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Digital Equality: How an open Web can contribute to a more Equal world?

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world and had to be to the to and good morning and many many many
things ever been here I know that is
leaving yearly and it is an honor and I hold that we have a dead you're expectations are fulfilled after the panel because you woke up early to be here with us and as the dissipation for me to welcome my uh list and we have among the best of the best thinkers in Europe in the in different areas it to my left is demise learning and see there is 1 of the you know you will enjoy the neural net neutrality in great part because of his ex it his efforts and the efforts of his organization at the center works as he is the director in his base in Austria and getting better who used to be a part of the of German government and now he is he's gladly with 2 civil-society she's big I'll engagement for you out and the Dr. Melanie Dulong bills name who there is that 1 of the leading researchers and thinkers rethinking how the commons and especially the digital commons can help was s all the challenges of our time at the usual and access to content and and so on and
so um we we discussed now at while I was coming here I was looking at numbers and I'm not only serve reality that are not so many Europeans are exposed to but imagine if in order to access the Internet you we have to give away 20 per cent of your income 20 per cent that's their average because of the internet in most of the parts of Africa and even more
in the more than 1 country is even 50 % of Dumont monthly income to be able to connect but not only that I mean when you think about digital inequalities we are not only speaking about all I can update in order do a cannot afford connectivity but we are speaking about more profound problems imagine is not only it costs a 50 per cent of dual income to be able to connect to the Internet book then you find that there is no more air content relevant to you that all the court content in on the internet is in the language that is not jurists and he'd is directed at the people who live in different realities it it doesn't contain any information is revel live on do you want in the fields it shows only white people who line it shows only people quot region leaving different realities online and the only invites you to consume not to participate in those barriers not only their lack of access would lack lack of that relevant content a lot of them out and where would you can see yourself at the issues that we are going to discuss today we will use goes to they are acting in 3 parts that we will not only discuss the apocalyptic but our mother you said you be really really bad for many what about balance of the opportunities and how and how a policy and technology measures can fix the problem that we will use would get the and she will reflect she will refer more to the human aspects on digital inequalities and units and of and thank you everyone for being here I like she was standing on the individual level but I'm really gonna focus on that because Thomas going to cover the meta level and we do have a community level as well so all 3 together I believe a very important when we talk about the quality of the digital age because for me if I talk about quality of Interstate I think that should translate into inclusion but also into individual empowerment and diversity and I think for the audience here and as a European and something that seems so is but I found needs to be restated all the time is it having this quality and making sure that everyone is included an available like able to access the Open Web means that things are not going to stay the same online and it also means that we won't participate communicate create and innovate in the same way they're are going to be changes to how we use the internet that's part of being open as part of being inclusive friend I think especially societies here need to remember that I'm because otherwise we just amplifying discrepancies and differences that already exist in our societies which kind of reflects a lot of inequalities in a lot of political on disputes so that when that has already mentioned some stats which if I talk about inflation I think we need to remember it's not just providing access there a lot of steps that need to be taken in order for Fourier access to be equal and to actually provide equal opportunity and whether that's that only 50 per cent of the world population are currently online that in itself could sounds rather equal but it's not because there's a regional discrepancy so in Germany 88 per cent of the what might like of of our population might be online and Scandinavia it's over 90 but in Ethiopia on the other hand is only 4 . 2 per cent of the population in immunize only 2 . 5 so the disfluency and the regional level is enormous which of course has a lot of fat consequences for how we can deal with you but at the same time you mentioned affordability and that of course a massive thing that I think with you and and they've decided that 5 per cent of GDP is OK for it to be the affordable but if I live on 2 dollars a day 5 per cent is still way too much and to actually access so there's 58 per cent of the world's population that simply do not have any access
to anything that's affordable and 1 reason level and then which as you mentioned local content but if I think of statistics on a global level and then Chinese as the 2nd biggest language spoken in the world but only 2 % of online content is actually in Chinese it's similar to a rabbit because the Internet was not created with non-Latin letters and alphabets in mind but we need to overcome that barrier in order to ask you provide equal opportunity online and at the same time 52 per cent of websites in English and something we also tend to forget in communities like ours also the conference like group because there's only 25 per cent of the world's population that xt understand that it might seem natural to us because we all learn it but it's not and so working on translations is going to be crucial and I'm sure we gonna get into this later because the matter with wet condition has worked on that a lot that gender is also massive issue there's studies from the Web Foundation but also from UN women which find that women nearly 50 per cent less likely to access the internet in than men and developing countries that's a massive barrier and we need to understand why that is happening and
without wanting to say like we are here in Europe so it's not I can tell you why this is happening but we do need research and facts to find out how we can be more welcoming and more inclusive because otherwise equal opportunity is never going to become a reality you not the various things about that you mention he said and that is relevant for Germany is for Europe in general is the role of the company's because while in Europe has a strong regulators but I mean even here you do massive have from the the society to get that they're aware that is accessible for everyone everywhere with all the content so and for me would be a very interesting to see because we see always net neutrality as a very Western problem univariate and it is only relevant to the US and in Europe but I want to I want to explore with you mind at what the what is the role of energy trading these inequality debate and wine and related matters for that thank you and Yemen at core neutrality is all about solving distribution problem and it's about the uh and giving equal access to all services some allowing every start up every idea to be globally accessible from the 1 on on a level playing field and to have on an equal our exchange of of idea of so voices of offers and I think that is a precondition for solving the problems that caption pointed out of then the constant problem lot and the neutrality focuses on the technical side and of course because adversaries or the other side of the page but speaking from a pool mentality activist perspective as of course the telecom industry and somebody you constant push back coming now in the US as it looks like the new of Internet rules from 2015 will be appealed and and this is the 3rd iteration of mentality debate in the US and even now in Europe and we have now regulation strongest form of legal protection from the neutrality but even you still the telecom
industry is pushing to revert to schools and go back to a model where they would be in charge as gatekeepers to favor certain applications to say it but also favor certain types of using the internet I'm done but this is also is intertwined because of course they are of the out companies like Facebook that uh invest huge amounts of money to and give their projects called previously of free basic into debt on the developing world and now even they are planning to expand it to the US so those your rating and offers are a core part of the debate I think that we should tackle and and and that also need a closer look at several places because of we we have of systems where you pay with your data to get a free access to all into the like and set and then you got all of those of offers art um in line with with the definition of neutrality because OK I see some advertisement and of course and the target users to shoulder to but still I have the possibility to access all of the Internet know do not is dangerous to something because dimension a
you at the point they with the data when actually if you analyze the situation of the ward today and all the things that we are finding out of a of a day elections in the US and indeed the voting in the UK I you instead of voting we go instead of paying with the data and the love of
poor being with their democracy actually we'll it it is very interesting because the firm Facebook and social media becomes their social media less space will become the internet then then know we are facing a problem that not only all they are accessing a limited internet but there exists in and we did he denied that is susceptible of manipulation and is susceptible of that I have got social control of so the idea I want to hear if there's a any reaction from the from it could mean about that
and it's a tricky question I don't think it's just that were there and in danger of losing some democratic benefits I think we have that everywhere we see that an election cycles all the time I do believe that what time is just so sad that we do need net neutrality to
have a level thing Beal et Lake playing field at the regulatory level but what we also need and that's where the individual level comes in again and which also addresses that democracy question without skills and awareness of how do we do I protect myself how do they make sure that I'm not ending up in a silo hot what can it do against mobilization it's against centralization had like actually keep the web open and that's exactly what we need in order to counteract as its basic skills to help protect our democracies to strengthen and empower the people to have their voices heard in the answer such employer explaining them the very 1st moment summer comes on line that is makes it even harder but I think even here people are not always aware of what we're giving away and how that's affecting our political systems because we just take it for granted so I would see that responsibility for everyone and those who have the awareness and see that like everyone it's to teach because otherwise we won't be able to address that I just to review
some of the new literacy question is also a generally life for some models with Aladdin's talk yesterday the numbers that are around 1000 up to 27 that's what spent per person in Germany on media literacy so even in the developed countries ought not paying enough attention to that issue and you know this another inequality there have and have seen and I have seen even in Europe and is the basic basic things uh that provision of basic services to elderly people I only provided
online and Digital literacy the focus is on the use of children and so it is it is it every year in the increase in that as something that was supposed to be for everyone and was supposed to be included is going on at excluding more and more especially vulnerable so but but not only that no Melanie yes yes I am I confused you primogenitor receive any previous the uterus he said is completely is completely cheap and instead of yeah
yeah thinking about oaths and their programs from net neutrality because we axis we can exist only Facebook or of part of the bundle with your with your mobile with your mobile
access to an old at the time are very expensive but for almost free you can access funny Facebook and Twitter and WhatsApp so that we'll be reduced as you explaining at what's your your vision of a world in which can then you can access but if you think about the security of was given away and for instance an partnerships with their between animal by companies and we keep the exact so that we keep the gap would be part of uh of the bundle you get uh you get for free or the New Europe contents yeah but do not do not really that laid that Islamic think I want to and went to ask it could because more than most series the promoter of their their creating web right and what happens in that situation OK you have
answers to Wikipedia but what would a division of the question is if you have access to Wikipedia on those bundles can actually also right on
this mostly the feature films on united to eat so your consumer still not creator not an innovator said to us that's not enough to make that gives you handle on that prevents you from b having equal opportunity just reading being informed is 1 step is a tiny step and it's not enough for the web that was always advocating for it to us but we believe the Internet houses bring the Internet health also means we need to have the full diversity and needs to be accessible needs to be to centralize and it needs to make no gatekeepers no pay for play an equal opportunity for also yes Wikipedia is a great resource but I think what makes Wikipedia ikipedia is that everyone is able to contribute and that's not happening in the zero-rated services the and
also in the long-term perspective if we look at the way that news services and start ups are out function and by the Internet is by far the most innovative and diverse medium that we ever had it is because we have very low market entry barriers and um it actually takes polariton and what idea to get global service running and
if we go back to the early days of Wikipedia and imagine that into kipedia pretonic would have had a zero-rated service on a similar scales Wikipedia 0 is right now maybe a community driven project like the media would never of common to exist and and that's the problem even with those types of Seurat and look good on the outskirts of we're cementing the current um of also market monopolies and the way of course Wikipedia is a is a market monopoly on encyclopedias and and if you read the terms of the because Europe is has the marketing aspect to it clearly 1 of the arguments usually
is a western aired the convenience of friends and it was saying that you know what the problem is OK we have faced get
uh as the only platform and they want to give it for free but the problem is that the government actually we never invest in their own cover areas and still air by you net neutrality Taliban's you'll but by advocating against facebook and use your privacy freaks by advocating against phase would you are at the bringing them from the opportunity to have access at least that and that argument is always up is not options but I know that you have been working in that in the options so so the floor is yours to explain knows how to get out from these problem of of knowledge viable options OK yes so I will yeah and we we have a short presentation about their activity it's true and commercial Internet service providers and which our community networks and community wireless or sometimes not wireless networks out not new at all they made these scenes as an entity in the 90 s and in various other countries there and uh and so I will try to work to think how
they could answer to some questions of fact of this panel and that was to be improved their an equality and provide us some some empowerment and you back power worked well to the people as so these are ions espouse a preliminary results of a project
funding and by the European Commission which is called commons where have we study and network infrastructure as a commons so the common sees as a shared resource uh governed by a community and it's a social in an economy which and model which is different from the states or uh or or that the
markets so you have the soul several and community networks in Europe and here in Germany you have phi functions in a tiny new nukes and false so it's a federation of uh of a regional networks in in Catalonia and the the end uh so it's it's a it's a way to connector
waters and provide the Committee sees in their in their local uh you look at the area so it so much she's all the whole buzzwords around the commons because and its electoral achieve its peer production of connectivity and each relates to vehicles of which of space of uh of space of make space and I can be managed as a cooperates Seaver or and nonprofits and uh can also be related to to citizen science and their and participation so the 1st advantage of this community network is that's that provide uh access to the to the internet for free of all subscription which in principle is
much cheaper add-ons the commercial and services that but not only these community networks also provide extra services in addition to the connectivity such as storage or uh in missing gene ideas see videoconferencing applications and solutions to post and look at your your content so VPN and also the possibility to stream and and broadcast of content which is uh locally produced uh in in the in the
area so it promotes item at the fair value its independence as opposed to an the market concentration we we discussed previously had the focus in terms of fuse and in in the practices of these networks is to protect users rights and Fujian privacy promotes uh net neutrality and uh Foster or local at
developments participants to the community networks and I developed many skills so that an incline being as you saw in the previous picture because you have to go on your rooftop to pretend to put the water that uh also in communication and community building at because you have to convince you laborers to add nodes so that the network will add we work can better our our writing the technical documentation in less technical terms also have political and governance skills to manage our community and take parts to move to decision making and find it's because you have to win the race funding all work with them with local partner is a hospital or OpenLibrary or or uh this school and with the municipality tool to access at 2 to the technical is in the main technical infrastructure and also you'd be
there you go there uh legal skills because as I you have to understand how the recorder always working in order to avoid that can later be the in case of of from the wings and have to rights at a loss of service fees and try to protect their uh that the previous of affirmed of the community and their advocacy would be the evidence that skill in order to to lobby at the local national and
European governments fall legislations which will not be the development of community networks and their and also allow and they are therefore Rashid so again this is an example of uh of an area where people can be
hacked euros and activities and be part of uh of local projects and mixing technology and then uh and politics and aII I really appreciate working in this project because as a researcher I you really jump from the from the the practitioner and it's the same for from my colleague every time we discuss with community network members we learn about our own and fields being at you'll all computer science network optimization for my from my colleagues and the management of uh of the commons because the infrastructure comments to be compared with that the digital commons of of content so of course it's not perfect and it has and the many challenges and I'm going to finish my presentation we 2 of 1 of these challenges as the inclusion of and participants who are not the geeks and also an agenda of gender balance so there has been some experience to
organize family-friendly events in the scene for uh for the community networks who meets usually every week or every every month to fix problems that and and it's not an optimum yet and thank you very so it seems that even a I mean even in these at a
had that I have just so when no 1 question to you is sees this just viable in Europe or do you think that countries developing countries cool make that happen there yes it's high spin and used for R and ICT for people in the in the field of ICT for from developments and the heat has been developed in so I presented
at the European examples because that's and that's my in my knowledge but it has been deployed in uh we have in African countries um in some Latin American cities error can be used also in case of disasters uh then quickly a mesh network can be that can be deployed also I think in in against for for refugees so it's not that simple it's not uh near regular and weapons to solve and to solve every every program that's listed has been there director everywhere but it sounds to me do good to be true then I wonder if feed their the area of the city and I was hearing that there might be some regulations that threaten the system that works and how it was at with any discussion was discussing that andrology around around these alternatives and used here not only pick the European debate we had about a technicality on on the European level but right now after we have currently proposal called by 5 for you and which gets funding to a local flies and community projects but it's again in more toward speak telecom companies that can also do some small local Wi-Fi projects not with this type of bottom-up and decentralized infrastructure of which I would uh much more prefer to be a given and also I think it's only 3 million euros in the budget of that law arm but it toast those local or initiatives regi um um would benefit from from some sort of funding because tools of you from but people to sustainable form of our infrastructure investment and and just plain the out of state becoming this is promoting decentralization in the best form and it's also an infrastructure which is resilient to censorship and it cannot be so easily shut down and see uh fiercely an increasing number of Internet shutdowns around the world world in the past years so this is a real problem on on the just 1 1 final note because I also covered a lot of ground in the last years of his net ontology thing and Bulgarian actually they have the highest number of internet service providers in all of Europe because they started off in that way so it into that came to Bulgaria because some local merits wanted to have into that and then they looked up the family looked up their neighbors and the became eyes piece and and you can still see that if you go around and in in the cities there because the wires are really you completely chaotic so it is of maybe hundreds of wires between the 2 houses and so that would this is what decentralized infrastructure looks like and to the contrary in Germany you could even have a wire above to district everything has to be under the street and then you have all the ridiculous copyright laws in Germany which lead
to the fact that the German FIFO community has to all traffic to Sweden and because only then on they're not liable for what the users doing and so I think there are many obstacles and regulatory terms that prevents such groups decentralized project if a maybe just because you ask if if that's all
survival in some countries that are not you Mozilla recently ran every reiterating innovation challenge and the concept behind the grading was exactly how can we provide open access to the open and free internet the entire Internet in ways that are not derated but still affordable to overcome some of those barriers and we
did have some fantastic projects which submitted their sense of ideas that also were community-based networks so it's happening in India it's happening in in Brazil at we had like also African I'm projects which exactly adopted a model like that how can we build community networks to not only decentralize but also to bring neighborhoods online rural areas which might be neglected from governments so there are initiatives out there it's totally working in other regions and I think it's just a matter of how do we get these than connected with their contents with what they need to the entire Internet to amplify and their efforts to scale them because I think that the main risk is making that sustainable in a way that it's not just a tiny little rural area or 1 city but how do we make sure that they still benefit from sustainable scalable axis onto the inter internet anything that's something we haven't been able to address yet but there's a lot of potential and I think that it sounds as the non-key gender inclusive and yet the non gated exactly how do we get the non gated people to understand this and somehow contribute to that that's 1 of my McWilliams seems this seems that actually Monday
congenital inclusion is both users share problem of is the transverse of problem everywhere we look so maybe we have a problem in society so that is that is would wish to address it but there's something the rest in the dimension and I would like you to go deeper on it is you mention that actually this community that was canalso help was SI the surveillance problem and I want to hear more about have well if you manage the infrastructure then that can achieve you can avoid the civilians I'm going hey Uganda you need needed event controller your own in the Internet's so
then you we not only in the bones at some level of down might some them might always be civilians that's these are if you are independent and spare you all in the device seasons out open hardwares and uh there's Noel when the taurine in the network and then it's a it's a progress of this and realization
that what I the matching the new dual United for the Minister of Guatemala just as an example and you say that have you will be the
drafter of happily ever policy on digital inclusion which ingredients and I we let we can bounce uh the responses the collaboratively and which include is that for the have which elements basic elements we have it's a good question
which but also I mean it would basically and powering the people that we can live in those communities to on to to get an the necessary ingredients is to build
systems like that to come up with a look clear run networks I think it into that infrastructure is far too vital for democracy to be on scene justice the private property of some companies and particularly if there is government money involved or a government project and so we should really give to people ownership about the internet internet would that be built on an mostly that means getting obstacles out of the way maybe be telecom relation but copyright of or maybe also language issues and and the educational issues you know you have tools provide offers for people that connect with their new world right now in order to get them online the the captions expert on that and and and uh and the Ottoman in Guatemala I I can see a culture of example would be in Brazil you know there are some there was a project where Zuckerberg was invited to to Wi-Fi infoveillance but a wife I would only collect Facebook and basics and so I think there are many examples how it should not be done and I think I'm asking the people on the ground actually what type of network you want to have output would be a better solution than playing Silicon Valley companies commit and I'm still thinking
about my answer and it's a very tricky question I know that x Siemens in Guatemala a minor that you've been working on a local project there to develop a distilled bill of rights for Guatemala in a
know you flick included a lot of different communities and the difference is is just as they used to clarify exist any but difficult country words and of course the like I know that their efforts like that in other countries as well it's just a kind of wonder if it's the right hypothesis to to expect a minister to do that so in case concept is yes that's ideal but there also lot of societal problems in pretty much every single country that computer my head right now and there's always a risk of amplifying this and this you have you can work with best practice examples of what already worked so it should be always start with mapping what's happened in other countries were have other lessons that we've learned but never started from scratch in just focusing on your own country kiss you bound to be siloed in the problems and amplify the problems that you already have in your own society so I just a a kind of fear that this is an obstacle to inclusion because our societies are not as inclusive as at least I want to see them I'm an idealist I'm we're not where we need to be at this stage so that's where I said was like I wonder and an ingredient that should definitely be there is basic skills as it's not just teaching kids how to code I need to be able to search to read to navigate ballots content on it to write on the Internet to participate right it's remixing content to coding you have to have all of those skills and and you have to have availability for local contents of providing that Frank Houston is important and setting it needs to go hand in hand we have to have a policy in place where monopolization and centralization is regulated we need to have the networks that reach all the areas which are really with fiber-optic cables so that we have other solutions for that but we also need the skills and the winner so it needs to be that but we need the research in the data comparability To on does some it actually inclusive the
many don't have anything to add things to distinguish this way you know whether it will be very interesting now is said to him from all of you and to here well what which ingredients you and inclusive Internet Internet for all that we have and if you have comments questions and you want to share a project you want to share the policies now is the moment to interact with our panelists and
on the at the thank you Madam intra but is the Association of Internet service providers and I would like to repeat what Thomas just the competition is essential for being able
to express his of really on the interval of benefits and optimal way from the Internet and think we now at them very interesting point where you're but there's a lot of discussion of how to finance the role of the fiber all across Europe and I would say that 2 different approaches on how this challenge can be met and 1 to say well we need a few big players you come burn revenues and can investors revenues into fiber and thereby increase we talked about the world speed or we can try to aim toward competition and state with that amount of small Internet service providers or mediums into service providers and they will all of foster the role of the world thereby lead to higher speeds and lower prices in the think is a very interesting discussion we also living on Europe thank you
but the wind at the other questions grab the chance to share your ideas to comment to make further well edges that but then if there is no more questions and E and we let shared that anything that he and all that and you do want to say something else that I just wanted to see it but works is completely of right
of that competition at least if we if we speak about uh if you speak about any form of critical infrastructure is a vital condition because as is that it's the internet is a hot port the infrastructure to have it just centralized in the hands of 1 or 2 companies like this is in the west because that just amplify sort of problems that we have an and in Europe it is we that to see right now that the Commission has a huge track record of success and brought into the prices down brought a lot of of nitric investment because the force competition into the market and now it's not even and not learning from your mistakes they're not learning from their success because now they're going the other direction not as saying how to free internet service providers in all of Europe it's OK and and they're basically trying to copy all of the mistakes that the US has made and and I think that's an delicate relations appropriate issue and and uh when you work for it from a civil society perspective your feel like OK stand no saying voice in their and but it's the problem is there's just so much money in all deals telecom companies have uh revenues in the billions and therefore so when we always
speak about infrastructure we have to keep in mind that and they're they're very strong business interests on the other side as well again an wrapping up I would say that what
we intended to explain this finding is that when we discuss inequalities it is not just the connectivity and as you share it has a telecommunication companies they have be be wrong with this could lead shared ED cells so human problem and serve as a site societies reflected in the way that the citizens of and next time that the Union bunches of when you hear about the policy they think they're
not they're not and there's no ways and to connect unless we have Facebook and lives we have big companies solving the problems I think it would be very interesting to look at them all as viable alternatives that community medalist can and can build on our survival of the ternatives that on the quantum level so that the Web Foundation we are when you're strategy on digital inequality and ways to achieve it so it's just the above the Panel there follow the water and that we are doing and let's hope that we find more answers to these pressing issues needs
me and inches you thank you yeah thank you so much many of amount that have been and Thomas inverse variance insightful but
the rest of the world or if you're in you
Erwartungswert
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Datennetz
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Flächeninhalt
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Term
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Quantisierung <Physik>
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Varianz
Übergang
Hypermedia
Besprechung/Interview

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Digital Equality: How an open Web can contribute to a more Equal world?
Serientitel re:publica 2017
Teil 128
Anzahl der Teile 235
Autor Avila, Renata
Berger, Cathleen
Lohninger, Thomas
Dulong de Rosnay, Melanie
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/32971
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Inequality is one of the defining challenges of our time. The open Web can help to reduce inequality - social, political, economic and gender - and drive progress. But increasing centralisation and control online threatens to consolidate power in the hands of a few, largely unaccountable, gatekeepers and leave the rest of us behind. That is why we must find ways to combat these trends, in order to protect the open Web as a public good and preserve and enhance its equalising power among women and men, among the rich and poor. The panel will explore concrete initiatives to ensure that the web remains for everyone and how ordinary citizens can join and contribute to those.

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