Enrichment of Requirements Specifications with Videos

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Enrichment of Requirements Specifications with Videos
Enhancing the Comprehensibility of Textual Requirements
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Requirements for a software product are mainly shared through a textual specification. One key ability in successful software organizations is a good requirements communication based on understandable information. Developers can only implement a useful and satisfying software product if they obtain and understand requirements properly. One challenge of writing requirements is to describe complex and interactive contents in an understandable manner. Videos offer a large potential to achieve such an easy-to-understand representation. Attached videos can enhance the reader’s understanding by using them as supplementary material for specifications. Despite their large potential, videos are not an established part of requirements specifications: The effort to produce videos is high, the corresponding motivation is low and the use of videos is cumbersome due to missing links between requirements and videos. We propose guidelines to support the identification of content which is appropriate to be supplemented by videos. We develope a starting set of guidelines that consider the different information types of a requirements specification with their presentation modes and characteristics. This paper presents an overview of our findings about improving the content-related linking between requirements and videos. We discuss the perspectives, advantages and obstacles for enhancing the comprehensibility of textual requirements conveyed by videos.
Keywords Requirements specification requirements supplementary videos guidelines
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode Musical ensemble Observational study Natural language Multiplication sign Characteristic polynomial Correlation and dependence Requirements engineering Content (media) Thomas Kuhn Latent heat Type theory Different (Kate Ryan album) Software Representation (politics) Information Physical system Form (programming) Metropolitan area network Presentation of a group Raw image format Software engineering Texture mapping Information Characteristic polynomial Software developer Gender Content (media) Streaming media Basis <Mathematik> Recurrence relation Type theory Computer animation Software Basis <Mathematik> Order (biology) Interpreter (computing) Website Natural language Energy level Representation (politics)
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Point (geometry) Slide rule MUD Divisor Length Multiplication sign Interactive television Bit rate Cohen's kappa Streaming media Content (media) Requirements engineering Mereology Focus (optics) Machine vision Flow separation Different (Kate Ryan album) Energy level Information Data structure System identification Length Content (media) Interactive television Expert system Streaming media Flow separation Mathematics Type theory Arithmetic mean Computer animation Basis <Mathematik> Order (biology) Energy level Data structure Electric current
Length Correspondence (mathematics) Multiplication sign Median Bit rate Arm Mathematics Web service Rectifier Roundness (object) Different (Kate Ryan album) Row (database) Diagram Physical system Metropolitan area network Software developer Open source Streaming media Median Arithmetic mean Order (biology) File viewer Energy level Physical system Wide area network Mobile app Observational study Interactive television Artificial neural network Virtual machine Maxima and minima Streaming media Content (media) Requirements engineering Machine vision Prototype Latent heat Energy level Nichtlineares Gleichungssystem Summierbarkeit Modal logic Dialect Information Length Total S.A. System call Mathematics Computer animation Software Personal digital assistant Family
Point (geometry) Ocean current Functional (mathematics) Characteristic polynomial 1 (number) Electronic program guide Division (mathematics) Real-time operating system Streaming media Student's t-test Content (media) Usability Latent heat Performance appraisal Bit rate Different (Kate Ryan album) Negative number Energy level System identification Physical system User interface Information Mapping Characteristic polynomial Structural load Content (media) Planning Streaming media Open set Hypothesis Performance appraisal Computer animation Order (biology) Universe (mathematics) File viewer Energy level Electric current
Presentation of a group Context awareness View (database) Multiplication sign Dimensional analysis Neuroinformatik Medical imaging Mathematics Different (Kate Ryan album) Computer configuration Physical system Metropolitan area network Software developer Electronic mailing list Streaming media Connected space Data management Process (computing) Uniform resource name Telecommunication Order (biology) Computer science Right angle Representation (politics) Point (geometry) Trail Slide rule MIDI Streaming media Content (media) Vector potential Thresholding (image processing) Emulation Product (business) Latent heat Representation (politics) Energy level Lie group User interface Execution unit Demon Projective plane Content (media) Mathematical analysis Interactive television Thresholding (image processing) Computer animation Software Logic Object (grammar)
Touchscreen Context awareness Markup language View (database) Virtual machine Streaming media Mereology Medical imaging Latent heat Lecture/Conference Different (Kate Ryan album) Personal digital assistant Representation (politics) Software testing output Physical system Injektivität Texture mapping Software developer Point (geometry) Interactive television Streaming media Virtual machine Subject indexing Computer animation Software Personal digital assistant Website Physical system
it's only because we presented the paper part of the research assistant at the doctorate students delivered to the initiative of the of the computer science the current research considers the use of videos in the technical specifications and this book is building on the spot he seems to be supported under set of requirements for workshop is interested in supporting requirements communication with appropriate documentation options to achieve that the requirement comprehensibility for all the involved states so here is getting specific and and decide if you have thank you
and the timely recurrence time from the software engineering group for a lot of this channel and today I want to talk about the usage of the you in requirements engineering because I'm not sure everybody knows what requirements engineering this want 1st give a little instruction corresponding to the definition of the height of the height of the
international climate engineering requirements engineering is systematic indiscipline approach to elicit communicate and managed by the In forms the basis for software development because we need to achieve gender understanding between customers and on developments in order to develop the corre yeah and satisfying used the software product and 1 make aspects and requirements engineering is the documentation of all requirements and In this study to different climates documents analyzed in run about age % of all content in such a specification is written in Common Natural language the problem of this aspect is that it's not easy to understand you need a lot of interpretation often so it's abstract and not all of them were completed clear furthermore it's always a texture representation and it's quite a difficult if you have to read 100 200 sites in order to know what the software or customer along has to fulfill furthermore we speak about complex and very interactive content between the user and the system under development and additionally and them such a specification there are many different information types with yet different and this interesting representational which all have their own characteristics and this I will explain and follow in order to understand the
complex the complexity of substance requirements specification I want to give you an overview of all general returns which included such this that specification for for example can be mistaken product business scenarios and use cases functional requirements non functional requirements and all these terms contained offers a detailed some terms for example non-functional requirements can be divided into quality requirements into technical requirements into user interface requirements furthermore the complexity we have ever mentions the natural structure the formalized language we are mainly natural come language used and we have text and graphics In order to represent the evolutionary and interactive quantum furthermore all these aspects of that that have characteristics of learning change rate spilled specific detailed level as is called the Requirements Engineering which I will explain in the following all of these aspects such as specification document is quite complicated handle in order to understand what our customer wants to develop the bottle and the way he needs
so why is he you want possible options for and and then analyzed different kinds of documentation options
regarding the communication channel begin their neighbors forum regarding the richness the communication channel and communication effectiveness currently we are using paper as we can see that the lowest richness of those affected documentation option of all and as we see the best option is video but why don't we use video if it's the best option to document such things because we suffer from the same general problems that everyone production have a for the corresponding motivation to produce such as we use quite low and the users in combination with the requirements specification is very cumbersome because we have the written document or maybe in a digital form and separated deals and as a 1st step in order to introduce the use of pattern requirements engineering and our
idea was that we we want to help our requirements engineers in order to identify appropriate content for supplementary and therefore what we developed a starting set of guidelines based on the current research 1st of all we analyzed aspects of using our approach of using videos and requirements engineering to understand which current approaches used use for which specific specific specific aspects furthermore there's the human computer interaction and the yeah moves I think everybody knows Massive Open Online Courses rather appearance based by using videos also research areas moves and have to you have a lot of different guidelines in order to produce a specific for use for example representing a user interface and how to use the tutorial and lectures um for touch tourists and by analyzing these different aspect and research areas the development of life guidelines as a 1st step in order to death of requirements engineers to understand them order to identify and how they can and I did want to understand how they can identify something which is appropriate for supplementary the 1st very important aspect is the mention detail level which I explain in the following which would be quite low and it could be some sound and sound a little bit strange why we should use low duty level but assume next slide and furthermore not yet easily which Americans and detector content is more appropriate for videos because the videos have to show as we have seen before movement and action on it that where something must happen the merging the line this them and
important factor for us the requirements engineering I think it's an important factor for what it called the users should watch the video and the whole land and furthermore we got the idea that re preventing the content in separated video is is quite useful which I also explained in the following slides and and 1 key aspect that's not really true identify common but as a guideline to new creation and this is 1 the year structure with the start mean part in the and in order to understand this part of London which is 1 of the because of the short time of 20 minutes I want only to consider 3 aspects of little detail level video length and the separated you mark following slide and 1st of all it start with the detailed and the so-called
detail level is yeah interim created by the but I we have to know what this requirements engineering expert and they classifier different content types such as this is occasion on the different levels and at this point is important to note that this detail level does not mean the amount of detail was in such a cont it further regards and yet it would save a lot work the way of changing I'm fond of low-level like visionary and interactive content for example and the visions
and scenarios and use cases are also detailed information about their changing rates low on there it more appropriate to be supplemented by video I want to explain with a small example so let's consider we have equation of level 2 and after that 0 forehead and requirement of 3 which include sale tickets with wedding if I say today I want a winning machine I will not family next stage of the mobile application or a web service from the other day so the reason is stable and I wasn't he can make a corresponding we'll call that person by something on a vending machine requirements and especially agitated quirements really complicated for example 1st requirement to beat the system selects the catch of undeveloped regions refinement it implements a software they can only by was you remember customer seasons this prototype of this developed software and societal sorry that doesn't meet the system selects set of Europe which shall accept cash from 1 . 250 Euro Notes and this is a total of meaning but you specified that not it clearly such a change happens really the study found multitude % of all requirements of such a specific change every month for example we work together with the some larger industrial firms and for example continent and they have evolved to some requirements and their rectification by 2 sentence of 40 requirements change every month in the worst case we have 40 we use for these requirements as the change we have to create 80 years the effort will increase even more and therefore we have to focus 1st on the low level of detail and in order to use this content supported by the and to watch the video and the 1st thing to me
define a transport engagement time and this means the length of time user spending by watching a video the study of the the ways analyze the set of a lot of different videos and then found out that the median engagement times regardless of the total video a 6 minutes so the user gives a video after round about 6 minutes and we're not what the and if it's longer for example 9 to 12 minutes and furthermore in the below diagram they normalized the engagement and to watch the video and they found out that deals with a length of 9 minutes and longer probably washed up to 60 per cent so make too large to be deals with the with the viewer so I'm not yeah I'm not willing to them what's the whole of video and if we put the requirements the and they would not find would understand it and think that this information will be the lost 4 requirements engineering as I mentioned we have extensive and complex constant so if we use the economy has to what we watched would have to be written by with the times and all the videos to use multiple times and therefore we need to heighten high engagement and so that you ask for for example developers will watch the video at until the and this is last shortening yields in order to fill a fulfilled the in clarifying and to
what's the last point of separating reveals I have a small example of all such videos for specification their funding can be used very different possible viewers can have developed can have only user interface design of our customers or the architects and all of them have individual needs they need to is they do not need to watch called the deals and to read all content such a specification but we need specific ones so if with 101 1 medial we have so many and we can easily identify quite content and represented by the video therefore we achieve an overview and each possible you can use it to find what you need on the other hand if we put much of the content in 1 video we get a problem that the effort of US increased people they have to find the point in the dual there's rather important information is this user further motivation to use such deals have and now
I want to give you a little m yeah overview about our planned future work regarding the use of the users requirements engineering yeah can't other open issues that for example the high detail level we considered only the load at 11 recall of the lower changing but then we could imagine that other 1 or to important requirements of the higher education level which are so important to the understanding that the effort of making you read you could be very useful and could be of value for In order to us understand the system what to do and to develop the red the system the correct rate furthermore requirements have a lot of us the characteristics and for example priority or legal obligation priority needs how important this is featured function requirement for all our customer they have a the higher important the importance of some of the requirements could indicated here the use of the EU is more appropriate since if we understand this high important aspect them for our customers it's better to to develop the required yeah did the dialog system and the League of negation clarifies them and requirement is you must have an optional as and therefore the example of the old very obvious that must have should be more of a suitable or appropriate yield an optional and and all we wanted to refine our guidelines said where we have here only a starting set as mentioned and this is a current topic of master students and the students of our universities with analyzing different kind of requirements specification and tries to find all the mappings between the content and which type of you and how it it produce and at the end we want to understand how and usability guidelines really online and real time at engineers so we strive for an evaluation of our guide to understand a useful if they understand and if can reach our aims to support this creation of and so I want to give you the last little conclusions
of what with what we've seen so requirements engineering actually use text adopted documentation to specify software products such representation is very abstract incomprehensible seldom complete and accurate the use of a potential to represent specific content in a better way and a tool to achieve a better understanding and therefore to enhance the complements of comprehensibility of requirements we suffer from the same general problems high production low motivation and therefore we came to the idea of offering starting set of guidelines to identify in the 1st step the appropriate content which would be supplemented by the yield in order to lower the threshold of effort to yeah I know what to don't represent all of my specification of my requirements by view a lot higher objective is the use of the use of supplementary material for requirements specification London in order to achieve a higher understanding between our customers to better understanding between our customers knowledge developers to develop and implement is a satisfying useful software product to customers and now on the end of my presentation I thank you for your interest and I'm very excited to have question thank you thank without
what you're reflecting I think it's a good question myself so all this old industries which are more likely to start using these than others tendencies already and and the and not at all and some prior work together with some someone on this list and there's certainly from telecommunication um the firm that's was column and they're interested in integrating the use in their development process so we are hopeful that lie in this context we can get yeah them from the deeper knowledge about what they want to do with the videos and if it's the same way as we thought and research there are a lot of different aspects of and in requirements engineering of the user can be used but the problem is that all these aspects of our approach is use the deals only to react communicating managed document some kind of requirements for 1 specific this specific aspect and they do not have yeah think about the use of the we all approaches offer effort in order to create the used for specific specific and but they are after this users not for a very important for the process and if we can map content to that as the king of all of this to such a video could be further used in other aspects of the software development at all and thank you for your talk it's a very good idea the requirements specifications with different views like that very much of I expect that you would 1st finish the requirements specification and then the video however it's quite normal that you have to modify the requirements specification over and over again so my question is how do you react to that with regard to your produced video and this is the same point as in detail level changing a requirement is that the same as changing specification is the same as changing 1 environment and and therefore the logic levels of 1st for an how ideas not based on writing a specification and producing videos after what's there but combining it in a way that we have some crime and we want an approach at the end which allows us to easily and cost making a video and adding it to such a specification a specific specific content of the and this problem of managing and changing as and a large problem and if we think about making the 1st step by 5 showing people the option holder they can maybe connect content radio and then we have further to look at how we can manage and change and uh alcoholic and manage such a change between specifications and videos that exists so am I cannot really give you an answer to the question is problematic if you find the right solution and you can get easily a PhD in Informatics computer science and we have currently research the project where we want to consider 1st the use of videos and as outlined in our future work you would then if we the useful yeah possible options to use such videos and management and uh the connection between these 2 aspects of specification and content and I think I had this point have was dimension requirements engineering is only some of the larger generator and it divides and requirements analysis where we get this right the documentation and to management process after that where we have to um reflect changes you get to know what is surprising we want to change something in the system we have defined before and that's um and a change of the existing specification would be an aspect of requirements management and not of requirements analysis where we are currently working you have the yeah you at the time you get to be quite nice idea and I was so sort about some users of and you have them the videos whichever preventing the the user interface that's clearly static image 1st of all of which get the interaction by clicking and highlighting only some aspects and my idea could be if this image only changes and we have the same image at all and we need only to know whether the interaction points have to be placed in the video we could give the in exchange the background knowledge of and keep track of the basically the most movement and so on this could be also an aspect of the hall videos and news which could be easily changed OK so it seems that there are no more questions at this point and we had no if I it's allowed I which show you 1 more slide of my and that's because I was not sure if I can gathered all of the time it's should only represent how we used to be used in specification and at the
left side only a part of the use case which describes the interaction between the system and the user and um little injection and in this representation is standard in requirements specification and we have a lot of steps in an index the system do something that something and the developers have to read and understand it and then implemented software accordingly and our idea is that we could use this by using video for example here it's with an existing machines and the same steps only represented by the video and the users and know the system has shown the starting the user-selected started aim not only selected OK it and and policies so sorry and only he have done the same steps in this the texture of representation what we see in the video and there are ideas and this could be more comprehensible to develop fast instead of reading and different and interpreting the written context yes we and if you are familiar with them for example look up some software like Islamic yet what way basically have some a kind of sketch representation but as couple and so on so what you can do is you you you you build the website is a mock up and software like goes on it and then you fill the into the financial aid in view of the the interaction with the market that you have made the yet basically what we do we don't need to write this textual stuff because it takes too long to fix and so basically we create the market and then we film last interacting with a mock up it's kind of an explanation of the markup that we have produced so that some kind of the same article out the development of Joseph and and we're
talking about test the requirements engineering and imaging and other and others and you this thank you