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Non-equilibrium many-body effects in driven nonlinear resonator arrays

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Non-equilibrium many-body effects in driven nonlinear resonator arrays
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We study the non-equilibrium behavior of optically driven dissipative coupled resonator arrays. Assuming each resonator is coupled with a two-level system via a Jaynes–Cummings interaction, we calculate the many-body steady state behavior of the system under coherent pumping and dissipation. We propose and analyze the many-body phases using experimentally accessible quantities such as the total excitation number, the emitted photon spectra and photon coherence functions for different parameter regimes. In parallel, we also compare and contrast the expected behavior of this system assuming the local nonlinearity in the cavities is generated by a generic Kerr effect as described by the Bose–Hubbard (BH) model rather than a Jaynes–Cummings interaction. We find that the behavior of the experimentally accessible observables produced by the two models differs for realistic regimes of interactions even when the corresponding nonlinearities are of similar strength. We analyze in detail the extra features available in the Jaynes–Cummings–Hubbard (JCH) model originating from the mixed nature of the excitations and investigate the regimes where the BH approximation would faithfully match the JCH physics. We find that the latter is true for values of the light–matter coupling and losses beyond the reach of current technology. Throughout the study we operate in the weak pumping, fully quantum mechanical regime where approaches such as mean field theory fail, and instead use a combination of quantum trajectories and the time evolving block decimation algorithm to compute the relevant steady state observables. In our study we have assumed small to medium size arrays (from 3 up to 16 sites) and values of the ratio of coupling to dissipation rate g/γ ~ 20, which makes our results implementable with current designs in circuit QED and with near future photonic crystal set ups.

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