LCA of beverage packaging
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LCA of beverage packaging

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CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor. 
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2013

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English

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Abstract 
Distance to target methods are one of the main families of life cycle impact assessment methods. They are based on politically and legally defined environmental goals. The ecological scarcity approach, first introduced in 1990, has evolved to an important pillar of environmental policy in administration and industry. Today, the 4th generation ecological scarcity method, applied on Switzerland is being launched. In a first session, the application of ecological scarcity approach and its benefits for administration and industry are highlighted. In a second session the main elements of the 4th generation ecological scarcity method 2013 are presented. New elements of the method comprise among others abiotic resources, land use worldwide, noise, and a new approach to assess nuclear waste. Abiotic resources are assessed using consistently updated scarcity figures. Land use impact factors are now available for land occupation in 14 biomes worldwide addressing biodiversity impacts on flora and fauna. Noise impacts of road, rail and air traffic are assessed using a harmonised European approach. Nuclear wastes are characterised according to their radio toxicity. The results of practical applications (e.g., LCA of paper, packaging, cars and company LCAs) using the new ecofactors will be presented in a third session. Finally we look across the border and get insights into European and Asian approaches based on ecological scacity or target oriented impact assessment methods. This discussion forum will address the following questions:  What are the key motivations for administration and industry to use single score impact assessment approaches such as the ecological scarcity method?  What are the key elements of the 4th generation ecological scarcity method 2013?  How does the update affect the impact scores (in ecopoints) of commonly used goods and services?  What are the first lessons learned with the updated 4th generation ecological scarcity method 2013?  How division of powers helps for developing life cycle impact assessment methods?

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thank you for instruction welcome everybody I also will this thing about their packaging on beverage packaging it is that we have done for from Baku the affinia station in these days and I will mainly focus on the differences in the methodology what has been changed from the methodology of 2006 to 2013 but I will also give some photo with some
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highlights on results so the goal of
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this study was to analysis and compare different beverage packaging and we looked at seven different beverage groups and we also compared to a look at
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the disposal which means on the recycling and so on so what you have
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looked at was all these different
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different materials and with the different beverage you can pack in and the system boundary we looked at it was the production of of course of the packaging material that of the packaging then the transfer but in the transport we just looked the packaging induced strange but not the transport from the from the content then we don't have a look on the filling on we don't loopt also needed at the production of the beverage we have done some sensitivity analysis where we are located in general the trainer resolves the first results you will see their beverages x only packaging and of course then the disposal and rosette face so what is beyond it is the production of the beverage as I told you in some scenario analysis will see it then the transportation of the beverage itself totally that it used by the penguin then the missions are part of sales and also at the consumer at home to cruelly at home it is not in and had the loss rates you only have done it in the scenario analysis for a vacation I don't want to go into details and why we have chosen this but we have choosen the substitutional approach which means that of course for the closed loop recycling here we directly replace new material and then for the open loop recycling we have done an economic allocation on a substitutional approach because it's a short short it's a material which is in a short time scale I think it is for a long living product we have to change this allocation but for packaging it's fine so we have used different methodology for any point on the endpoint level we used this for methodologies but the following results i will share you is click on to calvin on the collages car city because we want to discuss how the results will change if we use the new methodology hear that now the overview of firm and all the acting we are at all the 52 packaging and with the technological sparsity 2006 now it is not because I want to make some advertising for better lenses or things like that you don't have to read here but just if you change now two o'clock is Casa 213 then you see there is a little bit a change you see it there is a little bit of change but it's not really that the results are there we are totally different there is a little bit Nick trees you also see in special packaging for example if you focus on these ones you see then there is a little bit different but the overall picture it remains the same and also if you have a look on the different type of the materials which means the glass the metals the cardboard and a plastic we also see here that of course it will not really have a big change what we also see in this slide here we see for example here that oops sorry then if we look for example at the glass we have like two to type of glass packaging instead reuse and the singleuse glass if you have a single you / of course as we know that we have very high impact here we have the the metal packaging also here we have one which is very low which is this huh is there he is the barrel of 50 leeches and the other are the hands and then you have the cardboard which are in general Liu and we have the plastic which are therefore to hear one which is this milk at that one now let's have a look on really the feeling a little bit in too deep on different packaging more harder reaching of these differences if you have here for example pet bottle for soft drinks then we see here ecological carsick in 2006 and here 2013 and here we see the big differences here this is from combat oxide then we have here in the radioactive waste we have one the low active waste which is nearly zero and we have an increase in the relative waste the total will be more or less the same and we have a reduction in organic harrisonville landfill which is by a high factor has been reduced so the overall result for that bulge is more about to say even if for some substances behalf differenced by factors but the overall is more or less the same and if you go a little bit more detail and we analyze it with this slide I hope a meal has just explained it to you so it is is for me and you understand it naked this life so we have the green bars showing the absolute eco points and which means that Here Come dioxide has the highest increase then we have here the radioactive waste which has also a high increase and we have a decrease here and the lower active radioactive waste so the Sun is more more or less 0 we have not from the code relative is the smallest same then we have this organic chem to landfill which has a reduction which then and you see the blue rectangles you shows you the amount of the factor which has been increased or reduced so you see for example here we have a very high reduction of the factor but because of their map because the mount is not so large the absolute value is not so big so and then you have here a lot of also important influences which has no changes net let's now look at the glass form also here we see that the comp I oxide has high influence then we see also the nitrogen oxide is a little bit lower and but the total difference here we have a difference coming mainly from the con dioxide and then let's go to the aluminium can hear we also see more or less a very similar result we see that also calm dioxide which increased the nitrogen oxide decrease we see hero to sing Catherine which is new in the new methodology and then the reduction in organic cause so also hear this slide where you see here that also mean this like the calm down
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side is the very high one and then there is the sink which has certain influence and relative ways here and there getting help the limestone which has a reduction so and again the liquid packaging board which also here we also have this on the one hand side reduction at the altar pant I'll hire eco factors at at the end more or less the same result for bears now let's come to some scenario analysis Vietnam this is here from year which means you have the blue bars showing you the Vermont lame pack of the video production and we have degree in one which shows you the packaging and of course if you actually the barrel which is very the lowest one and hear what you see are the percentages how much loss you can have people have the same environmental impact from the packaging as for the barrel being the best one which means for example if you have with a barrel seven or eight percent of losses our seven percent of losses here then you will have the same environmental impact as if you packed it with reusable glass bottle or is a PT boat and seven percent of the 50 litres of beer it is really a half Legion and that's more or less about the losses you have with this 50 liters of barrels so more or less it is because the first link to you were half of the tap you can't use it and at the end they told us in the from restaurants and from then that at the end about three liters will remain in there in the barrel so we are more or less about better then this was a one graph concerning the relevance of the shopping transport let's say normally if you just go to buy yogurt then of course you can go byebye but typically if you buy beverages with which means you buy two six pack of pack bottles of water or things in something like that no you take not the bike but you take your car and here what we see here we have here on the xaxis you have to dig the distance of the shopping transport and here the kilogram of shocked mineral watching two and the line gives you there the Transport has the same an unmanned plane back as the packaging which means that for example let's say you buy a sixpack 26 fact of effect mineral water which is about 20 kilograms which means that your distance must be used about five kilometres which means one way to the arcade or miniature and then if you track you travel longer then they the travel the aromatic ekstr?m then traveling is higher than from your winner watching or other worlds just five hundred fifty kilograms of water at one time then you also can travel a little bit homework then this is the relevance of this trista to shun this reusable and singleuse packaging is always a discussion and so what we have here the blue whereas they are the the glass on the reusable packaging here you have to transfer distance and here the red ones or orange ones are the pet aware which singleuse packaging and when we see that the reuse will they start a little bit lower but they then of course they decrease and taking into account also on the changes of the result showing you by the thickness of the lines then you see that perhaps if the reusable bottle will really be very very very local which means i pmed of distance then it is the better solution if not you also can do indepth uncertainty of the results you can't really have a big and you can't really have a significant differences and of course if you have a distance of about 250 kilometres then which means if you buy here you're doing here a larger Buster in respective significantly to connect one way bottle then in a reusable part so let's come to the conclusion concerning the methodology and what you see in general there is only trees of about twenty percent so nearly nothing some a little bit higher but it is a little bit higher the results for this every beverage strategy mainly you to calm down side emissions which has increased by fifty percent of the infection then also sometimes because of occupation forests which especially for the lubricant panting board they have increased then the new race you think give to some packaging Dimitri's then the began capital landfill is the reduction the nitrogen oxides of the outside they also give a reduction and the change in radioactive waste is more or less than the overall result there is no difference in the results even if the two factors are very different then the overall picture it remains the same which means that you don't we don't come through new conclusion with different conclusion using the new methodology but it is just a little bit and you adapt church so on conclusions of beverage I think what one is important we have also heard it before in them and then that a packaging it has always gives a certain service on logistic on the protection and so on so it depends where you use your packaging if it's outdoor if it's indoor and one tone and so we come to different conclusions if you read the report then you will see it then of course there the beverage itself is if you don't look at the mineral water but for all the others of course the beverage is much more important than the packaging the transportation of the packaging is normally flow of local relevance with some special cases and the private shopping there it really depends there you go to shop and how you do it then I haven't shown you the results but it is also one tascam that the recycling of KP e and water liquid packaging board they reduce through the detrimental impact so thank you that folded from my side thank
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you much Freddie you have time for one
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or two questions is general and content to your conclusions regarding the comparison of the methods you say the same conclusion that role because our wedding is similar but regarding ecodesign I mean becoming recommendation that you make those of people in order to have a better energy again she posed as a changes of the reasons of those additions can lead to quite different with tweezers for the producer once i have 2x inventor compare the user applies 2006 2013 now according to to our results on the packaging chart on the packaging I don't say in general because but here on the packaging you don't come to a different let's say if we speak about do you if it's better to use an aluminium can already it's better to use a PET bottle then we don't came to different conclusions because the differences are r 0 or the same if you use this methodology or the other one it could create those increased a little bit or birthday cake empathy arrow a little bit higher the difference but it was no case there in with 2006 the differences were like that and with 2013 the difference was like that we haven't in all these 52 an example to be calculated that's was not even one where it changed the total result it has before yeah before work question do things that are so change them that can be yes and that envy that really wish for a design effect that it can be a difference but let's say from this study what we have looked at there were no of this I encourage you to continue the discussion in the break I'm afraid we have to continue to keep the time in thank you very much and Freddie for your presentation