The HLF Portraits: Dina Katabi

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The HLF Portraits: Dina Katabi
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2019
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English

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Axiom of choice Direction (geometry) Model theory Student's t-test Graph coloring Goodness of fit Mathematics Natural number Right angle Musical ensemble Extension (kinesiology) Family Physical system
Axiom of choice Complex (psychology) Group action Transportation theory (mathematics) Decision theory Multiplication sign Direction (geometry) Chemical polarity Mathematics Different (Kate Ryan album) Analogy Logic Physical system Social class Moment (mathematics) Computability Curve Physicalism Mass Open set Connected space Stochastic kernel estimation Right angle Point (geometry) Computer programming Process (computing) Mathematical analysis Student's t-test Mass Power (physics) Element (mathematics) Hypothesis 2 (number) Goodness of fit Causality Term (mathematics) Googol Energy level Modulform Directed set Genetic programming Nichtlineares Gleichungssystem Linear map Multiplication Gender Division (mathematics) Numerical analysis Faculty (division) Sign (mathematics) Maxwell's demon Universe (mathematics) Social class Negative number Family Marginal distribution
Point (geometry) Axiom of choice Computer programming Group action Spline (mathematics) State of matter Multiplication sign Direction (geometry) Gauge theory Student's t-test Surgery Mathematical model Element (mathematics) Hypothesis Mathematics Root Strategy game Thermodynamisches System Natural number Different (Kate Ryan album) Energy level Cuboid Körper <Algebra> Extension (kinesiology) Position operator Data transmission Physical system Area Multiplication Process (computing) Forcing (mathematics) Reflection (mathematics) Cartesian coordinate system Oscillation Faculty (division) Combinatory logic Universe (mathematics) Transmissionskoeffizient
Group action Statistics Vapor barrier Variety (linguistics) Euler angles Multiplication sign Equaliser (mathematics) Function (mathematics) Student's t-test Mass Power (physics) Mathematics Goodness of fit Thermodynamisches System Term (mathematics) Different (Kate Ryan album) Boundary value problem Energy level Physical system Condition number Predictability Multiplication Chemical equation Model theory Measurement Time domain Numerical analysis Faculty (division) Right angle Family Marginal distribution Spectrum (functional analysis) Directed graph
Mortality rate
[Music]
you professor I begin at the beginning I read in one of the accounts of of your life that you talked about that you were you said I think in early years we were most academically influenced by your parents so if that's still true in your mind but let's just start with your childhood that's maybe at eight or ten what are your curiosities were you
living what what is life like yeah I'm not sure it's within my parents as much as like my family so oh okay well it's your family or oh maybe I was influenced by my parents and not the most natural life let's find out how so you're eight years old where are you living I come from Damascus Damascus Syria it's in the Middle East it's a capital of Syria when I came to MIT as students people I will tell them up from Sirius and you have next to some like no this is in the Middle East and now unfortunately people no sirree efforts of all going yeah because yes and the refugees in the world oh yeah a good life um I I come from the family this is very interested in in science learned knowledge in general so even at the very young age I mean I knew about MIT and it's like oh maybe I would want to be at MIT yeah yeah yeah I can't tell with an or like but at the very young age I knew about okay so MIT is the best engineer in college I would like to be there but at a young age what did you know about yourself is your interest you went to school of course yeah were there directions that were interesting you will be more interested in certain subjects than others I want math I thought also science it was I wasn't like only good at 20 I was that like I was good at math I was good at science I was even good at history tells me that you are in history so I really I think I was driven by curiosity like I liked learning in general and figuring of things that may be a constant among the people of interview this this statement is driven by curiosity your household is what many children are you an only child yeah I'm the eldest child eldest child ever I have two sisters and my family actually it's on I come from a family of medical doctors so my not my mom but also my mom's family my mom is a lawyer but yeah so everyone in the family was expecting me to be a medical doctor and in fact in in my country in Syria it's very different from the system in the US so after high school we all take a national exam and we could we get trapped across the whole country and they the top people can choose and the very natural choice but everyone has to go to med school oh yeah yeah yeah yeah so actually actually Syrian doctors are pretty good yeah so I I took the exam and I scored among the very top in the whole country and yeah everyone expected me to go to med school and indeed because there everyone good yeah so I wanted to go to engineering but engineer was not as good in Syria as I'm at school so I went for one year to med school I'm not gonna let you get to be so old yet I think I want to know in for example high school of your education whether there were teachers that were particularly encouraging yeah in high school oh say I mean they were a good teacher but I mean I'm not the type of person that I can tell you that I had a role model on it was like my I didn't have that I'm just like what I think just some extent I never like when other people say oh I have this role model even outside the teacher community it's just I really wanted to be myself and then want to be like anyone else okay that's very interesting I can call you self-directed pretty much I mean you you come from a family of educated people so you have books you have the ambition but you are pretty much conducting your own direction yeah and even maybe in excessively I just didn't want to be like other people yeah and that probably one reason you stopped me but one reason why I probably even switched from med school and I wanted to do engineering so I'm not like the rest of the people I'm not following the the expected path right how prepared for you because we're gonna put you in medical school before we get you out of it so you were well-prepared the school is a good one so in Celia actually is a very like people as you guys don't know much about Syria probably now they know that it has a war and but it's it's an interesting system because if if you look at high schools I mean the good high schools in Syria I should know if I get the the the the education up to the high school I would say it's one of the bus and it's some it prepares you much better to two colors and I see here in the US huh um
and it's a very intense I mean many people find it very difficult also and then after that unfortunately the college colleges and schools are not the same level as we can find in the US and developed country to the the most intensive excellent education is happening through the secondary level yes yeah up to high school of to and including nice including high school in high school I'm going to ask maybe too obvious the question which you said is there any distinction you're set on a career in science after all your family also has traditions of science is it considered unusual that a young woman wants a scientific career or is the system gender neutral and it's much more gender neutral than here at ndu aspirin yeah so again up to an including a high school run like a really good choice when I hear here and here people here like young girls saying oh masses for boys or you go to these math counts we see that very few girls and mostly boys yeah I see how things are there yeah I mean yeah in fact is a very different division because it's it's an underdeveloped country and money and resources are very important so mass is consider to be like if you are interested in mass who's gonna like make money for the family who's gonna provide for the family right so you you have the right family to be established in an intellectual career you have a good education now I let you go to medical school because that's where people are expecting you to why don't you stay in medical school so I liked Medical School and actually a it was a topper of my back hmm and then I decided I just can't this is not me and I want to do I want to continue learning more about math and engineering and physics and stuff like that and I just not gonna be a doctor and I'm sensing that your parents want what you want so they're not saying to you oh my god this is a disaster you have to stay oh my god do you want it yes what they did they yeah yeah yeah and I think that encouraged this decision no no they were particularly my dad because he hit his a doctor everything he wanted his eldest daughter to be a doctor a medical doctor so he didn't talk to me for two years afterwards okay that's not encouragement that's discouragement but you were not discouraged no no I forbad again I I like to do think that are different so and it was a shock actually it was I mean it's a very small thing but it was a shock actually to the whole country because nobody in Syria get to med school top oh yeah and abandon it yeah that struck power that's that's news in Syria but your decision is against an academic life it's against a medical life you you you know you want to do something else it's not against much school it was wearing that I just couldn't imagine that my knowledge of math and engineering would stop at that stage so how do you solve this what do you then do so that's fun I mean of course I wanted to go to to get at that time because my second language is French so I wanted to go to France and do engineering in France but since my parents are against it it was very very hard to do that so I switched to the engineering school in Syria it's some the alcohol engineering school and this is also a distinguished opportunity I mean the must be a good man a good engineering school or maybe not then let me understand what kind of school it was okay it's it's not a good school so and I got and again I mean it's just like not it so that people would not take it against new students who are coming from Syria now because there are new a new University that opened up in Syria since I laughed and this was but at my time it was only actually there was only three universities in the whole country and the biggest one is Damascus University and it had a wonderful med school because this is where all of the stoppers go right and really not us get engineering departments also switching this is why I like it towards a shock to everyone somebody who is in med school and doing very well we just switch service your father - yeah I understand you were you were you were determined you were the engineering program was how many years itself it's insidious five years five years yeah did you go through the entire five years yeah yeah so I did the five years and then I applied to schools and the US but in the five years how did you determine a specialty and they so so when you join actually join a specific department like as opposed to here at MIT when a student come the first year they just do basic classes knowin Siri you very only on choose in fact you choose med school you don't do pretty much you just chew on at school so when when I joined the particular engineering school I I was an electrical engineering and you had earlier read and thought in those terms in electrical engineering so again also at the time there was no computer science department so electrical engineer was kind of like you can think of it as computer engineering yeah and that you knew you were I and you know that this is a cause as to what I was interested in what was your experience with computers I mean the availability and other schools or your home how how able were going to use it to your own satisfaction I mean I was like any kids at that time like I had my own computer like my own programs there's just like experiments with things so I've gained ten stuff like this I think I found like computers and programming languages very natural yes yeah so I was opposed to many people just like I guess my brain is like Mary works in very declarative okay I found these like languages and being very specific and doing writing in that particular way very natural just pause for a moment with the opportunity we have now this is 20 years after that at least 20 years yeah 20 23 years as you look back at that stage of knowledge about computers in the context does it seem to you very primitive what was known and thought about again you have to be things in context I think it's in context of the the place more the time I think so although actually also the time is relevant but basically at that time in that place computing was really about programming that's how people in Sierre perceived it at least at that time so I go Sam's complexity all of those things or just like something that you complexity of course nobody talked about complexity where you design an algorithm you do you even talk about the algorithm you just talk about your pulled up so in that sense a simpler stage yeah I am yeah exactly it's it's it's not as much into the deeper more complex connections of entities and marginals I don't I go in there we talk about now when we talk
about computer science well you you graduate my guess is with distinction yeah again I top that school yeah that was easy accent yeah and so now use your said upon a career in some form of engineering or computer so you look around the world again before you looked at friends what what sets you on they go look coming to MIT so I got time I applied a chair like a number of must consider top schools and of course MIT as I told you I mean the name of MIT like multiple people in my family my great aunt will always tell me oh you are aware you do maths we should go to MIT and Harvard and MIT the three names that goes like people who are interested in business will tell me of a Harvard people who are interested in engineering all tell me about MIT but yeah I knew about my tea I wanted to man I wanted to come to MIT but that's how I'm just applied and I was actually shocked that they accepted yeah if I if I knew if I if I were a professor and you and well I knew as a student about my own University I would be very reluctant huh and of course not of course but it's a real question there was nobody on the faculty of your engineering school who could send a letter to a colleague at MIT and say this is a good student you should spend looking at them I said you are as a student you should have reference letters so I asked some of my professors award letters but now seeing seeing things from the other side I mean I know that one we receive letters we ask like who are those people writing those letters how much do they know about our system stuff like that yeah I really appreciate that and whities took a risk on me since I've never applied to MIT I don't know did they ask you to present yourself with a particular problem that you want to solve or you know in the humanities we do essays and that's the way they guess at the ability did you have to present a concept or a direction so you guys ain't no statement of purpose you just surprised what you have done your interest stuff like that so I guess I've got time I always about like the one year I did in med school and my engineering career and my interest in combining knowledge in medicine was not engaging your core point so you haven't entirely abandoned medicine as one of the elements that you might affect so they retrieved and they let you in okay you come are you terrified are you confident how do you experience that initial master's level of so I really love this here when I came I and he loved MIT as a graduate student I loved it but it just it felt finally in the land of yes very natural like when yeah like before I was with more normal people just fill different right and also MIT when I was student was way more no idea than now now it's more normal but yeah I I really liked it here when I came because so my native language is Arabic and my second language it's orange also when I came here I really knew very little English way so I just covered that just nothing in a smiley you take him very long way so yeah so the first year was also one of the things that it's very difficult for somebody coming from Syria as opposed to too many of underdeveloped countries is that even math in Syria is taught in Arabic so the symbols it's just yeah which is very different I mean I I can't you can think of any other country where even math is starting in their native language even the symbols my honor so even when I see an equation like I don't know Oh Antigua or for example its different symbol yeah so it it was pretty steep learning curve sounds terrifying actually although you're a nerd heaven but still to have to relearn a symbolic language as well as in everyday spoken language you had some English courts yeah of course I mean thanks to the movie SS yeah yeah but nevertheless so you have to catch up in a way maybe that's a good phrase so you have to catch up the Masters requires hum how long before it it's awarded this is a year I know a must raise after MIT is two years two years okay so you have two years I don't say to prove yourself but to become comfortable this new language I'm always interested in the points where one is making intellectual decisions so here you are at MIT you have the banquet what do you choose as a direction yeah so I actually remember that when I first came for my visit thing at MIT I met was Professor Eric Grimson so Eric was my academic advisor as a student I was mattress them as academic advisor and I was sitting in his office and he told me that MIT is like a candy store so and the real problem is not really to find the candy that you can like the real problem is ready to not try to eat all the candies well say yeah so which family did you choose so when so I chose all computer networks I it was a time when the internet was really growing and things were happening and I mean that's before the the bubble burst so it was great time for the internet but what is the year so when I came to MIT which was I don't know I think it's not end of 96 ok just late nineties yeah Lake Nikes yeah and so the Internet is in the air and what you have to have you have to choose courses you have to find professors to advise you you have to decide on a thesis how do you do it oh I just followed my godson basically I mean I like the topic I I started working with in a group of Internet researchers here at MIT that has David Clarke and jonquil offski so John was my Master's advisor the David Clarke is my PhD advisor and I worked to his both very very smart people actually it's um I think it's really affected my career working with them not just a knowledge but also like seeing how they think yes their approach yeah yeah the questions they asked the question they asked in their approach to science what what does it mean to to work on the problem how do you pick your problem that's that's actually even more important than your solution that seems quite important to register what is your thesis is going to be about or what does it become so my PhD thesis was about congestion control in the Internet so if you think about the Internet it's the Internet as a network so I mean the closest analogy is to think about transportation networks so if you sent too many cars to one location let me get congestion and in the internet when you get congestion packets are dropped connections store
applications don't user get upset so the question is how do you control congestion or first you want to try to avoid congestion and if it happens how do you control it and you will cover from it and what was the contribution of your PhD to this solution or of this strategy so so that goes back to I always liked into a disciplinary research and I think one of the thing that was special about my PhD thesis is that it they tried to take concept from control theory which were not at the time we use in the context of the internet and try to integrate them whereas protocol design for internet so this is your insight the bringing together of this these elements yeah because the Internet is a very very complex system so most of the control theory or the designs in control theory are designed for things that you can characterize and has way less uncertainty than you have in the Internet so typically if the design of the internet or protocol design has avoided these were very sophisticated mathematical models but also the the they have certain requirements that seem to be very hard to fit within the amount of uncertainty and distributed nature of the internet there is no single control point I mean we all contribute traffic to that internet we all all our machines or different control points this are you as I use the word bless you colleagues your own age as in the professor's that you have are you finding people to work with at your own at your own PhD level yeah I think it was blessed and it was my colleagues in various ways so when I came to MIT I I became very close friend with my office mates as I was also my office mate was a Chinese woman and I came I didn't know English much so much of my English is learned if I'm a Chinese or so I have now this weird accent that just like a combination if weird things so I I was really blessed to be with with those office mates at that I that became my best friend and we we are in the same field we work together we we travel together and this continues as a a cohort of people you you continue intellectually and personally yeah yeah so so at least throughout our graduate career we work together afterwards I mean every person one salt different state and some and for for this Chinese woman she went back to China but yeah like us who out my graduate career it was very lucky to have them around you've completed your PhD it's I'm going to understand it as a an interesting combining of certain elements that had not been thought of together what happens next in your career because I don't think you ever do while you're leaving MIT yeah so so at the end in my last year when I was about finishing my PhD I um I actually never before wanted to be a professor yes yeah cuz also it has to do is my roots coming from Syria I'm a professor in Syria um so like professors don't make any money because I'm your education is not really that important in Syria so um so professors are not considered to be the smartest or even the most knowledgeable or the most academic or they typically don't do research so I when I came I I didn't want to be a professor but then swapped my graduate career here at MIT and like seeing science and interacting with it with a professor here I I decided that I'm interested but I actually I wanted to stay at MIT so I talked to a lot of person that you interviewed Barbara Liskov oh yes yeah yeah and I told Barbara would apply only to MIT and although I'm not interested in any other school I'm not applying to any other school why would I apply and then by way I said if you don't apply for to other schools we are not going to take you at MIT even if you are interested well yeah so and then bother amazed me actually apply to other schools so so I applied but everywhere there was interested only in MIT and I wasn't even like I didn't know I'm gonna do an accent it's just like okay so I'm about to finish and they told me that I should apply for a job so a plot let's stay at this point I'm gonna ask a very general question about what are your ambitions at this point I mean I understand the question of of the position of a professor in Syria as opposed to here and but are you interested in arguing entrepreneurial are you interested in possibly attaching yourself to a corporation how are you thinking about your my ambitions were and still have nothing to do with the name FYI did okay so I want to do something important I want to introduce new ideas and new concepts and I want to see those concepts making impact I don't care that I'm professor or an entrepreneur or that never was the cases why I don't really care and so the question is where can I make the biggest impact yeah and not I want to go to the corporation the university where can I think about new things and have the opportunity to push them to to make the maximum impact so you apply force to do so too many places has it happens MIT which is probably her intention anyway except at you and what kind of program are you accepted into as a the professor would see the level yes whoo when you join you join at the level of assistant professor so you're an assistant professor of what and where so in late she has one department for electrical engineering and computer science so I was given an offer to that department which is the same one so much I'm glad you're still there yeah so it was the right choice on both sides apparently that's not actually doing oh so we have faculty lunch the first time I came to the faculty lunch hours and yes I am professor yes actually nobody knew me it's like oh where are you coming from like no I was here student at MIT is there a lab associated with now the work you're planning to do or is it yes yes so again that goes to how MIT is structured so there is Electrical Engineering and computer science departments so that is a department and then there was a computer science lab actually at the time it was so now it's called ceases computer science and artificial intelligence lab but when I was first when I first joined as an assistant professor there were two labs there was the AI lab which actually happens to be the lab that I first joined as a student when I first came and here and then I switched to what it used to be in a computer science lab and that was the lab I joined as I I came as a faculty what is the problem you are determined to address at this point in your career that made it to simpler way to put it but you want to make an impact you have a PhD which is brought together some interesting here's what can you say that you don't
so when you come as an assistant professor I mean it's a very high-pressure and stressful job because you know you are you're there for some amount of time and if you don't get tenure em you and I have a promotion you don't get them you get fired rightly so it's very stressful so for most people the question is how do I get tenure and also at the same time doing what I'm interested in doing so so I was so these these other two things you know on one hand I have to always think okay I need to get tenure which means that I need to publish I need to have presence in my community but at the same time I am interested in in science and yeah new things basically new ideas and new development and that requires you to take a risk because I mean when you are saying you're you are developing something new you really have no idea whether it's gonna work or it's not gonna work or anything like that so so you have to take a lot of risks when you do something like this but at the same time you don't want to take too much rest because you have you have derive the produce of the intangible exactly yes yeah so you kind of like oscillate between these two things and you oscillate it in what direction I mean what what in your mind is the hope that you will not solve contribute to at this point because in the end it will lead to some very significant insights but again I don't think that case for me is that yeah I am interested at least at that stage it's not it wasn't like oh I want to come up with the next idea in computer networks I just happen to get interested in certain ideas and I mean to some extent I mean you told me I meant like it this is a profile on like you looked at the paintings and actually I did these paintings when I was back in Syria it was a teenager and I know in your pants I mean you just you're fascinated by something but you really don't know i priori how this thing is gonna look like when when you finish Sam when my life story for example it's now yeah you tried to put some plots but I mean at the end of the day is a story light itself sometimes tell me the story that was written because I want to get you to some of your great insights how do we get there yeah so I I was always interested in interdisciplinary work I and I was very well positioned to do that because I mean I I have very strong background in in science when I was from my high school as I said it's like much much stronger and it's a very broad program than what you see here in the US and the dead one year if med school I'm just like interested in medicine in general I have a strong background in math and applied math and I did my undergrad in electrical engineering I did my PhD in computer science also I have a passive knowledge that allows me to succeed in interdisciplinary work whether that was conscious or subconscious I don't know but it's just like in their other thing these are the things that I like it's just like doing something that does not really require just knowledge in one area it requires so after it so I did my PhD as I said in in internet congestion control and then when I became a faculty I started be interested in wireless systems wireless networks and I guess I got lucky because also it was a good time for that because it was like okay it's the wife I was on the surge and everyone just connected started to get connected by laptops and Wi-Fi and cellular networks were growing and that was a good time to work on wireless so and wireless network so artists is very different from the internet and they in the following sense yeah so when you have when you are talking about a wired network then if if you want to communicate between this node and this node you have to have a wire between them and when you have a wire between them they communicate to each other they don't affect other nodes that they don't have a wire with okay so that's very different from wireless networks wireless networks if you have a transmitter and it transmits to this particular receiver but actually is transmitting to everyone indirectly like it's transmitting a signal in the environment so you can't isolate the signal level from the protocol and the application so it becomes very important that somebody understands both the signal and which goes to or traditionally we call electrical engineering and also understand the protocols and applications which is typically in computer science looks like again heaven for me exactly you are like the kind of ideas that I can manipulate easily and move between all of these different things so I started working on designing new transmission system new or networking protocols for wireless systems for wireless networks like Wi-Fi or cellular and so that was the next stage in my career and it was successful to the point that got me through my promotion and I had good success in it then I get I I don't like working on the same thing for a long time I get bored for the ladies Restless yeah and then I started changing okay so that's not I think about Wireless I think about the signal and the ability of the signal to review thinks about the environment so over the last maybe like six seven years I've been thinking about how can we use the wireless signal its reflection from the environment and the people to try to understand people and environments and design new sensors so we're leaving a narrow notion of this is available for communication only to a much wider context context of motion context it as you say the physical world and how it interacts are you alone in this surgery do you have a group of people working on these wider issues yeah so of course I have my students and some of them now are professors and in other universities so when we started it was something that not as many people thought of me there I mean if you think of it I mean it's just like thinking about what is the simplest system where you are looking at or a very no system where you are looking at the interaction of a radio signal ways the environment is really done for example so in a way though you transmit a wireless signal and your look at is a reflection from maybe an airplane that is in this car and you are detect an airplane so it's also an example so so there are multiple systems kind of views notions like that but it was new to try to use it to understand indoor environment understand people we use it now to to measure to design assemble a simple box that you can put at home like your Wi-Fi box but actually can measure your breathing your heart beats your gauge your sleeve without putting any sensors on your body just like basically based on how your hair emedicine again yes yes so suddenly the the reluctant doctor is beginning to come up with concepts that will have a profound effect on medical practice yeah I guess so yeah exactly so my my current
passion is really bringing these notions to medicine and hopefully changing something in medicine because coming from medical from a family and coming actually from from a country like Syria which is other developed country but actually has 20 get medical school and like a practice of medicine it's disappointing to see how like the way the health care system works in the US so you you really want to automate the health care system and that's becoming actually very important today not just because okay we want to automate everything but actually because of a real issue I mean there are many people who are older and we don't have as many doctors and nurses and health care workers so you really need a system that would use a cost be able to support the aging population and also at the same time being efficient being good and provide the good outcomes for the patients one of the things always asked about new ideas and technology from outside where there's not a sophisticated understanding of it is what are the dangers are there are there only benefits what do worry about in terms the uses of this kind of insight yeah so first let me let me tell you a bit more about what is the insight and how we can use it and then we can talk about the danger so the inside is we we need to be able to March her health hopefully continuously at home the same I mean you monitor whether you have a fire at all all the time so if we can have also like a health smart and continuously in the environment now be great because I mean in the US alone there are about thirteen million people who who are seniors who live alone at home so there's a big danger for those people so if we if we can monitor the health continuously let's say a hard time breathing heartbeat sleep of people mobility all of these questions that a doctor would ask you when you visit them and trying to figure out the health and being able to continue to monitor then we can in many cases predict particularly now with all advancements in machine learning we can predict things that look like they are leading to exacerbation and ask the doctor to intervene early and in fact in many diseases such intervention can avoid hospitalization yeah and then the question is how do you do it now you can ask somebody to live their life with sensors all over their body but that's that's not then maybe it's better just to take the risk you don't want to live them or cut your life so so the idea is to just use the surrounding wireless signal without asking people to change their behavior or thought and doing Diaries or like okay today I slipped at this hour and woke up at this hour and I woke up and I know it's five times I don't know so because that's the only source of information you know house now yeah in many cases yeah so basically being able to that's one like one of the major ideas my lab here at MIT has been working on it's just being able to use this tonality of the ambient wireless signal around people to measure things like breathing heartbeat mobility gait falls in the in the end of it yes and just take that information and also try to predict changes in health and predict the future future changes and alert the doctor to them so so that's the vision that we are working towards and we made so many steps toward it and so many it feel quite close to that kind of realization yes yes yes we are actually working with multiple medical doctors in different domains in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's and dementia and a variety COPD the the other end of the spectrum is with babies dewd yes yeah yeah yeah definitely that's actually when I met President Obama that was his comments like why don't you use it you should use this for since for baby like you know babies they stop wheezing so you can just monitor that I mean I think yeah so so that's that's the vision but now your question is what's the danger so I don't think that there is a safety danger from the wireless signal because I mean I'm talking about wireless signals there are 102 thousand times lower power than your Wi-Fi at home so I mean if you're comfortable with Wi-Fi this is not gonna be any any danger for you so so then the real issue that we are talking about probably its privacy it's like if somebody is monitoring continuously and getting all of this information then how do you is privacy and unless that's a very big and important question and in general I think in all all type of data and system is getting about us the people it should be it should be controlled by exactly the consent of the user what we decide as user to learn that system margin the system should not matter something that we wouldn't allow him to Martin and then the output of the monitoring should also be controlled by us so if I if I say okay I'm allowing the system to monitor my my sleep fine the system should not watch what other things should launch from my sleep and also the my sleep quality and sleep stages and all of that information it should be up to me to decide to get access to that information so I might share it with my friends I'm a sure it was my doctor it's up to me so so these kind of things have to have to be taken very seriously and we do take them seriously is there even a more nefarious the dark side of science but the knowledge of what you can hear across boundaries what I mean it's a lot more than just the medical knowledge that can come from you yeah yeah so I'm not saying that you have a solution but clearly society has to think about that yeah basically yeah for example our sensors can be used to spy on people if you don't like what's the end of the wall in a way but we won't we won't over worried that right now the excitement is no I think we should worry and we should not worry in a negative sense worried in the positive sense every single technology even your camera like we we are there's cameras on cell phones but somebody could take those cameras and start taking pictures of people and locos and that's not good and that's not what we expect these cameras to be used locates me yeah very easy in the outside world no we're already in that too right yeah food everything even the car I mean car could be it's very very useful every one of us use cars but also I couldn't want people that could be any accidents and creating you dangerous so it's all everything has to have certain policies so that we can we we can leverage the good side of science and we can at the same time prevent or try to to control any bad effect without stifling innovation to the end of this I'm gonna ask maybe an inevitable question I hope it interests you you were saying surprising to me but I understand that in Syria being a young woman was not an impediment to your pursuing your intellectual interests so here you are I
was very struck by a flood of myself you surrounded by your students and there wasn't a single female and that this is a photo but it looked like the group of the students that you're working with on some of these issues so again the question is is there now would you take a more hopeful environment for the encouragement of scientific inquiry for young women tours are we still stuck at least in this country and gender-based assumptions so you can look at the statistics and the statistics unfortunately are not great and you we see that the number of women in computer science or graduate they are doing graduate career I mean the last time I checked this was even going down but I whether is going down was already it's definitely not increasing it's now like it's a level where you would like it to be and you keep hearing I mean there are many stories recently so I mean I don't think that we are we really achieved the level of diversity in our schools in our work environment in in the way we treat people not just women women and minority that we would like to have but again like going back to Barbara Liskov whom maybe he was I mean either the first or one of the very first female T to have a PhD in computer science I think we made major major advances since then and my life of a female female faculty computer scientist is much better than what she had to go through to her life I was told that she was photoshopped into a picture of the faculty because they forgot that they have a woman yeah yeah yeah but also we shouldn't ignore everything good that that has happened I mean definitely coming also from Syria and it's a country underdeveloped country I would say also me but from from education differently women suffer a lot and in countries like Syria so we should be able to see the difference but we should also say we are not there yet now we would like to do better how you do have men do in spite of the photo I saw have a number of female graduates not as much as as I would like to have seen it that could took a lot foot all right the first time when I do have a female in my group or maybe it she was not there and that's one but as I said I mean it's one woman right don't graduate it for my good so yeah I would like to see more but I think we really need to have more effort because it's not really about like we don't have as many women that are entering that pipeline to start with you can't produce them in the middle of the pipeline we have to continue doing better at every level and of course unlike the remarkable young woman you were many people do need role models yeah okay I'm actually a bit different from most of the like many of the people here in to us think that it's really yeah I don't know how to describe it but I think woman I mean so for example just to give you a very easy maybe that would be controversial thing to say but it's okay yeah so so you hear a lot about work/life balance and in my world of things and that should get women into computer science we need to work life balance and to me no actually that's not the case this is it's really you don't want to tell women that actually to succeed they need to have a balance because they have other duties that they have to do at home that's not the way to do it I want you to do it is to say everyone Equality of the earth anyone has equal opportunities yeah if you have are going to invest more in your career you are going to hopefully receive more from that career and as a woman over men when you have to to have that ambition and you have to have to be aggressive and so I actually think that it is more important to tell women to be aggressive to to fight for their lives and to not to wait until somebody someone gives them I mean it's not about life work balance I mean if you want to succeed I mean you have seen the nerves and the wheel knows that succeed or feel so it's you have to you don't have a balance but that's not a reason for him and not to be successful and so maybe the achievement can come from removing the barriers but not necessarily kids creating a paradise of conditions exactly really the barriers telling I mean the one thing that I've seen in two you ask these stickers I actually I'm too pretty for math I mean when you start that way when you when you condition the human brain and attitude and this way I mean you're never gonna succeed those people will never succeed eventually because I mean mass and mass business everything I mean basically whatever that is is a cross a person who's really focused who knows what they want and who are going to be go-getter
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