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Free and Open Source Software Course

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OK so all welcome everybody in the 1st presentation of the line it stays this year on I speak German most of you probably speak German most of the line it stays on English and I hope that's a that whatever and also the 1st thing that forgot talk about in a 2nd e-mail network or whatever so the 1st thing which we're gonna talk about in the line ecstasis free and open-source software the real basics not really a lot of software per going on today and so this an introduction to the concept where it comes from and why it why study right freeze me here way should totally be interested in this topic OK so moving on free and
open-source software whether that means
free the 1st the 1st word in free and open source software almost that you might think it stands for free without cost on and indeed lots of free and open-source software doesn't require you to pay for it but free as in free and open-source software is completely unrelated the price this is very important because it's not about getting stuff for free it's about having freedom inherent in the software and on the English language doesn't really have a way of specifying that which makes it unambiguously different from free as in without any price German does french those very many other languages do
in Switzerland you have 4 official languages every single 1 of which is more apt at describing freedom as a qualifier than English so if you talk to your friends your parents in here and use English denominator free software you can call it so you can qualify software that it's clear that you're talking about free as in freedom and not free as in free beer the 2nd part open-source this means that you can see the source of the software this is what this source of a very simple program Minsky looks like camp on every software when it's written in the form in which the developer writes it in a form in which reviewers code reviewers can read it and in the form in which other people can contribute to it looks somewhat like this there are dozens of different programming languages all of them not all of them most of them contain letters which you can read and this makes it easy for you to know what you're doing and for other people to collaborate with me makes what the software is doing obvious to the human but the software itself is not obvious to the human the software itself is a collection of instructions for your machine which you can basically not read so this is 1 way of showing what actual software looks like this is actually a snippet so portion of the program which was written here now this program is translated into
machinery but readable code by a process which is cold comfort compilation and this looks something like what's behind me this is called a hex lumpers practically thus showing the values of the bytes in hexadecimal values they can try to translate that to ASCII characters you see that in the last part but even so it doesn't really make a lot of sense of a human reader or which is why binary files the things which actually ronery occur on your computer don't make it easy for you to understand what's happening on your computer in order to do that you would need the source code now and yeah so this is practically 1 of the reasons why you know why open source is special thing about software because normally when you execute something it just looks like this sounds and you might not think that there scripting languages languages where just type something in the collapse command line and so on and that gets executed that also doesn't execute directly the line from the command line like scriptable line was just generally have access to pre- compiled binaries on your system everything on your computer at the actual level look something like this OK
so how did we get the free and open why did these things start to matter about software so let's look a bit of hell sulfur evolve all at the beginning in the early days of software development offers where huge of and dear leaders of the of software and hardware development of computer development computers were huge machines them and though most of the people who work with computers were actually quite abstract
computing they're the people who develop them the people who knew a lot about them and other software was necessary that complicated so this next mixture of people who are by definition they the act just because they work with these primitive machines and the fact that software was quite simple led to the fact that uses all you has always had an access and an understanding of the source code of all programs and in the early days of software free and open was necessary something which would stand out all this started becoming an issue on the plus a bit later all later
why have after computer starts developing more and more software and hardware started to diverge they'd say to the concept all at the core of it this is a good development because in the end if all hardware came bundled with that software even if it were open-source that'd be uncompetitive which is 1 of the rulings of the of some United States Court against IBM now on bundled software is anti-competitive and that's important that's like 1 of the 1st events which paves the way for the emergence of software companies companies which no longer produce hardware and through in some codes can do something with that but probably companies which practically developed software for you to use with your hardware wherever it might be from or maybe not wherever it might be from but like in addition to the actual hardware you bought on since software became a product became important for them to make sure that they can sell the product that people can just take this product and distributed the modify it make better without the consensus on it for more money less money whatever and the 1st measures which they started taking with where purely technical as I've shown you there is a difference in between the software code with which developers companies and some work with and the actual binaries which run on your computer out is a just should the binary is then your pricing leaving the user and the dark doesn't exactly what's going on all he can modified make it better and this was 1 of the measures would which early softer companies tried to keep control of the prize them and was the biggest screw so the stable unnecessary the biggest screw the biggest of fortune which suffered companies found these in the early days of what was a ruling which said the software is patentable before this ruling in nineteen 80 you could not really obtain software patents and also being would have been of to salsa would have been considered more like no like and I had like an idea by something which you cannot have a patent on something which you can maybe it recognition for a beaker have authorship on but not something you can really beta and ever since that has happened of salsa companies have had a plethora of methods to make sure their code stays there is they have the control they can sell at you for however much you're willing to pay for it on and pretty much leave in the dark and this said well with some people and the 1st people started worrying about this very actually very early action in the development of all of these things in the early eighties where the people of the free software foundation on many a guy called richer stock of stolen from MIT and the the worry was that this entire system where companies finally have the possibility to to get patents on the software needless to say they have the possibilities to just give you binaries files which been truly understand this would lead to a world where software was completely close that would you completely locked-in system where if you weren't 1 of the companies it shouldn't have like they them contracts with them you can truly help develop the softer word you can help make it better you can't understand it the fear was that software would probably become a walled concept for outsiders people who weren't in the big companies when having access to this as the biggest worry and the story prompted some people to before industry softer foundation which promotes universe and universal freedom to study distribute create and modify computer software is exactly the things which wouldn't have been possible in such a wall system exactly the things which many people would consider very important now are the free software foundation also promised lots of social activist in the sense that they say OK on free software is a basic freedom more should be a basic freedom you have a moral obligation to use free software because if you're not using free software than your practically feeding the system which which is making the world a worse place and so on adequate they're very moral they're very ethical you can look at their their website they like to preach a lot so if you might agree with that actually assigns you might not some people consider the free salsa Foundation and dogmatic in the sense that they they don't treat freeing freedom as a tool but the cheat freedom or if there is a God this so it's not that freedom is good because we can do something good with that but no freedom is the by definition that's why we have to impose it everywhere in contrast to that you have the Open Source Initiative there this another organization considerably smaller than the free stuff Foundation which was formed a bit later all those foreign mainly by people who had no idea of software but also of business and realize that the ideas of free and open-source software can help make the world a better place in a sense which is a bit more detached from ethics and morals and so on in the sense that they could also help make the bed the world a better place for software companies they could have created by the products they could help grow the software industry they could be profitable for companies like Netscape word Google and so on and they're practically the open-source initiatives set out to 2 militaries for these concepts not necessarily have an ethical level to the public to students the free software foundation is mainly active
at universities but also to companies to people who traditionally would have been outraged by free and open source and to show that that's actually good but is good for everyone now and ought to a certain extent the Open Source Initiative rebranded the free software movement and they said OK this free software identity of the free software foundation is a bit too confrontational list it my boss some people out of their minds because who cares about these complicated Wiles we just want to get this this job done also they decide to invent a new term open-source now and to to propagated and that it was a lot of traction it's hard to say what exactly in the current world is mainly thanks to it to the open-source initiative but we can see that nowadays many companies starting not necessarily moving to open source but adapting open-source and indirectly also free and open-source into their business model of I tried to prevent the use of like 2 2 0 2 competing ideas open source and free or as in the Open Source Initiative and a free sulfur foundation but at the end of the day they're not even 2 sides of the same coin at the end of the day they're the same thing the complete the identical adjusted there also completely different which is why we usually refer to FOSS which means free and open-source software I like to call it free and or open source software but whatever FOSS is the unified name for both of these tendencies you can say soft of freedom and free software is important you because you on the free world everybody has access to everything and so on you could say or I have a company or I plan to make a start up and down to have a good product and an open-source can do the job and in the end of the day the projects which run free or open-source software from both OK now what exactly is like the concrete manifestation of free and open source and all of these things like it is it a bit too abstract but it's actually very concrete because in a world where you have copyright laws you have to be very specific about what the what your views and and 1 way to define OK my project is open-source is over licenses priced at the main way and they're great number of licenses for free and or open-source software and of the main license off the 1st license is the most important license a license which is very much pushed by the Free Software Foundation is the GPL license but it said do new General Public License and it's based on the 4 freedoms of the source of free results funding from the freedom to run the program as you wish for any probe perverse all along you don't have this freedom with most proper proprietary software the freedom to study how the program works such and changes so that the buzzer computing as you wish you can be certain that you don't have this freedom with most proprietary software on the freedom to read read to redistribute copies so that you can help your neighbor which means you can take a softer and even Europe through my the next person on the left the freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others mean that can take the software you can modify it and I can pass knowledge never to your left this is the base of the GPL and it's the license which people with attribute more to the free sulfur from Foundation corner of the movement of another very important licenses the BSD license on the BSE licenses the main license for the Berkeley soft itself to a distribution of means that's where it started now it's used everywhere in the free software world and many people actually recommend this license over other free in under open-source licenses all this licenses very permissive it has 3 clauses which are incredibly simple on redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice this list of conditions in the following disclaimer now meaning that you can't just take this software and strip the license but some other license on it and the rule we have in not having a license which fits me on this software are redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice this list of conditions in the following disclaimer and the documentation and the other materials provided with a distribution meaning you don't get to cheat you don't get to get away with just distributing the binary and say well a license doesn't fit into the binding so by by license on neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission there's sounds a bit complicated the last 1 but the freshly quite important especially if you're using software for critical applications and free software projects I usually so big that have so many contributors so over time on and they evolve and the people might misuse the name of 1 of the 1st contributors to say OK this guy thinks that everything I have done with the software ever since is a good idea no also don't get to do that these are the only things that you you don't get to do with the with the Berkeley Software Distribution against youth and lot more permissive than the GPL it's a lot more free in the sense that it doesn't really impose may conditions on you know it's a bit less free in the sense that it guarantees less freedoms in the long run copy
left is not a license so that the license that you talk about the the GPL and over the years the last lesson model over of the copy left is a key concept of very many licenses now so license can be copula after it cannot be copula familiar and can't really be a bit copula also tried a yes-or-no thing at the 1st license which he talked about the GPL especially in its latest incarnation GPL version version 3 is definitely a copyleft license yes the is definitely not a copyleft license or other licensed family such as Creative Commons you might know that from the artwork or whatever else and some some of my pictures yeah so yeah for instance you have this copyright notice here this CC stands for Creative Commons it's 1 of the most popular licenses not for software but an open source license or open source a free license for our and around creative Commons gives you the orld option area I choose the copula slices of ours or non non popular thousands of hours of copy left is a thing which is a bit controversial in the free software rolled in that some people would say that's the best thing that ever happened in the free software world and some people would say is like the worst thing that ever happened in the freezer in the software world like Richard Sohlman my Frances Talley is the greatest thing ever and Volmer is known for saying that is the of the worst thing ever in it's gonna ruin softer forever but I'd I'd like to think that I'm quite different from both of these point of view is I don't know really if it's a bad thing and I'll tell you what the key points and a discussion of copula family so copula left practically says that the software has to for ever stay free and a copy of it or any modified version of it which you redistribute has to guarantee the same freedoms as the original and it sounds like a really great thing in a way that the reason why some people think it's so great that's because it turns freedom into something viral if you have a really great thing which is copy left and everybody who would ever want to use that great thing must guarantee freedom in their products now of some licenses some versions of copyleft flies incest even restricting how far you're allowed to use copulas products together with products which are not popular of most notably the G P L 3 all on 1 the free software phonation moves most of the stuff to GPO 3 very many companies which had proprietary software and like non-free software by definition have to had to move their products with the compiler and so on but the bad thing about this yeah is that it's only a great idea like keeping good keeping everything the forever is only a great idea if you can be certain that freedom in the world of software is guaranteed to for ever be useful whatever we're ever gonna want to do with softer we're gonna be able to do it under the auspices of a free sulfur world them and is this a reasonable assumption to make but you can't really know for for so in a way licensing stuff under copy last which I do because I use very many things for instance you see in the 1st picture and this presentation is on copyleft license meaning that I have to license presentation under a populist license and so using copy left is a bit like locking yourself outside of jailed seems like a great idea because why would you want to be in jail but you who knows maybe at some point you only go back there for something up so maybe the most important part
of the evening Fisher brought up earlier the advantages of free and open-source software why should you care I mean OK was that 1 sees you might care because you're you're very deeply ethical human being and you care about freedom and so on and then the free softer foundation discussion already was enough to like keep your eyes open but though you might not care much about that you might care about other things and free and open source software has a lot of other advantage to does accept being good and so on in moral way his has advantages of of it has the advantage of being very good in the software where there are off in open source software tends to perform quite well and the chief there's a sort of mantra of the free and open source world is given enough eyeballs all bugs are shallow think about how some proprietary software is developed many don't think of Windows minus a classical example and has a huge company with dozens of and letters behind it but think of a smaller of proprietary products the I think of something like coke and Mathematica and MATLAB I keep thinking of scientific software because I'm a scientist but you might be thinking of something else all day long have such huge companies as Microsoft has somewhat smaller companies that don't have so many people on the project there may be times when you go on the projects and these are the people who are allowed to see the code and with it's not open source other people can see the code meaning that it's just the developers and maybe some other testers which they put on the project which can look at the code in the critical with free and open-source software anybody can look at the called let's say talented computer scientists and you stumble upon something which is interesting you take a look at the call let's say you're not a computer scientist to run the program and you see there's a typo in the interface and you see where the code is written and you're the guys others listen guys Mrs. Eitel and so all these little boxes huge box the chance of them being improve this just so much so much larger say get less crashes in free and open source software people who've use Linux and Windows will be able to tell you about this and I will tell you about this you get better benchmark performance especially in older hardware or in hardware which is not so good for instance I around a Raspberry Pi at home and you guys know there's like a microcomputer it would be really hard to try the but of Microsoft Windows 7 and at the hour but with the balloon tool or like even more minimal Linux distributions lunch it runs like a breeze an old laptops and so on tend to run very well Alliance and even if it fails now even if you try to install a on your computer or perhaps even better alignment distribution and something breaks and you're like my god was is broken you've lied to me free and open-source software isn't that good of and the support is so much better area you can try calling Microsoft for for support and you're going to be like Did you try to like turn often turn on the computer and so on whereas if you have a problem with free and open-source software you see the people right because it's all 1 they identify with them and the people we get to talk to if you if you write a complainant user gone there if channel if the boss and a mailing list if you go on the form or if you go directly on the development page which you can do even if you're even if you're not a programmer the people you get to talk to either the people who actually wrote this and they're the people who know what's going on and the health care and be able to get is so much that the even if you're not a programmer for instance I'm not a programmer when I 1st started with Linux has started with a very complicated matter distribution now and I ran into a lot of issues of your guts all really quick simply because the supports was so extraordinary empowerment now so this is very interesting aspect of free and open-source software very many people don't realize I important this is not and you might realize it's important to not have a vendor lock-in like you say you have for instance with very many Apple products some people might realize that it's important to have some control over services running on your system because you always get that really annoying pop-up which asks you to update now it be really great that you could like that involve like for ever well in in free and open-source software you can see them on in but there is also very many aspects like even to these things especially control over any service running on your system there's just a lot more aspects and that 1 part of which you see because there's a lot of things which are out of your control on your system which you don't see them all Francis processes which are wasting memory just because someone at Microsoft thinks it's good to check for something every 5 minutes or a or processes which can follow your personal information to outside sources will get to that in a 2nd but it's also a question of empowerment is not just that you lose your privacy but also lose computing power along side with intent that make any sense on I'm but there's also aspects which people tend to miss entirely all become smarter and more creative you're not used to doing what ever honors you wanted your software and you're just not used to doing that because they're using software which was made by a user interface developer with other kinks Rideau make microsoft word what do I think that the user wants to do that and his reply necessarily stupid they're very good I I believe some of them and what they're doing they're doing like market studies they're asking users and so on but in the end it someone else who decides to draw the line and says OK out of everything we fared we want our users to be able to do this this this and this and we're gonna make menus for this and not much else automated I had a few minutes later you're not used to say OK I want a text processor which I can program to do whatever and if I want him and but using free and open-source software again even if you're not a programmer which I for instance and also allows you to learn that you should be able to do with your software whatever you want they give you an example I can thing of the simple examples mating honey fewer scientists where OK let's let's try this so for instance you see when you make a scientific paper now my major figures in MATLAB or whatever else and then you say them somewhere and copy they and them into your document and then you have a nice figure now on only really thinks much about this because this what you've learned to do because that's what the user interface developer of MATLAB thought OK people want to be able to say figures right right
so what if I were a is what I want to do is not to say figures what if I don't want this fat to be somewhere just for me to copy it and put it in my document what if I want my document to take the data on and turn them into a graphics so that every time I I change my date of the document changes whether I want to do that but if I don't want to re- export the figure from MATLAB and drag it in the powerpoint and whatever else every time something changes in my data every time I think all I should have taken the mean and not the median and togetherness and this OK made of them and try to rapid up well the thing the thing is you can do this with free and open-source software can do this was later act which is that text process using right here and again this of Python and its toolkits which show which is a programming language which can do most of the things that matter can do
yeah so it works have like France mentor masters uses I remembered a couple of days before I had to hand it in the OK I forgot to add this but this point to the data miner who have been a lot of work if I have to like really sport all of my figures I didn't my tables I didn't I just put it in the fall recompile my later document again and boom everything's up-to-date so this as an example of things you wanted even think of doing if you're trained to to like listen to the user interface of saying OK I want to do the things which I think Oracle and of course you get by the software habits but there's this bad stereotype in a way that alliances for nerds on It's also foreigners and this is a really great thing on not only is it also for nerds but it's mainly made by nodes is made by people who understand software and want to use the software which they themselves may say that people who have an idea what on earth is going on in this computer and the software which such people tend to use is a software which tends to be efficient and which tends to let you use the computer in the way in which it's meant to be used in the way in which the the simple nature of the computer makes of conductive for you to use a town so practically by using the software which nurse tend to use you might not become a nerd but you might gain some of the software affinity of nodes that you might realize that saving all of your spreadsheets in Excel is completely utterly nonsensical might realize that you should just save them in comma-separated-values because it does the same thing does removes all the clutter already might learn that though I mean you're expecting to use Office applications PowerPoint word these things which move your student life you might ask yourself at some point y y line the user can do everything which I can do with them with lay that and I can do about the what sustainability that's like a very big point of floor of the alternative which is the the organization of ours which organize the line that sense Digital sustainability the very interesting thing really when you think of sustainability of think about both trees and and the hippies and people who don't want people to hunt seals and so on all Digital sustainability is not about that digital sustainability is about the fact that in the same way in which we'd like to keep the environment safer future generations to use we would like to keep our software saved for future generations to use and 1 of the ways to do that is the copula in which a guarantee that the software and all of his there but there's no forever safely and well above all but 1 there is also other details in the design of free and open-source which make it so incredibly sustainable there's no single entity on which the future of software depends imagine tomorrow all and for of bomb went off at some Microsoft headquarters everybody that huge tragedy of for them and their families many other people who also for you if you're using Windows because that was so far no more support no more new versions you're on you're on an all along is that if something happened to the data centers where ever they might keep the source code even if someone wanted to take out though the battle and bring Microsoft into the next decade and they would not because there won't be any source code now with free and open-source software the source code is everywhere it's in their repository is it's on the computer it's on my computer is it's on someone else's computers was just curious and downloaded it whatever happens if anybody at any point was think this also is a good idea and will want to continue developing a that's also was alive forever and all everybody can make a better nobody can make it worse maybe you should take my the 2nd part of that with a grain of salt but it's true now free and open-source software is version so that you can try keep track of who changed what and on on meaning that nobody can really make it worse someone makes about modification who cares the previous code is still there all but anybody can make a better now you have a good idea to to go on and edit and if you don't know how to edit the though usually editing called use units it's just states is quite easy we can just tell someone who can now you can also make about the indirectly as of were and of course STs software which is free and open is reproducible and transparent or in the same way in which science is reproducible and transparent assessment in the sense that you can see what went on there and it's reproducible in the sense that you can check OK if I take the same code compiled it on my machine run it on my machine will I get the exact same thing which these guys got you can make sure that it's not a glitch is not a coincidence they're not lying to you this is what the software does but it's also important because software so much knowledge goes into salsa so many ideas highlights sort this list called I solve this problem how do I calculate something a lot of knowledge goes into the creation of software same as in science and finding out stuff about nature so much knowledge and the if you don't keep it old 1 and transparent and if you don't always check to make sure that this reproducible this knowledge will be lost by science good science is by definition reproducible and transparent thus science engineering do great things while being reproducible and being transparent you can also do great things amazing things things which people could never believe could have been done while being irreproducible and in transparent and that's called Magic so if for you're running proprietary
software in a computer your computer is magic in the worst possible start a flame and its alchemy His free and open source software in a certain way science security medieval might be concerned about this especially about the or after the developments of Edwards Snowden and say espionage scandals maybe the flood brought some of you here or maybe you decided OK I don't know was looking at my data I don't know this taking up my e-mails and I heard of open source is the solution to that and come to this presentation see what it's all about maybe maybe that's you on and in that case I can say yeah you're right all free and open-source software excels at privacy because people can look at what's happening there and if anything bad is happening there anybody can blow the whistle might also be the kind of person who is like 1 these hippies shut up that's OK I don't really care and not doing anything wrong all you might even the year are disinclined to join line presentations because you think someone's gonna bore you for 2 hours about how the NSA spying on and in that case I can also say yeah actually up to a certain degree I agree don't privacy is not the backbone of free and open source the privacy is 1 of the many things at which free and open-source excels simply because the concept is so good and so solid practically the extraordinary performance in terms of privacy and free of free and open source software or is like saying that the free and open-source software movement to get on with the most malicious elements in the world's most influential security agencies and if 1 or at the very least put up a good fight so yeah that's how would we all transparency we already had this before but transparency is also very important in that sense of security so in this sense in which you would like the government because there you'd like to know how decisions are made but as this process long all and their free and open-source software excelled as well because everybody can see how a decision that say you have a diagnostic software and so on all how decision is made by the software it's also very important to know how things are archives how things are stored by this author so that you can rely on it so that he can no this software and will not let me down this software will do what I tell it to do and if you're using software to aid in decisions especially in political decisions this is very important some people talk about electronic voting like voting computers and then some people might say that's a great idea some people might say that's a bad idea but regardless of whether or not is a good idea or not if you'd ever have voting computers they would have to be open source because if they are not then you can never check the population at large can never check and say OK we're done except this this is really voice which is mediated by these computers because there were no no 1 that matters the population at large but no no large parts of the population with the reason why Democratic-voting is so stable and it's so hard for people to to cheat on it is that you would need to coordinate the huge efforts like move all of these ballots and fake them and so on you need thousands of people fly falsifying election and the same with free and open-source voting computers and because you would need a lot of people to be able to develop a product which is malicious and to be able to make sure that nobody else comes to the idea that it could be malicious and the last slide wide of the open source software so amazing for securities encryption and all you want to make sure they those rating crap that you want to make sure nobody built in a back and build a back door into it all and encryption standards are developed by scientists by people who like professionally study encryption and how it can improve things and because all all and so free and open-source also goes hand in hand with the producibility and transparency of science in this aspect but you might have heard like an essay NSA built in a back door and what encryption standard but you can be sure if encryption standards wouldn't have been free and open-source have these factors would be teaming anyway OK examples of a free and open-source software like you've heard a lot about why this is great why this is interesting but what exactly is open-source like can we find some examples of that the most prominent example of open source software is probably the Linux kernel but most people call the operating system which we will talk about in in the next couple of weeks days on line it's like will underline answer for their alignments Adventureland science not on that's just the kernel that's the part of the software with the part of the computer problem practically which insulin which interfaces with the hardware drivers and so and that's the lattice kernel this is the mass of the lightest kernel the Penguin which you assume the handouts and outside of the door all and this kernel was made by a by store belts of Finnish student at that time who was doing life as part of his university researchers thought it be a nice idea to put micro aligners spin on Unix which he did this turned out to be a very good idea mainly because he decided to license it in a free and open-source way who still works on it is still the single biggest contributor in line if you look at the current code of planets he wrote under 5 per cent of it so he said that that bears his name but it would never have been such a huge thing with all free and source constant
all the glue on Linux operating system this is actually the proper name of the operating systems which we I showed you in the the next couple of days the reason why it's called the new Linux's because calling it Linux gives you the impression that Landis wrote this kernel and everybody else and so this through open source of this kernel and of like everything around a kernel this section or how it happened there all the free of salsa Foundation founded the GNU Project which made a lot of software components in the effort of trying to create an operating system which does not locked in forever and and they have many things they had a compiler they had other piece of software that have a kernel so practically the idea is that that new project and the new operating system came 1st and the line this kernel was the part which finally made of hold and functioning and so on on the Newell project is still developing their own kernel but since Lennox is so good people must have forgot about that but but also develop so many other things that develops the new compiler Collection which most open source operating system will use will use the compiler the software on your computer from the coat texts which I showed you into that like hard to read machine readable text known it's a desktop environment which many people assume might use which is you install the distribution which we recommend I think you you might end up using Ooh but also very many other piece of software it's not fair that was meant to be like an open source and free and open source variation of Matlab it can compile not that far as it can read magnifies it can do everything will not collapse can do it does not have a graphical user interface on how did you cash itself on its an open source of free and open-source software for managing finances I guess you're not a big company and you don't like really seriously nude SAP you can probably do everything wouldn't new the voice for people I manage my finances the new cash all resource small companies as well but there's also so
much more like many people if you if you're thinking about switching to minor arcs would be wondering well below will I be able to do everything which I can do with my Windows computer would line up and the answer is yes you can though you shouldn't try to do the same things but yes you can every application which use in Windows will have some sort of alternative and the free and open source world you have a lot of desktop applications chromium at a browser many of you might actually be using it on Windows because it's such a great browser Firefox do do I saw they're gone yes all right no not water and son their of Firefox which is a browser best known for the fact that you use that a couple of years ago all the brat office which is an office suite which allows you to do the same things that you shouldn't be doing with word and Excel and PowerPoint and the Windows if you're the minus if you really want to all laid back which is a piece of software which is what you should actually be doing to process your text all right there's a lot of multimedia applications underline it's in a free and open source world MPEG you might not know these they're really good applications for playing video stresses MPV is a video player with other visual interface medical like what but Antonini line right you just need to see the video he held Rehavia keyboard for forward-backward why the new visual interface and that all the music blared the among which allows you to seperate where your music comes from from you're listening to Frances and listen to music on my phone from my Raspberry Pi which had told the about which is of home or G. C is a player for that that music there demon and VLC is so hopeless also which also might already using a window simply because it's so that the video player this time with a graphical interface a scientific software is from probably what I personally care about most so titan alkyl in very there because you might not on practically there so much scientific software and the free and open-source well because free and open-source grows in the same way in which science grows so all and traditionally most dissenters that use like Matlab and Mathematica and all there a couple of other things on some might still use them today but sidelined number by all not lot live denied by this is neuroimaging for Python have boomed in the last year simply because scientists are realizing what is the same when which I'm can and conducting my research why would I not be conducting myself their behavior in the same old job graph is is the manager for references you might know and note which allows you to reference so to manage references in microsoft word which is something you shouldn't be using in the 1st place or jab graph allows you to you to manager references instance relate fact now question yes I should have put our there I think the reason why didn't is is because I this what I care about most like some people might have likely profound feelings and they're talking about the privacy part this is where I had profound feelings and I really don't like the syntax so I tried to not use IaaS I forgot to put in there but yeah on the amount of money to scientists initially use MATLAB or MATLAB is OK for statistics it's not as good as even now after MATLAB has developed for a while even now after side by inland pions song have boomed our is still the single best package for statistics you can ever ever find the syntax is really ugly if you ask neighbors really good on another area where free and open-source software excels at is the server and cloud area of self-replication would get to this allows the next slices but the slides but on most of the servers you use you know run open-source software Abashidze also listen don't though mostly used on sources of server software OpenStack the s should have been capital has its OpenStack with a capital S all is so as a software for managing go virtual cluster servers University of Syracuse is to manage its computing cluster like the past 1 though whatever and the new 1 the science cloud all words something might have blogs and of you might have had blogs which is WordPress but so many more of graph AIX like if you're a photographer or an whatever you you don't really have to worry him or or therapy as you've ever heard about it is the best software for men is in my opinion the best software for managing go raw data from your camera I'm all I'm a photo enthusiasts is my camera back there with my camera yeah they're on an I. manager of mass all of my roughhouse with raw therapy it has so many ways of like balancing their colors playing around with the sensor adjusting everything to the senses genius game to those 2 new image-manipulation program I think it's called all the is practically like for fall and paint and image here except it's not bad at all and it's quite good form for the free and open source world in it's a bit like CorelDRAW high enough they even make oral running 1 scene is a thing of thought about ourselves depending on 1 on 1 particular company a carload of an open source so that none that it still out there somewhere
on great so now that I've told you why what exactly is open source software lets you who uses it so I told you about this in the last slice web slide when we're talking about server and cloud infrastructures the Internet users free and open source software and you might be thinking OK free and open source is quite obscure and really interested student I'm gonna join this presentation because I wanna find out more about it but most of the world probably doesn't use it as an load of all but guess again and most of the Internet runs on the 1st by charities CI the like so software pieces which operate the server now and separated out are the ones which are not free and so a bashing is free software and giving its I'm not I'm not a networking and Nginx and other networking personal these things are pronounced on it's also free and open-source software alt there's a couple of fall for servers running Microsoft I Os whatever that stands for and other and other server management software which is non free but as you can see already here over three-quarters of the server with world is open source and the servers themselves the website the operating system of some of their websites again Windows has a surprising market-share here of almost a 3rd in but yeah most websites rely on an operating system which is free and open source mostly OK public
institutions now another big user of a free and open-source also probably not as big as it should be especially in the western world where political governments still very cushy because the software companies are here in the western world so if anything goes wrong well with the government we kind of still have the upper hand on but outside of the Western world very many come very many governments switch to free and open source now in India on in Brazil but even in the western world very many cities for some reason city of many change all of its public computers to to free and open source in Germany I think it's a big thing unaligned maybe they demonstrate really like free and open source but also educational institutions on these are properly the prime example and your example which is relevant because if you're here you're most likely citing at 1 of these 2 hour so the DH has a class there were trans online and I think it was the door our something huge class the underlying at all and it also has the Dorado good on all its public computer science using a public computer at the at the ETH you can think and they think they have your pick and between when us or free and open source and the investors' uric as I already told you has to computing clusters of both of which have use the 1st and now this 2nd and really good i've heard on the and they both lose news Linux from turned both use OpenStack which is free and open source
businesses so maybe in the 1st part of the presentation I tried to make this obvious but maybe just maybe it wasn't obvious enough to free and open source is not about confronting businesses not the boss you capitalists where Socialists were again do things different and better now open source is something which works for the entire world and this is this have realized this and very many businesses are incorporating at least in part open-source into the things in which they're doing what example would be good will all widely known as a company which promotes free and open source but their browser which is probably 1 of the protease from grill which he is the most is open-source now all you have the 1st version of the chromium which is the open-source project and the 2nd version this is crawl which is Google's project found so practically what Google is doing the way in which are benefiting from open source is that they have a product which they can use to bring to their users to collect statistics about the users or whatever else makes from interesting for them and they want this product to be really good now all but it's you can't really manage closed-source software to be that good sold the decision was we're gonna make this a a good product and the word make it easy on us but he says was easy on them all by making it open source the source of Chrome when it came out most of that the Chromium browser was open-source people started developing to at contributing to it making it better every time continuously and every once in a while Google n-gram back some of their code and put it in their browser and bring it to you now Google Chrome is distributed as a
binary in all and if you look even at the licenses for these icons in Creative Commons by this seems to survive and the BSD license what do we remember about these 2 licenses and actually tell you does anybody remember no OK my thoughts about copy last so is there is a hand no worker and there's like a sensory yeah the so they're both non copyleft licenses and that it's important for Google to be able to take this call back and if they really want to make it not free again and they have this freedom so the same so this 1 of the aspects where for instance if you think that we should make freedom viral and make the world the forever maybe you should think again in chromium might not have happened if a free and open-source have been a copy last mandatory
canonical another business which you might not know by this name but they're the guys it's like a bunch of them 1 of the most popular Linux distributions and much to my chagrin on their gaining revenue from the solutions which they offer for cluster servers and for enterprises they're still not profitable in total because they're putting so much money into winter and winter for phone which are not that money-making but you can make money from free and open-source software and because you can't take money for Doppelt developing things in a world in which creativity is not something which happens once every 10 years you make an innovation when you're in high school maybe another 1 in have your 4th job but where innovation is something which happens on a daily basis that's what you should get paid for and as a company which promotes free and open-source software ourselves free and open-source software you can say you guess the less what you want us to do what we do is we give this offer back you you can do whatever you want with that other people can improve it and you you pass for doing it
in the 1st place but that's the thing this works even if the software is not proprietary because the people have the expertise and the people who can get paid to do
amazing things another big class of people who benefits from free and open-source software are the people who are persecuted on the too many of the considerations which I thought I told I talked about earlier or line this is for instance free and open-source software as is for instance is very good for privacy and poor and how many of you might have heard about this was heard about poor while someone's buying the drugs online OK so poor is a source for its strategy of a system which allows you to stay anonymous on the Internet is very very good it was developed by the U.S. Navy I think by by military intelligence but those of you Monday apparently at some point had the idea that there might be a really great idea to give this up to the community and so happens and what happened is I mean and you can ever be completely anonymous but is the most anonymous which you can be and this is great this is great for vest whistle-blowers this is great for political activist this is great for people hold I want to do what I want to put their ideas forward the 1 to do whatever they might want to do which is not accepted in the society and not be persecuted for think about political activists in oppressive regimes the regime find that we come to your house they take and who knows what happens but if they don't know who we wired them this that also marginalize political regimes benefits from a from free and open-source software that you might not think that these are the good guys and the mask as the criminals and definitely not the good there because the marginalized political regimes especially for us in the West the people warned us on and they have a problem most of the big software companies are here with us the idiot who are lost and even if a software company which lives here in Switzerland or in the USA might want to sell their product the same North Korea or guess what they're not allowed to have because in the moment when his side managing a staff of your software your distribution best this legal thing what less this legal system that copyright and licenses and so on yeah bound to the people who define copyright and licenses and so on which is the government there and if they say what you guys aren't allowed to do business so this group of people than you cannot bring yourself to them on a very much want in risk free and open source software it doesn't belong to anybody in particular it's for everybody's so if someone in North Korea wants to run Windows so once a wrong line external if they have access to the outside internet the near the fovea they can run minus all and there's not as the case for North Korea's probably just 4 moles clear and extreme example but there's very many very many countries which cannot be certain that they will get support if their own proprietary software the that the companies are going to be able to interface with them if their own proprietary software and for them free and open-source software is is a great opportunity I of you like criminals and and again I thought you like criminals here because that that again talk about next I talked about about the of buying drugs online was lawyer but what about the very many people do this and and they make people do a lot of other nasty things that store and I mean if you supportive if it's a system which allows whistle-blowers to stay anonymous in other political activists anonymous in North Korea Scott allow people to stay anonymous here as well to do things which are society doesn't the OK so you have a question yes I you've probably heard about the sting operations like if anybody offers to to some drugs online or to do murder for hire online and to send a child-pornography online of police agent might gain access through court because the police is allowed to use store as well my pretend to be a client them they might look for a weakness in this business model now and try to track the money or try to me the proof person in personal tragedy this underscore response to the e-mails so yeah definitely like people can play on this field as well that's not the issue the issue is the software and because with very many other software infrastructure is the police as to the sting operation the to call their ISP and ask I I was led by give us was this and we already know and getting back to it to these people who the nasty things I think the fact that they benefit from open-source software in the way that people who do wrong things you also get to stay anonymous and people the wrong things here and who might be marginalize or might not be able to buy software because they they can't represent themselves of the companies still have access to free and open source software show another couple of concepts which are really great about free and open-source after the first one is that everyone's invited yeah everyone welcome and it might sound bad when you think that murderers and so on are also invited and there's a there are also welcome but think about it if you have the infrastructure to deny a product the service of freedom to any 1 person you have the infrastructure to deny to anybody so the fact that such a concept is not in place shows that whatever else might be going on you can be reliant that your freedom to benefit from this development of the knowledge you just like your freedom to benefit from science will stay intact no matter how you might be branded or what you might do the busy and the creative now
bring criminals everybody hates but ask everybody loves friend I and as I told you us can teach you a free and open-source software can teach you to use software to your empowerment in a way which you want them to learn to make the computer work for you outside of the bounding boxes of user interfaces or whatever and and this is valuable this a valuable for students this is valuable for a scientist this is valuable for engineers analysts and artists and I'm pretty sure every single 1 of you as a student now and might be 1 of these other 4 things in a while all as a scientist or as an engineer ask yourself what are the odds that at some point in my career I will want to do something which hasn't occurred to anybody before but give good scientists or or a good engineer that's definitely gonna happen of one's not not twice but on a regular basis and if you don't have a software infrastructure which allows you to use the computer this incredibly powerful object which for so many people for data analysts for scientists has become almost an extension of their minds of this with which they interpret data and look at things if you don't have control over it is if you can't make this do things which were not in the mind of the user interface designer now then that's certainly a big minus for your science or engineering career earned you should think about them using free and open-source software gives you the opportunity to learn the right way to do stuff I talked about good software habits learning from the nerds because these are the computer people and if you're gonna work with the computer they probably have the best ideas that gives you the opportunity to learn from them to learn the right way of doing it but it also allows you to keep the freedom to India and do stuff your way now because the world the people who talk to you in the womb toward gentle era mailing list and all true they can't tell you what's like the right way was solved the computer science this sound way of doing it but it's not like the user interface design not bound to this where you listen you take it on board and then share computer you can do whatever you wanted rock and most of all you I told you your students going to do a bit amazing things you might want to become scientists engineers so much you might not but up until that point is so go on to study find out more about the world maybe look at it through this extension of your mind in a way which didn't occur to the designers of mathematical and the sooner you start working on this the better it's not that hard you can't learning how to use lineups for less effort than places to get 1 credit 1 and I can guarantee there's going to be like the most valuable 0 comma decimal 8 credit points from the inverse study and the good thing about this is you've already started know how much time has passed I think an hour something like that you already know a lot more about free and open-source software than not been very many people probably still a lot less than you should but you started listening to those and we should I walk out of here and say OK that the nice by those history lesson which I can have given in 20 minutes and the than like 40 minutes of waste of time but if you say OK and this is valuable I might be someone who's creative who wants to use the computer in a way which did not occur at the interface designers I am someone who might someday be persecuted then I am someone who might someday want to find out something about the world how to solve a problem on the computer and leave the solution in a way which will be valuable for so many generations to come he might be that person I think most only may if you are the people that those kind of people and if you do pursue the following line it stays there just by doing your own research on the internet then it's definitely not for the waste in the West administer suddenly something which will help you for a very very long time to come so this about that would have a short question answer on their noise anytime left from how long will book their own now and after that all you can join us meaning me and the lovely people in the back for a being at the beach you I don't know exactly where that is but I'm for my dear colleagues social me all and you can come to the next line it stays events which will find online under this length or if it's too long to memorize by hard you have it here it can go under the alternative CH and and browse to this length all on
and you can join the hacking out when this guy behind happening at at 5 o'clock on Thursday timbre October 29th right at the theory stadia in the CH and I also don't really know where that is but I'm free can find it on the internet at the hacking I wonder if in the time from now to their you've listened to the rest of the line it stays presentations or if you've done your own researcher if you've downloaded on when to gender or whatever else and of it so that the new system and you don't understand something about it they come there answer questions you can say you know that guy in the 1st presentation he lied to us this is not working and we're going help to solve your problems OK is that great supporters talking about so this about that and thanks so much for listening and and and
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Beobachtungsstudie
Dicke
Benutzeroberfläche
Mathematik
Konvexe Hülle
Güte der Anpassung
Mailing-Liste
Temperaturstrahlung
Physikalisches System
Ereignishorizont
Videokonferenz
Objekt <Kategorie>
Generator <Informatik>
Rechter Winkel
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Gamecontroller
Brennen <Datenverarbeitung>

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Free and Open Source Software Course
Serientitel LinuxDays 2015
Anzahl der Teile 5
Autor Horea, Christian
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/36886
Herausgeber Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich
Erscheinungsjahr 2015
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract This talk is part of the LinuxDays of the student association TheAlternative, the digital arm of [project21]. In the digital age, we want to draw attention to a sustainable interaction with knowledge and culture. We want to encourage usage and comprehension of Free and Open Source Software (also known as FOSS) as an alternative to proprietary software, as well as promote similar open alternatives in other areas. Our LinuxDays are a series of events designed to introduce Linux to beginners and help those who already have it enhance their knowledge. They are created mainly for users of other operating systems who want to discover and/or eventually switch to Linux. We start all the way from the bottom and guide you on your way up to a safer and more comfortable digital lifestyle. In our courses, we cover philosophical aspects as well as technical content. Users already familiar to Linux can jump in at any time to learn more about the wonders of Linux and Free Software. During our Install Events, we will personally assist you in installing Linux on your laptop. Don't worry - of course you can keep your existing OS and additionally use Linux if you want to. After visiting our courses, you will not only have an easy-to-use and efficient operating system on your computer, but also know how to get the best out of it and find more information on your own in case you are enticed with Linux. You don't have to worry about the limits and costs of proprietary software anymore. All students of Zürich may attend our events for free. In consideration of international participants, all courses are held in English.

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