an immediate effect and then you get a we call a total dose effect of accumulative uh degradation the ability for our semiconductor to actually work so at some point it simply stops working you know after some number of months or years depending on the substrate material and depending on the orbit that i'm in that total dose then eventually causes my system to simply shut down stop working so and we can uh look for materials that are less susceptible but eventually everything succumbs we have not found a system that's 100 you know unless you go to back to iron core memory anything that's a semiconductor is eventually going to succumb at least as far as the technology we know now uh so we can use some shielding i people usually guess lead is the best shielding but turns out that's not the best turns out hydrogen is the best shielding the hydrogen is not very convenient water would be next best but if i have humans on board i probably have water anyway so that's good on the international space station they actually use polyethylene high density polyethylene a couple inches of that polyethylene is a hydrocarbon so there's a lot of hydrogen there that's the hydrogen that acts as the shield form um but whatever i do i have to build in air detection and correction because this stuff is going to happen i mean it's just price of doing business in space so i have to have some quite a bit of software overhead to be constantly checking for these problems because they're just going to happen so the natural environment's bad enough now i got to worry about the the unnatural environment the human environment and and these were the good old days the good old days we just launched satellites and we talked to them and everybody was cool and everybody was nice to each other and we didn't have to worry and we barely had any software anyway so it didn't matter um and then life was good that ain't the way it is anymore right now we have bad actors uh we're way more dependent on software and these bad actors are doing things like spoofing and eavesdropping and denials of service all of these are things that we now have to be concerned about um but we're not really prepared in the space industries we have some challenges in our industry first of all as we've just seen some of the problems that can happen spacecraft are hard to distinguish between a natural problem and an unnatural problem if i have a single event upset it may not immediately be obvious that that's you know because of the national environment or because somebody hacked me um also space is suffered from a bit of you know it can't happen here mentality you know we tend to think we're com you know we nobody's going to bug us but you know we're special but of course we're not that special um and space 10 has tended to be fairly conservative and flexible and very non-agile in terms of adapting over time a bit complacent we could say and we tended to view security as more of an afterthought than a forethought um and part of it is because fixing things is difficult we can patch our systems we can even do you know new software updates but we're limited we're basically we can't change our hardware and we're limited the ability of what we can do even to our software so we just have we just can't react that fast the other issue is that the you know this the attack surface just keeps growing we're relying more and more on software we have more and more uh distributed missions we have a lot more actors involved we have um our software tends to be more outdated because we we in this space business tend to build missions that last sometimes for decades and so we're still using software from you know that nobody else has even heard of and then we have trouble you know removing that software at end of life kind of problems so that's the space environment issues again space isn't that far away we have a number of natural environment things we have to contend with big one from uh upsetting spacecraft standpoint or the high energy charge particles which will cause a single event upsets and bit flips and things and from a cyber's perspective what i want you to take away here that first of all again space is hard and space sucks because it's vacuum um so it's hard enough to get things to work in space you know even on a good day because that natural environment is a pretty big threat and it's causing denial of service randomly already um you know without any human intervention um and some of those anomalies that could occur if you know if there was a nefarious actor we'd have a hard time immediately discerning the difference between a natural attack and an unnatural attack um and the other thing to take away is just how fragile space spacecraft are a relatively minor hack like you know causing a solar array not to point quite at the sun even if it was off by a few degrees would decrease the amount of power it could produce which might decrease its ability to do its mission and on any number of things from a relatively smart area um so gretchen's asking a question here in the vein of threats human actions there are so many vulnerabilities for ground system to support space that can be attacked what would cyber security hack look like in the ground infrastructure what would they get and how could you protect against it um we're going to tackle some more of that here in a minute gretchen thanks for that question um but we're as we saw in that previous section there's uh i listed nine different activities um for mission operations and any one of those activities is a potential in-roads for an attack um and that and then in terms of that and because they all represent parts of the ground infrastructure uh as well and uh you know some of them more vulnerable than others but any one of those are potential inroads because you have people processes and things involved and people can be a weak area there and sometimes just the the infrastructure we have because it's maybe antiquated or doesn't have the you know and we're running you know legacy software from decades ago we have more vulnerabilities in that respect so hopefully that that answered your question um so let's uh let's check in any other any other questions from that section before i pop up the the uh the poll so who still wants to be an astronaut after seeing the threats who's changed their mind so pete you're still ready to go okay wear your lead underwear oh wait i guess you better wear your hydrogen underwear um um take a visit over an extended stay all right kilt okay you're uh yeah that'll help you so um astronauts will tell you because we didn't really talk about human issues but i mean it's scary and talk about
what happens to humans especially in the free fall environment that's that's that can be pretty bad the astronauts will tell you they'll see flashes of light in their eyes so a charged particle goes through the eyeball releases a photon your your retina can detect a single photon and you they see these little light light bulbs going off in their eyes at random times which is a bit of a freak out so that's that's an issue we talked about shielding um the uh the uh again for human missions we can use water in fact nasa talks about using creating like a storm shelter because these big solar particle events luckily don't last that long you know days um so if you can get astronauts to hunker down underneath bags of water for a couple of days they'd probably be okay uh but the radiation effects on humans is pretty pretty critical to look at because a round-trip mission to mars is uh is a lifetime dosage nasa sets the dosage limits based on age and gender women can take less dosage than men and older people can take more dosage than younger people so of course the answer for going to mars is to send old men because you won't miss us anyway um and then you could argue about whether you should even bring us back so uh in terms of a safety issue but there you go um uh yeah and uh so terry's talking about terry do you want to say something about that jpl thing yeah sure so a couple years ago jpl was hacked and they were hacked because there was a an unattended unauthorized little raspberry pi just a simple little computer hooked up to their network and still an external threat actor got in actually came in through that raspberry pi or targeted it was able to crawl around their network for about 10 months and um and received about 500 meg of data about one of the mars missions so that's just an example where you know you've really got to watch the people in your network and what they are putting on your network yeah and i guess be conscious that you know all it takes is one slip up and somebody's just waiting for that slip up you know in that case um you talk about gravity effects on humans so uh quickly there's three things with huge gravity effects on humans uh moans groans and stones so the moans come from vestibular issues where you just are space sick and you feel like crap because you're you're just you know motion sick um bones comes from the lack of uh you know uh you know force on your on your bones so your bones lose lose mass and and then stones come from a fluid shift because you have fluid that moves to your upper body because your your legs keep pushing fluid into your upper body even though it doesn't need to and you're and you you start offloading uh liquid which means you're going to dehydrate which can lead to kidney stones so all that are issues the gravitational effects building rotating space stations would be cool but um the you know you look at the mass the entire international space station you'd need a couple times more that mass to build something even close to big enough to be useful because if it's a relatively small radius people would just throw up if they're going around in circles like that so you need a pretty big radius i can't remember what the minimum radius is somebody's studied that but it's it's like 50 meters or at least uh but otherwise you just you the coriolis would give you uh all kinds of uh vestibular issues so it needs to be a pretty big thing so now we're not quite ready to build something that big yet uh that'd be nice though all right let me release the poll release the hounds um release the pole so we just did threats so let's go ahead and take this poll and then uh we'll give you about uh five minutes or so to take the poll then uh we'll review that we have time for a little stretch break and then we'll start back up at the at the bottom of the hour so that should be 4 30 pacific time and uh all right yeah and then uh so i guess my little house schedule may a little bit escape um so we'll start back up at 4 30 uh pacific time and then we'll pick up with vulnerabilities here a minute so go ahead and take the poll and then we'll check in and see how everybody did with that all right let's see how we get here so we have a poll
so first question space is incredibly amazingly ridiculously far far away um nope pretty close right 100 kilometers uh drag effects all satellites in every orbit uh guys i guess you missed that one so no right remember we said 600 kilometers was under the rule of thumb there so we're above 600 then i don't need to worry about drag um below 600 then yeah i do need to worry about drugs so maybe i misspoke there and confused you on that one so i said yeah there's atmosphere all the way out to the moon but not not enough to worry about uh but so it's uh but the uh 600 kilometers is sort of the line in the sand there for us so those uh bit flips are caused by the high energy charged particles everybody pretty much got that one and um yeah the scary thing here is anomalous behavior by satellite uh could be indistinguishable from a natural threat so it's really hard to know right at first and then all the above and represent the uh cybersecurity challenges that we talked about and then the key things there for uh denial of service was the uh tos flood the internet of things botnet attack and then king flood type issues so unless you did okay on there all right so we stopped sharing that um so let's move to our our last section and then you want to stay tuned because we're going to have our little security challenge cyber security challenge here at the end to see how you do so uh here we want to look at some specific areas of vulnerability um the rf systems and data handling systems um so we're going to look uh look at those pipes and those uplink and downlink pipes that we talked about we want to know what goes how those pipes work how do i set up a pipe and that means how do i maybe disrupt the pipe as well so these pipes are fine-tuned things need to make sure that they work correctly because it's all about moving the data and then we'll look at the data handling system so i've got my little cartoon there of a computer and we've got some uh ones and zeroes there if you stare carefully there you see that my artist put a two in there so i guess that's a bit flip and that happened um so let's start with the communication system so the this is the ears in the mouth of our spacecraft so we have to listen for commands coming up from the ground and we have to talk to send telemetry down to the ground um along the way we have a lot we have to turn that data into modulated information that goes on to the carriers we'll talk about so we have modulators and demodulators that work with that carrier signal that we'll look at uh to actually move that data from where it needs to go and then that data then connects up to the data handling system as we'll see here in a little bit um so the key part here is these uh communication architectures so hopefully we have again it's all about moving the data so i have ground systems all over the place i showed you those uh air force satellite control network and deep state network and that you know universal space network we have these ground stations all over the darn place and we're moving data all over the all over uh between them now space to space and ground to space the down links are going to be rf and once it's on the ground then we can move things around through fiber right fiber is actually a lot better than rf for a whole lot of reasons but for space ain't no fiber up into space at least yet until we can build that space elevator we're kind of stuck with rf links and so that they create their own challenges and vulnerabilities uh as we're going to see so let's talk about how rf communication works which means we have to talk about how communication works um and i'm sure everybody when they were a kid got to play with two cans in string and kind of unlike the cartoon in the top the string needs to be tight so our scientists are not holding the string tight the way they need to but uh for you know artistic license there so um the guy on the right is gonna talk into his cup and that's gonna his voice is gonna bounce on the bottom of the can and his voice will then get modulated onto the string now the string is going to carry that vibration to the other uh person who's got the cup up to her ear and it's going to bounce on the bottom of her cup where he'll be demodulated and then he's she's going to hear kind of whatever it was that he said okay so rf communication the only difference is no string in fact it's really the carrier that acts as the string as the carrier is where we're going to modulate our information onto but we have to have that character so we have to have that string that goes from e to u and that's how we're going to get our information there now it turns out there's various ways to modulate that information onto the onto the carrier and in the space business we tend to use digital communication and there's uh three basic ways you can think of to do modulation two of which you have in your car amplitude modulation and frequency modulation so our cartoon there shows a simple example of amplitude modulation where low amplitude means a zero and a higher amplitude means a one i could do frequency modulation so every time i shifted frequency that could be a zero or a one in the space business we tend to use phase modulation where every time we switch swap phase we can go between a zero and a one so um you know kind of pick your pick your language really uh it turns in space that turns out the phase modulation is a little more forgiving so we tend to use that more in space but there's we could use the others if we wanted to we just don't they don't work as well um but for you know for your car it's fine you know works fine um so very various ways to do that now what we're trying to make sure happens is that we can have a conversation right between the spacecraft and the ground they need to have a conversation and that conversation is no different from what you the conversation you want to have with your buddies when you're out you know out of the restaurant or bar at night back when we could go to restaurants and bars um well it's but i'm sure most of you remember being in a bar at one time in your life and you're trying to have a conversation with somebody on the other side and there's a lot of things that are going to com that complicate that first of all you and your whoever you're talking to is helpful if you're speaking the same language right you're trying to speak to someone in a language they don't understand it doesn't matter how loud you talk most of course americans know that if you talk english loud enough anywhere on earth people will understand you but that's not usually the case um so we we need to make sure we pick the right language um and we also need to be on the right frequency you know so if i'm if i'm using you know dog whistle frequency you're not going to hear me right so we you know let's pick with audio frequencies here um distance is important if i'm too far away you can't hear me and data rate is important if i talk too too quickly you can't really understand me you might hear me but you won't really understand me so i have those things to play with language frequency distance data rate and then environment so if somebody's making a lot of noise then i'm not going to be able to hear what the other person's saying either so all those things have to be balanced to make sure we have effective communication and what we're really after here is making sure that the signal is greater than the noise if the signal is higher than the noise then you're probably going to hear me if the noise is greater than signal then you're probably not going to hear me and this gets tied up into what we call fry's equation which is for how we calculate link budgets on all of these various links i just showed you so it looks like a little complicated equation but it's really not that bad because what it's really doing is implementing the things that we just talked about so instead of being in a bar having a conversation now i'm having a conversation between two two dishes as we show there on the bottom right and so the same things apply i have to pick the right frequency in this case the frequency of our carrier wave i have to pick the right language which is the modulation i'm worried about distance which we call space loss i'm worried about the data rate and i'm worried about noise so all of those are things i have to consider and they're all packed into that equation there at the top because what we're trying to do is ensure that for every bit the energy is greater than the noise so we call that energy per bit to noise ratio or eb over no so energy per bit to noise ratio wants to be greater than one and and that's going to be determined by a number of things i have only a number of things i can play with
transmitter power basically how loud i'm going to talk transmitter gain how i you know maybe direct what i say um the space loss how close i am uh the receiver antenna gain how big the ears are on the ground and the data rate you know the lower the data rate the easier it is to get the message through so there's not that many knobs i can turn here um but these are the things that i that i have to have all in place to make sure i have effective communication so if i were to impact any one of these in some negative way i'm going to reduce my ability to communicate significantly um and you know we see that already with things like voyager so voyagers keeps keeps going keep going and going and going energizer bunny right but eventually the the power on its uh uh ryu isotope thermoelectric generator is going to give out i think in about 20 years they said um but even now it's so far away the space losses are basically killing our ability to hear it in fact i don't think we're going to be able to hear it in about another 5 or 10 years already its signal is below the noise and it has to keep repeating itself over and over and over before we can finally pick the signal out of the noise but you know for something in low earth orbit we can't have it just keep repeating itself we want to hear it the first time if we can so these are challenges that we have to face and the other challenges have to do with the limitations that we have for uh building up these links we have some physical limits that have to do with the atmosphere so certain frequencies are going to get attenuated by the atmosphere especially some of the higher frequencies they don't like going through rain very well um there's some technical limits in terms of just how big of an antenna you can put on a satellite the but the biggest antennas flying right now are uh about uh 15 meters um it's just hard to put in and that art has to fold up like an origami and then unfold the galileo spacecraft we show there in the illustration at the top it went to jupiter back in the 90s and it had this high gain antenna that was supposed to unfurl like an umbrella but two of the ribs got stuck together they think it was cold welding so they could never unfurl that high gain antenna so they had to run the whole mission on the low gain antenna which they lost something like an order or two orders of magnitude less data rate uh to be able to run the mission which is problematic so you know just by affecting that one thing you've impacted the mission greatly in terms of its ability to move data and of course there's other technical limits to consider as well i can only generate so much power on board and a lot of the stuff you know on the ground are already built the frequencies are already established so there's just things limits to what i can do and then of course there's legal limits you can't just you know wake up tomorrow and decide you're going to start your own radio station the fcc is going to come shut you down and the same goes in space you can't simply launch a satellite and start broadcasting willy-nilly in whatever frequency you want you have to get approval to use that and the approval comes from through the international telecommunications union and that's fairly highly regulated which is a good thing otherwise it'd be chaos up there so even though you might want to do certain things if you don't have the frequency allocation then you're not you're going to be out of luck in terms of how what you can what you can actually do um the uh so the the trade space then here ends up being you know what what can i do to affect my eb over no how can i make sure that when i talk people can hear me and understand me well what can i do well i can talk louder rather than get more power out of my spacecraft but there's going to be a limit right there's there's only so much power i have available from my solar panels um i can get a bigger megaphone right but again there's i can only put so big of an antenna on my spacecraft i could try to get closer but hey if i'm voyager i'm leaving the solar system man that's not an option um i can try to get bigger ears on the ground but most of our ground stations are already fixed there they represent billions of dollars of investment i'm probably not going to simply go build new ones necessarily um i can try to talk slower uh that'll make it easier but then i'm going to take longer to get the same information to the ground uh that means it's going to take more passes to do that i can try to reduce the noise in the environment but there's a limit to what i can do there especially for existing systems and i try to move to higher frequencies but you know that means new technologies often we're getting a crowding right now because a lot of the frequencies that space has traditionally used are starting to get more terrestrial applications as well and when there's a contest between space application and terrestrial applications terrestrial tends to win which means space is getting crowded out of its traditional s-band c-band uh frequencies in fact there's a slew of satellite orders just came in this year to try because they're trying to you know provide better utilization for some of the c-band frequencies that are available which is a good news to people building satellites um but the uh so there's a there's a push to move uh space to higher frequencies which is good for a lot of reasons but bad because we don't necessarily have all the infrastructure in place it's going to represents a big investment to start moving your frequencies around so those are issues we have to think about uh when it comes to these these things so those are the key issues with uh communication so again i wanted you to understand fundamentally how communication works uh that you know we've got the two cans in the string we've got our carrier and here we have our carrier wave which is some you know frequency that's been allocated to us and then we're going to modulate our information on top of that when we talk we want people to hear us which means we need the energy per bit to be greater than the noise so that means i only have so many things i can play with there in terms of how loud i talk how big my antenna is distance frequency language speed environment and then we have some limitations we have to deal with physical technical legal and a number of trade-offs then that impact what we can and can't do with that any questions on rf so you just got about a a semester course on rf communication in 15 minutes or so but i want to make sure you understand where the because it's fairly technical but it's it's a technical because it's it really impacts what you can and can't do a lot of it's physics and and technology so we have to be aware of what those limitations are both from a security standpoint and a vulnerability standpoint any questions on any of that how's my eb over no coming through so far so good nancy can you hear me all good all good loud and clear yeah should we say 3db that would be good um so um all right well let's look then at the what's happening in the data handling system so the daily handling system now is our really our brains of our spacecraft so it's it's doing all the thinking for us and so it's got a lot to do right you think of its to-do list it's a long to-do list it's got to respond to commands from the ground it's got to come up with telemetry from the the health and status as well as the payload it's got a boot up on its own and self-test and it has to fix errors if it finds them and it has to control everything on the satellite it has to control the heat it has to control power it has to control the pointing it has to control the rockets all that stuff has to happen in board that one board that and it has to be ready to be updated so over-the-air updates kind of like a tesla it's going to be ready for over-the-air updates whenever they're ready uh and that could be patches it could be complete software updates uh over the life of the mission so that's that's a lot on top of that it's got to do it in the space environment when we just talked about how nasty that place is so i have to deal with all that on top of everything else so it makes this uh data handling problem uh pretty difficult so that that brains of the operation then is tightly coupled to the communication
system because it doesn't do any good to handle data if i can't communicate it so we off sometimes it'll be called the command and data handling system sometimes the communication data handling system depends on who you talk to and which organization they're in but it's it's all about moving the data right so i can't communicate the data if i can't handle it and just because i handle it i still need to communicate so all pretty much goes together um so what's in there so let's look under the hood here and see what's there and not too surprisingly we're basically talking about a computer right so what what's in there well we've got some sort of central processing unit probably multiple central processing units um we have memory ram and rom pretty much you know solid state memory these days you don't fly tape drives anymore um and then input output devices so uh space business tends to lean heavily on standards uh so there are a number of data bus standards that are fairly common one is called mil standard 1553 there's another one called space wire um and they'll you know the 1553 i want to say is what about one to three megabits or something like that data rate which is fine for most applications on a satellite and and people build equipment to that standard so it's easy to get to um and then we have a lot of other components too so we have a transducers that are measuring stuff all over our spacecraft so whether it's temperature or pressure or whatever we have transducers that act as analog to digital converters to you know turn those analog world into a digital world uh so that we can do stuff with it um we make a lot of use on space systems on on field programmable gate arrays fpgas uh they're they're fairly versatile uh processor units that you can program in in firmware to do any number of things we'll use them for digital signal processing and other kind of well-defined tasks onboard a spacecraft so you'll see a lot of fpas fpgas show up and then sometimes application specific integrated circuits uh that may be a custom circuit that are done for a specific application again maybe uh digital signal processing or maybe some uh payload interaction or something that we're doing um that's all the hardware of course the hardware is kind of the easy bit and then we get to the software and without software we got nothing right we just got a box of silicon so it's it's a software that's enabling so we more and more think of spacecraft as a box that flies software we think of software as the complexity sponge for how everything gets done as you go around the spacecraft and look at every single subsystem every pretty much every subsystem needs some amount of of software some more than others but it's pretty hard to do much of anything without software so in software it's and that's true across aerospace there was a a gentleman giving a talk a number of years ago from lockheed martin i think he was a chief technology officer chief scientist and he was talking about that i think he was talking about the f22 and he said that the half the cost of the f 22 was in testing and half of that was in software and he made the kind of the joke and he said he was only half joking that lockheed might be better off giving away airplanes and charging for software um and and that's kind of where we're going right the the price of hardware is asymptoting to zero and the price of software is asymptoting to infinity um so most of the cost these days is in software development testing maintenance um you know we're kind of shifting to a world of devops of where we're you know you're kind of continuously maintaining and developing your code because that's where the that's where the functionality is i mean and i'm a hardware guy saying this and having to admit how important software is um so this is where we're going and that and we're depending on it more and more so software use has been going up following augustine's law which is 10x every 10 years or so it's funny you go back to 1960s and nasa flew mariner 6 i think it went to venus with 30 lines of code three zero lines of code now it's probably a machine code and all of you who do software know that lines of code is a terrible metric but we use it anyway because if you can't can't measure what's important measure what you can and argue that it's important um but we you know so now fast forward today and when they launched uh the rover on its way to mars last week it probably had something like two million lines of code on it um two million lines of code is not impressive when you compare it to a car so a new car probably has a hundred million lines of code um but space is different right so we're you know even so space is going up exponentially in its name in its use of code and the way we use code is still different from from a car where we have to we have a lot more demands on space software than we have even on automotive software and uh and that creates again more of a threat space for us to to be concerned about and when we start depending on code of course code can let us down so this is that famous example of uh what happened with the mars climate orbiter and uh mars climate orbiter had uh was on its way to mars was going to enter orbit around mars back in 99 and uh the way this mission was you know the video there um so it was on its way to mars it was going to enter orbit around mars and uh it was going to fire its rocket to enter orbit remember it's on that hyperbolic trajectory and if it was going to just fly by mars if it didn't slow down so it gets ready to slow down to enter orbit around mars but wait for it they were only off by 169 kilometers which means they re-entered they entered the orbit of atmosphere of mars and burned up and there they went back um so all all because of a units problem this is the infamous units problem you might have heard about so what happened here is that they were the way this mission was operated is you had operators in denver who were keeping track of the of the bus basically and then you had the mission control which is a jet propulsion lab out in california who was managing the mission um the guys managing the bus out in denver were keeping track every time the satellite fired these little rockets and they'd use these rockets for attitude control but they also had slight impact on the uh on the trajectory as well and they were keeping track of all these rocket firings they put it into a file and then they'd ship it out to jpl where they would actually model the trajectory well the guys in denver were putting it in the file modeling it as the thrust being in pounds pounds force which is an english unit and then they shipped it out to jpl where they assumed it was in newtons well what's the difference between a pound and a newton it's a factor of four and the way i tell americans to remember this is when they go to mcdonald's in paris because every american who goes to paris goes to mcdonald's that they should order a newton burger instead of a quarter pounder because that's how you remember that um not a true thing they don't really sell new inverters but there you go um so they were off by a factor of four um which you know again very they weren't firing these rockets very much so it was a relatively small correction um and to me there's an interesting uh murphy's law thing going on here um you know you think about it they could have been off 160 kilometers in the other direction right i mean left right up down it is happened to be down you know let's talk about flipping the coin and having to go the wrong way um it's simply the way it ended up if they'd ended up 160 kilometers further away from mars they would have still entered orbit they would have said oh wow look and they would have been fine but because they flipped the coin the wrong way and they ended up closer to mars they burned up and all that because of you know the way they manage the software there so they didn't the software management development plan wasn't uh was not fully followed and they hadn't actually interestingly enough they never categorized this as critical software um pete's asking how much margin of error do they allow for you'd think they would allow for more than that 100 you know you know they made it you know 40 million kilometers we're only off by 160 so you'd think they'd have a little bit more margin for error than that
you know um because you know once you're you know if you're trying to get into a 400 kilometer orbit around mars and you instead entered a 600 kilometer orbit the the cost to change that is relatively small um so i don't know if they were just trying to you know show off and see how closely they could get but that that did not work out for them but you're you're you're spot on there on that question any questions about this uh particular debacle there's other other examples of software getting us in trouble in space industry there's the the maiden flight of ariana 5 where they reused software from arion 4 because you know heck it was just a different rocket why not and that reused software caused the trajectory deviation which caused the rocket to blow up so um so these kind of things can get us in trouble uh mars polar lander one line basically one requirement was not allocated to software and so you can't really blame software on that one it was really more of a system engineering uh failure but uh you know these sometimes you know seemingly simple things can cause total disaster on systems like this and and this is just this is all us doing it to ourselves right you know let alone some nefarious actor getting in there and helping us along you know so we do we do we do enough damage to ourselves uh without that uh the lander another lander was a european lander skier pirelli which i never pronounced correctly but he was the guy that discovered the canals on mars um that that crashed again that was um not again not probably not software error but not completely well-defined software in terms of how it handled the the excursions on that inertial measurement unit so you know there's always you always kind of point to a root cause problem uh but you know again the space is hard enough without people doing bad things to us all right any other questions on that so key design issues then uh to think about for data handling um you need to know what uh what level of autonomy your spacecraft has to deal with and the more autonomy the more complexity um you have to understand all the tasks what what are you expecting your software to do and where will it get done we have some choices we can do things on board we can do them on the ground we could do it in hardware we do it in software we do it in software we can do it in firmware um you have to understand the environment that you're going to be dealing with how bad will the that ionizing radiation environment be nasa has a mission at jupiter right now called juno and they had to take all the avionics they put it inside a titanium vault and they used the best possible avionics that they could get and still did all the shielding and so far it's been holding up they thought it would only last about an earth year but i think they're going on what three years uh i haven't seen much report on what their uh single vet upset issues are but they seem to be still doing okay but jupiter has an even worse radiation environment than the earth because it has a more intense magnetic field um nasa is talking about landing on one of the moons of jupiter europa where they have the ice fields and there's under under the ice there's an ocean where the intelligent whales live and uh but they think when they land on that surface on the ice there they may be only good for a month or two because of the radiation environment there so uh luckily the the intelligent whales are protected by all the ice so they're good but um i probably mutate a lot um what was the thing from uh mutated sea bass these are mutated uh whales um anyway so uh the other thing i need to think about are developer needs right so i got to develop this code how are we going to build it what language what development environment what tools how am i going to test it um and then we have all the operational abilities to consider flexibility maintainability and we should also throw sustainability in there one of the challenges we face in the space industry especially is that we use you know we tend to use stuff for decades uh when the when the last space shuttle mission landed the last hal programmer lost their job because the shuttle was programmed using a language called hal circa you know state of the art 1975 which by you know 2005 was no longer a thing so you know when we're trying to maintain software for decades that creates huge problems for us and uh and of course threat surfaces as well so these are the takeaways then for the data handling uh understanding what it needs to do how it has to correct for errors uh the the hardware software interactions that we have to deal with and all the software functions that have to be performed both on board and on the ground for our data handling system so takeaways from a cyberspace lens here that first of all rf security is a relative uh small sub niche of uh of cyber security uh because we tend to focus as you might expect more on you know fiber because that's what most data is moving around but rf is a unique you know we are uniquely dependent on rf in the space industry now and getting access to that equipment is relatively easy but as we mentioned everybody tends to encrypt their stuff so you have to know their encryption capability but there are a lot of hardware software vendors out there there are multiple development environments for legacy languages and all those create additional vulnerabilities and then of course space relies heavily on software and and the more people get involved there the more you know both grounded on board the more additional vulnerabilities we end up making um any questions on the uh on the vulnerability section on rf or data handling how are they looking at future ai um yeah ai is an interesting discussion i mean space i'd say is fairly far behind on that in a lot of ways because again we tend to be pretty conservative in how we approach that um there you know i've seen discussion of ai more for things like data mining on uh going through you know kepler's data for looking for planets you know using it you know for post-processing but not so much for uh you know real-time um i remember even back in the 80s there was talk about in you know expert systems supporting uh operators but it's amazing that even 30 years later that still has not really become a thing so um you know that's it's a kind of that trade-off between autonomy versus automation that we get a lot so i don't see a whole lot of talk uh maybe uh something maybe terry might have a better insight there but i haven't heard a lot of talk in the space business about more emphasis on ai for certainly for operations decision support yeah maybe for operators but again i haven't i remember that being a quite a bit of talk many years ago but i haven't heard much recently about that uh terry do you have an update on ai applications i don't not in the space arena i haven't really seen anything uh there either yeah it's again we tend to be pretty slow to the party for new technologies like that [Music] uh we're going to find the slides mano um they are posted and maybe if matt's on he can tell you where they are in the uh the discord channel are they in the discord channel matt the slides they are in the discord channel yeah man oh they're there and if you can't find them uh email me and i can always send them to you okay let's uh let's pull up i'm gonna do two things here um i'm gonna give you your cyber challenge so here's your cyber challenge for the day so i'm going to go through the challenge then i'm going to post the poll then you can take the poll while you're thinking about the challenge and then we'll get back together and talk about it so um so here's our scenario right so
um there's a company called widely imaging and they've been operating a high resolution commercial remote sensing satellite now for about two years and the us government is one of their biggest customers uh it's in a sun synchronous orbit at an altitude of 710 kilometers and it has a node crossing of 10 30 southbound every day every morning right or in the morning when it crosses the equator going south the local time is 10 30 in the morning okay that as we call it sun synchronous that means you get shadows and get mid-morning shadows every time you fly over the equator like that while he operates uh their own ground station here in colorado but they lease access to two other ground stations in norway and alaska um they're up at the high latitude and this is a sun synchronous which means it's a nearly a polar orbit which means the norway and the alaska orbits are the ground stations can see that satellite nearly every orbit which is convenient um the satellite was built by acme aerospace in iowa and there are two other satellites currently in development that plan to be launched next year so that's the background so the issue is in the lab and during the last two passes we had a passover norway and then we had a passover colorado the operators noticed bad headers on about 10 of the health and status telemetry data packets you didn't see any problem with the payload data packets and you know nor and it's actually not unusual that you have separate downlinks you have a downlink for health and health health and status and you have a separate downlink separate frequency for payload data so the fact that those are different is not too amazing that's actually kind of normal so they solve but they only saw the problem with the health and health and status packets and it's on the header on the packets but this is about a thousand times worse than they would have expected because we usually plan for like 10 to the minus five ten to the minus six let's say one in a million bits to be have a problem and here you're seeing about a thousand times worse than that or maybe even worse than a thousand times worse so it's a lot worse than they would have expected um so here are your challenge questions so first of all how would you determine if this issue were due to uh natural or man-made causes what would your potential reasons be if it were natural causes assuming assuming though that it's malicious cause what opportunities would a bad actor have had assuming it's malicious cause what vulnerabilities could a bad actor have exploited and then given their two other satellites in development what other design or operational changes could we think about for uh to prevent future issues so those are the questions i want you to ponder um while you're pondering that i'm going to put up the poll last poll of the day here so you can let you multitask here so you can do the poll and then think about the the cyber challenge you can do the cyber challenge and then come back and think about the poll but let's um let's take about 10 minutes to go through that and i'll give you 10 minutes to take the poll and think about the challenge and then we'll get back together and we'll see if some brave soul on online here wants to volunteer there uh their answer to the challenge so if you if you have a multi-deck slide presentation in the next 10 minutes i'll let you share that with with the team so let's uh but let's take about 10 minutes and think about the poll questions and the challenge scenario and then we'll bring it back together review the poll and then we'll step through the the how to think about this particular challenge uh challenge problem and then we'll wrap it up and we'll be able to call it the day here on time so uh so go do uh one or the other or both and uh we'll check back here in about 10 minutes if anybody has any questions about the uh challenge just let me know and try to clarify things for you we'll be looking for a brave volunteer who wants to tell us how to solve the challenge here
and i've also always posted an end of course survey we can't use polls and for surveys because the data is not persistent and zooms we have we're using a separate polling thing but if you could follow the link to do that poll we'd uh appreciate your feedback that'd be great to help us figure out how to improve the course for next time so i'll give you another five minutes or so to think about the the polls our poll questions here and then uh and then we'll pull together and talk about the challenge and then wrap it up all right well we're not not much attendance on the polls here but let's go ahead and close that out and then we'll talk about our challenge so which of the following is not the following change would not increase eb over no so data rate so making a higher data rate would be the wrong way to go if i'm trying to increase eb over at oh to jam the satellite you need to be have some noise at the receiver that would do the trick threat service is software has not been static it is not been static over the years since and growing uh to spoof the satellite you need to know all of the above things which is a lot of things you have to be aware of which means you probably need some sort of way to get into the details of people's design requirements um and uh space software is both a light and agile that actually no we're kind of the opposite of light and agile in the space business all right well let's talk about the challenge uh do i have any brave soul online who wants to tackle the questions anybody feel confident about talking through the how you think about these challenge questions only one person at a time that's the nice thing about uh virtual presentations the ability to remain anonymous is uh is much higher when you're in a classroom it's sort of kind of hard to hide you know i can stand like a hover over you and intimidate you to to tackle it so um it's less intimidating if we talk through it together there we go let's do that um so um let's um so let's kind of talk through the background first so um remember the the background information here so so i just want to highlight some things that come out of the background you know and as we approach these you know as you go forward and start thinking and working in in this environment um yeah we think about you know what what kind of information should i be keying in on so one of the on the first bullet there we want to key in on the fact that the us government is one of their largest customers so um certainly everybody in the world is sort of fair game but the us government is sort of a high profile target so if you're supporting this government you're kind of putting a target on your back uh so that that raises the threat potential up quite a quite a bit just the fact that they got you you know government's one of their big customers um the next bullet has to do with the orbital mechanics which we covered here within the class um so just the the type of orbit i'm in will will uh in this particular orbit will limit the number of times a day that somebody could have access to that satellite from a given site so uh so that really restricts when somebody could have had access to that satellite in a line of sight so that that that is a constraint that kind of narrows the window there in which somebody could have access um the other thing to clue in on there is that the wylie is operating uh they're leasing ground stations from in norway and alaska so these are lease stations so these are companies that are basically just selling time on their ground site so these people you know so you know in the meantime like i'm leasing something i don't have a lot of control over the software the procedures the personnel you know these people are just doing a job passing data from one person to another they're going to work you know get my data right now and 10 minutes from now they'll get data from somebody else they don't have any particular loyalties to my to me my company my data my program or anything right they're just doing a job and that means i don't have a lot of insight to because i'm basically buying by the minute i probably can't demand to see all their software their procedures or security reviews their you know polygraph interviews with people if they do that i don't have any right to ask that stuff right i'm just buying by the art and then finally we have two other satellites in development which is maybe a good thing we ought to think about okay well if there is a hard hard problem that we've come up with maybe there's a chance to uh resolve that um he's saying can you put that in the contract you can try um but you know if you know if i'm universal space uh universal space network i'm you know i probably have 100 customers and i got one small customer coming in demanding a bunch of stuff for security i might just tell them to take a hike like sorry i you know i i don't have the time to give you that or or i'm going to charge you a lot for that you know so it just depends on how big of a a lever you have and you know if you're one of end customers you probably don't have that big of a lever on that um so the other thing then to think about from an issue standpoint um uh so as i said that you know this this input this issue only impacted the health and status which is not necessarily unusual uh so that is this should not it's not overtly suspicious so that shouldn't necessarily raise any alarm bills but it's it's it's a useful thing to be aware of and uh so that appears the problem is just in how the protocols are implemented so this is tends to be a software thing where you know you're going to be taking all these ones and zeros and organizing them into packets and adding headers and footers and things like that um but it but it appears to be random but it only appears to be on the header so but again depending on how that packet protocol works that is not necessarily suspicious either you know so um but you know but these are all things to just file away in the back your mind before we tackle uh the questions so we always want to you know make sure we understand the lay of the land before we dive into the details of the question so first question is well how do we know that if it's natural or man-made so i put up here uh what's called a fish phone diagram or root cause analysis or ishikawa diagram uh some of you may have seen these before but they're a very useful tool to try to get at root cause um and we do it with without prejudice we just it's a brainstorming tool and uh you can think of it as a mind map if you're used to mind maps but so we say we kind of list and you've all seen detective movies right where the detectives have the big board and they have the suspects and they have you know yarn going between everybody in circles and all that i mean that's kind of what this is this is our our suspect board and so we say well who are the usual suspects right and equipment process people materials environment management those tend to be the usual suspects um and we would lay out within those okay from an equipment standpoint what could cause this problem what from a process standpoint what could cause this problem we're not trying to solve the problem we're trying to say who are the suspects in this problem and then we can start whittling away once we've defined the the the space that we call michael the trade space of options then we can start whittling away we can go interview the suspects see if they have an alibi if they have an alibi then okay then they're not a suspect anymore but we'd be thinking about equipment on board okay well what about that equipment hardware software are there any processes maybe somebody on the ground did something wrong in the configuration and um and there's it's being garbled on the ground maybe it's coming it's fine on the spacecraft is getting garbled somewhere on the ground uh maybe there's people maybe people that have poor training maybe there's people that are maliciously uh you know scrambling this on their own and don't know um environment of course would be the big thing to look at uh single event upsets and what we might do there is call up the space weather people and and find out if there was any sort of um large coronal mass ejection somewhere in that time period you know we're trying to correlate you know what the the time because we can sort of narrow down when it happened because it seemed to be fine one pass and then it wasn't fine the next pass so that that narrows down the window there and if there was any sort of specific thing going on maybe there was a solar event uh that that could have happened in that time frame or maybe it was going through this area the van allen belts we call the south atlantic anomaly you know any of those things could uh could you know be raise our suspicion level um um you're saying wouldn't that affect everything not just the headers well it's random right so all i need is one silver bullet to go into my software and i don't know what it's going to do you know and if it just happened to affect the one place where that gets encoded on the headers then you know i i can't immediately rule that out i mean yeah it's it's high you know low probability but i don't i wouldn't immediately rule that out right um so i want to take a look at and i want to do this systematically we're trying to do is have a you know an unbiased you know let's not jump to conclusion and you know start launching nuclear weapons at bad guys because they attacked our satellite um we want to you know let's let's find the smoking gun but let's do it methodically so this is how i would go about trying to uh to come to that root cause and we may decide no they're you know the probability of this being natural is just too low it has to and you know the uh the impact is too too systematic it's not random enough uh and therefore we might just you know start to suspect you know people which is you know malicious actors in that case um if it were environment which is question two again we've been as we've been talking is most likely a single event upset that could cause that but but not necessarily it could be a maybe thermal stress led to a problem with a processor or something like that so you know there are other potential environmental causes as well but single event upsets tends to be one that causes these sort of random events but assuming it is malicious going to question three uh where are the opportunities well i mean if it happened between passes that's a pretty narrow opportunity to say maybe an hour they could have had opportunity to do some something directly in there again that's not out of the question but that wouldn't mean they would have had to actually command our satellite directly which means they would have to know all those things we talked about they'd have to have the frequency they'd have to have the encryption they'd have to have the command codes they they'd really have to know our system very well um not out of the question but again fairly low likelihood um so it would seem it's probably more likely that that came in somewhere sooner and maybe it came in as a trojan horse to be you know with a with a time tag that says after you know you know 30 hours from now or 30 weeks from now uh implement this um and so and so who knows when it was injected it could have been all the way back to the factory right so we don't know at this point um but those are so that's that's the malicious thing that's the scary thing about code is that you know you can put code in that can be see sitting there you know kind of the sleeper agent to get uh get activated who knows when um so what are the vulnerabilities then just you know again if i'm talking about hundreds you know a satellite like this probably has hundreds of thousands of lines of code um yeah you could be hiding in there somewhere uh and maybe get overlooked you can get overlooked during testing um in the fact that we've got these we're using the ground stations that to me that's a that's a red flag and that it's just you've got things outside your span of control uh your direct span of control that can be entry points for bad actors there and then finally because we have these guys still in the barn being being developed if it turns out the problem is a natural environment problem that our our hardware maybe is not robust enough against single vent upsets i mean we could consider swapping out processors i mean that's a pretty major design change especially fairly late in the game but if it turns out we're particularly vulnerable or maybe there's some thermal issue that caused it we may have to take a serious look at our design to see if we can mitigate that in in but through a design change if it's code we may have to do a full scrub we might have to go back through and look at all the software grounding on board to see if there's anything hiding in there and maybe we need to go take a look at our personnel maybe go to do a you know security check on our people and see if there's any anything suspicious going on there and somebody you know driving to work in a ferrari and last week they had a you know junker car um and you know where'd they get all the money all sudden kind of thing um you know that might look suspicious so so those are things we could look at um pete's asking if it was a code update how would they consider do that for once um well we can we actually can change code on orbit pretty well i mean again depending on the extent uh you probably you couldn't change your entire architecture maybe so much but but if it turns out that was you know this was lurking in one unit or module of code we could uh that would be a you know not i would say easy thing to do but it's a doable thing to re overwrite that code or patch around it or something like that yeah we we make code changes fairly often i mean i would say routinely are making code changes uh on spacecraft so that that would not be a difficult thing to do depending on the extent now again if it's you know if it's corrupted badly that might take a lot of surgery to fix but and we may not have a choice there if this is the problem um anybody see did i miss anything there any uh any other issues or ideas that maybe we might want to think about as we tackle this this challenge all right well i think we did pretty well then today so let's uh recap what we did today so we uh we went through uh we started with context so we looked at that emission architecture and the reasons we went to space we talked about opportunities so we looked at orbits and operations uh got you all up to speed on how to do a uh you know to become orbital mechanics so you're getting ready to get out your wrench and fix an orbit next time um we looked at threats natural and human threats especially those natural threats and how insidious they can be and you know just the the denials of service we get on a day-to-day basis just because space is a hard place to be um and then we finished up looking at those vulnerabilities so the rf rf links spend some time looking at how we make sure that we get viable connections through the rf links and then talked about the the data architecture and overall data systems ground and on board that also become potential threat surfaces for us so that was what we tried to cover these were our objectives so again we're trying to climb that learning trajectory there from from the pad all the way into orbit wanted you to have some course based knowledge so you feel a little more confident talking to people about space issues and some of the limitations and capabilities and threats and vulnerabilities that are out there i wanted to understand some of the trade-offs especially as they apply to cyber security domain things like the access you get from order mechanics and the the all the different things that happen in operations there's nine different things that we laid out of activities and operations and any one of those can be a potential entree for a threat the natural environment i hope you had a an appreciation for how hard that environment is just on a good day um and now when we throw bad actors in there what uh what you know relatively small changes can have a big impact on overall mission operations and then finally i wanted you to be able to step back from some real world scenarios and apply the knowledge that we gained here in the class and be able to look at those critically to understand what kind of issues might come up and how would we think through these issues and we're going to see these issues i think come up more and more uh over time and we have to be able to you know differentiate the natural naturally occurring problems from that unnaturally occurring ones and then figure out what to do about it i mean we've got a there's a lot of potential holes to plug here in terms of vulnerabilities and we may be you know running around playing holes or all our life but we have to be able to ready to identify those holes and think about what kinds of things we can do to address them uh going forward so we thank you for your time and attention uh thanks carrie thanks to jason uh for this and uh we'll uh i'll probably uh stop recording at this point and uh i'll just kind of throw it open to any other questions i'll hang around as long as anybody needs it they have questions and we will go
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